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news E-Text Production Processes - University of Colorado at Boulder


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									SLIDE 1 – E-Text Production Processes:
Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Communicating, Disseminating
Daniel Berkowitz: Boston University Office of Disability Services and ATHEN
November 10, 2006
Accessing Higher Ground
Boulder, CO

SLIDE 2 - Overview of Spiel
    Educate Yourself
    Getting & Staying Organized
    Policy & Procedures
    Workflows & Systems
    Production Facilities
    Hardware & Software
    Budgeting
    Staffing & Training
    Step-by-Step
    Factors to Consider

SLIDE 3 - Educate Yourself [being here is a good start]
    Read up on DAISY and E-Text
    AHEAD E-Text Solutions Group
          o http://www.ahead.org/etext/etext_main.htm
    Canadian National Institute for the Blind
          o http://www.cnib.ca/library/daisy_info/index.htm
    CAST & NCAC (National Center for Accessing the General Curriculum)
          o http://www.cast.org/policy/ncac/index.html
    DAISY Consortium
          o http://daisy.org/
    Google (Scholar)
    Listservs

SLIDE 4 - Educate Yourself Some More
    Get out of your office
          o Get thee to a conference or workshop
          o More than one if possible
          o Visit other campuses
    Talk to your students
          o What do they use?
          o What do they know?
          o What do they want?
    Call in an expert
          o AHEAD E-Text workshops
          o Folks from sister campuses
          o Folks like me
SLIDE 5 - Educate Your Campus
This work cannot be done in a vacuum
    Share what you learn with …
           o Deans, Directors, Dept. Heads, IT, Students
    Pass Along Knowledge
           o Articles
           o Conference Materials
           o Websites / Listserv Threads
    Call in an expert
           o AHEAD E-Text workshops
           o Folks from sister campuses
           o Folks like me

SLIDE 6 - Create a Network
    Disability Services Director
    Staff specialist (LD, B/LV, MI)
    Bookstore Manager
    Printshop Manager
    Head Librarian (Library Access)
    AV Department
    IT Department
    Distance Education
    Teaching Resources Director
    Curriculum Committee
    Faculty (any and all)
    Knowledgeable Students

SLIDE 7 - Laws Affecting E- Text
Trot out the legal stuff as necessary (but gently)!
    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    American with Disabilities Act
    Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (requirements related to Web sites,
       application development, and Information Technology (IT) procurement)
    Office of Civil Rights (OCR) Interpretations
    Copyright Law
    Chafee Amendment
    State and Local E-Text Laws
       and Implementation Guidelines
    IDEA 2004 & NIMAS

SLIDE 8 - Focus on Students
    Remind yourself and your campus who these students are a nd what they need
    Introduce the human factor!
          o Blind and visually impaired (B/VI)
          o Persons with learning disabilities
           o Persons who lack the ability to
               physically manipulate a book
           o Approx. 2% of Higher Education students require E-text for their books
      All of us use E-Text when we work on a computer these students just need it differently

SLIDE 9 – Tips for Talking
Remember what happens when we ASSUME
    Be Clear and Concise in Language?
          o Access?
          o eBook vs. E-Text?
          o Applications and Devices?
          o DAISY? NIMAS? Chaffee? Huh?
    Be patient with others
    Build consensus on campus
    Bring student voices to the table
    Know what you are talking about!

SLIDE 10 - Who Is Responsible for What?
    Institution
    Disability Services
    Student End-User

           o It is not the publisher‟s responsibility to provide access for students.
           o While publishers may assist us by providing files, the institution is responsible
             under the law.
           o DSS responsible for direct service provision
           o The student has inherent responsibilities

SLIDE 11 - Institutional Responsibilities
    Provide equitable access
          o Access includes both books and instructional materials
    Follow legal mandates
    Implementation policies
    Enforce consequences

SLIDE 12 - Disability Services Responsibilities
    Verify student documentation
    Verify ownership of material
    Keep documentation on file
    Maintain production records
    Enforce DRM practices
    Protect file distribution
    Actually do the work!
SLIDE 13 - Determining Accommodations
Who determine E-Text as an accommodation?
    Different disabilities have different needs
    Policy & Procedures for implementation?
          o http://www.bu.edu/disability/policies/specific-textbooks.html

SLIDE 14 - Handling Files
    Archive your E-text.
    Keep copies for other students‟ requests.
    Keep every file created at every step
          o .tif files, .pdf files, .doc files, etc.
    Reporting and data collection systems
    Document use of file sharing systems
    Secure distribution systems
    Password protect if possible

SLIDE 15 - Student End-User Responsibilities
    Request services
    Provide documentation
    Own copy of book
    Agree not to duplicate or share material
    Student agreement
    Code of conduct
    Agree to policies and procedures
    Return materials as necessary

SLIDE 16 - End-User Responsibilities
    Approved for the accommodation.
    Submit a list of books or other materials; including:
          o complete course number
          o instructor name
          o complete title of text
          o author or authors (editor if applicable)
          o edition or publishing date
          o ISBN number (if possible)
    Required to purchase each book requested
          o May need to provide proof of book ownership
          o May need to provide hardcopy
          o May need to provide syllabus

SLIDE 17 - End-User Responsibilities
    Must have some idea of what they want/need
          o Specific formats for specific disabilities
    Must communicate with DSS/E-Text Staff
          o But must not be a PITA (patience is the answer)
      Must be understanding of process
      Must stay out of the way
      Must triage their own materials
      What do they need specifically
      Avoid „blanket‟ requests if possible
      Must be flexible as regards specific needs

SLIDE 18 - Copyright & Students
    Make sure students are very clear about their responsibilities
    Always include the title page and copyright info as part of the material you provide
    Cover yourself by including copyright disclaimer based on Chafee language
    Create a form (contract?) for students to sign-off on policies
    Include copyright information on CD labels or download sites

SLIDE 19 - Disclaimer Patterned on Chafee
    Build into the Front Matter of DTB‟s
    Include on CD label and as .txt file on CD
    Require review for downloaded materials
          o This textbook is in a specialized format for use by student with print disability.
          o Any further reproduction or distribution of this material is an infringement of
             copyright law.
          o Copyright (date/year)
          o Publisher Name

SLIDE 20 – Policy
    Legal Need
    Determining
    Developing
    Establishing

SLIDE 21 - Legal Need for Policy
    A public entity violates its obligations under the Americans with Disabilities Act when it
      simply responds to individual requests for services on an ad-hoc basis.
    A public entity has an affirmative duty to establish a comprehensive policy in compliance
      with ADA Title II in advance of any request for auxiliary aids or services.

SLIDE 22 - Getting Started
    At a minimum, you should articulate
          o Institutional commitment and institution-wide responsibility
          o Who is authorized to receive requests for alternate formats
          o How requests can be made
          o Notice/timeliness requirements
          o Consequences for non-conformance
    Get your ducks in a row!
SLIDE 23 - Determining Policy
    Disability Services
    Campus Administration
    Appropriate Dean or Senior Administrator
          o ethics issues and control
    Policies and procedures concerns
          o how to deal with a limited resource ($)
          o how to plan for future access
          o how to include student input
          o how to get campus buy- in (very important!)

SLIDE 24 - Developing Policy
    Develop policies and procedures for provision of alternate format materials
    Eligibility
    Request procedures
    Timeliness of response
    Security (and violations of same)

SLIDE 25 - Developing Policy
    How will notice be provided by all agents of the institution on availability of alternate
      formats? (library materials, institutional publications, etc.)
    What is considered essential course material or essential for student success?
    How will materials be secured?
    How will violations be handled?

SLIDE 26 - Establishing Policies
    Timelines and turn-around times
          o make requests
          o provide books
          o provide syllabuses
          o amount of time to do conversions
    Books disassembled and later rebound
    New books for scanning (or no editing)
    Level of editing
    Optional books
    What formats?
    Working with the bookstore
    Disciplinary action for abuses
    Training students on technology

SLIDE 27 – Getting and Staying Organized
    Plan Ahead
    Workflow & Processes
    Databases & Spreadsheets
    Triage (Incoming Choppers!)
SLIDE 28 - Plan Ahead
    Where are you now?
    What do the numbers tell you?
    What is your current process? (map it)
    What will a new process look like? (map it)
    What equipment do you have in place?
    What is the institution doing?
          o Mandatory Laptops
          o Podcasting
          o Coursecasting
          o Computer Labs

SLIDE 29 - Workflow & Process
    Think Assembly Line
          o Henry Ford did not invent the automobile he figured out how to mass produce it!
    Workflow the Process
          o Literally map it out = visualize!
    Anticipate growth and problems
    Use Excel or Mind-Mapping software

SLIDE 30 - Understand „one-size‟ DOES NOT „fit-all‟
    One solution will not fulfill every need
    Stay flexible throughout processes
    Keep your options open
          o Graphic – parable of the blind men and the elephant

SLIDE 31 – Database and Spreadsheets
    For years we have used an Excel Spreadsheet
          o Student Data
          o Textbook Data
          o Track workflow
          o Date and Initial Stamps
    Working towards a DataBase
          o Access or FileMaker
          o Will provide greater control

SLIDE 32 – Triage
    The determination of priorities for action in an emergency situation
    Date-Stamp incoming requests
    Have students supply syllabi
    Use your best judgment
    Keep end-users informed of progress
    Inform them of worst case scenarios
    Provide materials in piece-meal if necessary
    Take Charge!
SLIDE 33 - Production Facilities
    Basic Workstations
    Advanced Workstations
    Software [recommended]
    Peripheral Items
    Monitors
    Burn & Save
    Print & Label
    Storage
    Work Space
          o (ALL SPECS ARE CURRENT AS OF 11/10/2006)

SLIDE 34 – Basic Workstation - Minimum Requirements
    Dedicated Machine
    Pentium 4
    1 GB RAM
    80 GB Harddrive
          o External storage
    Speakers
    Soundcard
    17” Monitor
    CD-RW Drive
    USB Ports [1 on the front]
    OK to start out with a converted workstation while you are figuring out the process

SLIDE 35 – Advanced Workstation - The Best Bang for Your Buck!
    Dedicated Workstation
    Pentium „4‟ or better (Dual/Quad Core)
    2 GB RAM (4 GB max)
          o More does not mean better
    Dual Harddrives
    Speakers
    CD/DVD-R/RW
    Lots o‟ USB Ports
    Dual 19” [or better] Monitors
    Soundcard [separate/multimedia]
          o These are dedicated, non-general purpose units!

SLIDE 36 – Basic Software
    Windows XP [Home or Pro]
    Microsoft Word
    Internet Explorer [v.6]
    CD/DVD Burning
    Roxio
      Adobe Reader [v.7]
      DAISY Playback
      Dolphin EaseReader
      Victor Reader Soft
      Eclipse Reader
      Aspire Reader

SLIDE 37 – Production Software
    Dolphin
          o EasePublisher & Producer
    Kurzweil (if applicable)
    Voices
          o AT&T Natural Voices
          o Neospeech
    Abbyy
          o PDF Transformer
          o FineReader [in- house scanning]
    PDF Work
          o Adobe Acrobat Standard or Professional
    HTML Editing [optional]
          o FrontPage or Dreamweaver

SLIDE 38 – Monitors
    Cathode Ray Tube [CRT] versus
    Liquid Crystal Display [LCD]
    Resolution & View Quality
    Power consumption
    Refresh Rates
    Size & Weight
    Glare
    Price
    USB Ports
    Multiple is Good!

SLIDE 39 – Scanners
    We like Canon and Fujitsu
    Consider the following:
          o Color [for color dropout]
          o Duplex [two-sides at once]
          o Automatic feed [pages per minute]
    Questions to ask…
          o What other resources do you have?
          o How much volume are you doing?
          o What is your budget?
          o Shared access?
SLIDE 40 - Server Support
    Should you hook into network server?
    Beware of conflicts & issues
    Set up an independent server?
    What to run off the server?
    Use for storage or production?
    Best software to use?
          o Linux/Unix
          o Windows
          o Other
    Who is in charge of this thing?

SLIDE 41 – De-Spining Books
    Book Choppers (Guillotines)
    Resources
          o Library
          o Local copy center
          o Campus print shop

SLIDE 42 – Burners and Drives
    CD R+RW
    DVD R+RW
    BlueRay [premature]
    Be sure to have good burning software
          o Roxio recommended
    Lightscribe

SLIDE 43 – Print and Label
    Wide-Mouth Printer for Large Print Materials
    Label Printers for CD‟s and Storage
    Good Ol‟ Sharpie Marker

SLIDE 44 – Storage (bigger is better)
    Internal Drive
          o Separate storage from operations
    External Drive
          o Buffalo
          o LaCie
    CD / DVD
          o Filing System
          o Storage of discs
    Server Based
    Delivery options
SLIDE 45 – Work Space
Do not mix E-Text production with general computer use
    Comfort:
          o Tables & chairs as important as computers
          o Natural light or good sources
          o Trackballs vs. mice
          o Keyboard options
          o Ventilation
    Quiet
          o Out of main traffic areas
    Secure
    Password protected
    Lockable location

SLIDE 46 – Budgeting
    No Exact Formula:
          o Every institution budgets differently
          o Accommodation funding (auxiliary aids)
          o Student employee regulations
          o Budget lines, etc.
    Standard Formula
          o Number of staff hours x staff wages + materials
          o Add 10-15% to total for overhead, etc.
    Interpreter Benchmark
          o 1 interpreter for 1 class for 1 semester for one student
                  VERSUS
          o All of the resources necessary for E- Text production for all students approved
             for accommodation

SLIDE 47 – Staff and Train
    Who Are We?
    Why are we doing this?
    End-Products
    Production Products
    Procedures
    Responsibilities
    Sense of Urgency

SLIDE 48 – Production Staff
    Professional
    Student
    Volunteer
    Others
          o Graphic – Picture of Boston University E-Text Production Staff 2006
SLIDE 49 - Why and for Whom?
    For your fellow students
    For students with print disabilities
    The 2% of Higher Education students who require E-text for their books
    To learn some wikked cool skills!
    It‟s a job out of the ordinary

SLIDE 50 - Recruiting Staff
    Know what skills you seek
    Create job descriptions
    Pay well ($)
          o These are not run-of-the- mill W/S jobs
    Advertise
          o Student Employment Office
          o Campus Newspaper
          o Targeted Bulletin Boards
    Network with current staff
          o Students of this ilk tend to know each other
          o Recruit your friends!
    Get Yourself A Geek!

SLIDE 51 - Simple Job Description
    Convert textbooks and other materials into alternate formats and produce electronic
      textbooks and digital materials for students with print disabilities and other impairments.
    Experience with web development and/or copy editing. Experience with MS-Word and
      Windows XP environment. Knowledge of access technologies and alternate media
      appreciated but not required.
    Dependability a must!
    Training Provided

SLIDE 52 - Learning the Hardware
    Start the newbie‟s out with scanning
    Get them comfortable with the process
    Make sure they know what they can and cannot do on the computers
          o O.K. to plug iPod into speakers
          o NOT O.K. to surf MySpace music
          o O.K. to check eMail in downtime
          o Not O.K. to have IM running in background

SLIDE 53 - Learning the Software
    Start training with specializations
    Fit newbie's into production line
    Retrain returning vets (the summer is long – people forget)
    Make use of available training materials
SLIDE 54 - Learning the Terminology
    Lot‟s of specialized terms used here
          o DAISY / DTB
          o E-Text / Alt-Format
          o Scan / Scanning
          o All the Paperwork Bits
          o File Format Designations
          o Disability Categories
          o Workflow & Process Terms

SLIDE 55 – DAISY Talking Books
    This is an important part of staff training - make sure they know what a DTB is!
          o A Digital Talking Book [DTB] is a multimedia representation of a print
          o Navigable digital files
          o Replacement for audio tape, MP3, and plain text
    “Flavors” of DAISY
          o Text only
                  Format used by Bookshare
          o Audio only
                  Format used by RFB&D
          o Text and audio in sync
                  Format created in- house
                  This is what you are creating!

SLIDE 56 – Graphic: Visual of how DAISY Books synch Text Side with Audio Side through the
Navigation Control Center and make use of Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language

SLIDE 57 – The “parts” of a DTB
    ALL of these parts make up a DAISY Talking Book
    Individual parts can be used by other applications
          o SMIL Files
          o HTML files
          o MP3 files
          o Text files
          o Picture Files

SLIDE 58 - You Are The Leader
    Luck will land a good staff!
    Patience will mold them into an excellent staff!
    Most (all) of them will be students
    Remember your role as teacher and administrator
    Make the job fun!
          o “I‟ll tell you what leadership is. It‟s persuasion and conciliation –
             and education – and patience” – General Dwight D. Eisenhower
SLIDE 59 – Basic Step-by-Step
   1. End-User Approved for E-Text Accommodation
           Determine appropriate format(s)
   2. End-User requests specific texts as per procedures
   3. E-Text checks sources
           RFB&D, Bookshare.org, AMX database, etc.
   4. E-Text and/or End-User provides books
   5. Scanning / Editing / Producing / Testing
   6. Delivering Materials to End-Users
   7. Troubleshooting/ Gathering Feedback
   8. Gathering Returns @ End of Semester
   9. Do it ALL over again!

SLIDE 60- Do the Work
    Boston University Office of Disability Services DAISY Production Training Module
          o http://people.bu.edu/access/
    Note: This is in a state of flux as of 11/10/2006

SLIDE 61 – Distributing E-Text
    Burned onto CD/DVD
    Flash Drive / Portable Memory
    Web Based / Server
    Email
    FTP

SLIDE 62 - Quality Control
    Spot Check Materials
          o Opportunity to train staff on playback devices
    Know the equipment
          o Be prepared to troubleshoot
    Seek feedback from end-users
          o Don‟t assume all is well
          o Build feedback into request system

SLIDE 63 - Common Problems
    Books not available before start of classes
    Purchasing the book holds up requests
          o Order the book anyway, do the conversion but do not release it to the student until
             s/he has a copy
          o Rehab can do more than one voucher for the student (e.g., if one late book is
             holding up the purchase)
          o Should DSS purchase book?
    Professor is uncertain as to edition
          o Syllabi says one title…Bookstore says another
    Start of semester inundation!
      The dreaded coursepack!
      No one else has any idea what you are creating and the work involved!

SLIDE 64 - More Common Problems
    Training of staff
          o time and training materials
    Quality of equipment
    Scans will require editing
          o Files from publishers will likely require clean-up and secondary processing
          o “streaming consciousness files”
          o files from publishers are not always usable
    Determine the amount of editing
          o work with student end-user
          o how much is needed?

SLIDE 65 - Outsourcing?
    Should You?
    Are resources available?
    How much of process?
          o Scanning
          o Editing
          o DAISY Production
    While getting up to speed?
    Collaboration with others?
    State / Local systems in place?

SLIDE 66 - Contact Presenter
Daniel Berkowitz
Boston University Office of Disability Services
(617) 947-4666
(617) 353-3658

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