SLIDE 1 – E-Text Production Processes:
Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Communicating, Disseminating
Daniel Berkowitz: Boston University Office of Disability Services and ATHEN
November 10, 2006
Accessing Higher Ground
SLIDE 2 - Overview of Spiel
Getting & Staying Organized
Policy & Procedures
Workflows & Systems
Hardware & Software
Staffing & Training
Factors to Consider
SLIDE 3 - Educate Yourself [being here is a good start]
Read up on DAISY and E-Text
AHEAD E-Text Solutions Group
Canadian National Institute for the Blind
CAST & NCAC (National Center for Accessing the General Curriculum)
SLIDE 4 - Educate Yourself Some More
Get out of your office
o Get thee to a conference or workshop
o More than one if possible
o Visit other campuses
Talk to your students
o What do they use?
o What do they know?
o What do they want?
Call in an expert
o AHEAD E-Text workshops
o Folks from sister campuses
o Folks like me
SLIDE 5 - Educate Your Campus
This work cannot be done in a vacuum
Share what you learn with …
o Deans, Directors, Dept. Heads, IT, Students
Pass Along Knowledge
o Conference Materials
o Websites / Listserv Threads
Call in an expert
o AHEAD E-Text workshops
o Folks from sister campuses
o Folks like me
SLIDE 6 - Create a Network
Disability Services Director
Staff specialist (LD, B/LV, MI)
Head Librarian (Library Access)
Teaching Resources Director
Faculty (any and all)
SLIDE 7 - Laws Affecting E- Text
Trot out the legal stuff as necessary (but gently)!
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
American with Disabilities Act
Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (requirements related to Web sites,
application development, and Information Technology (IT) procurement)
Office of Civil Rights (OCR) Interpretations
State and Local E-Text Laws
and Implementation Guidelines
IDEA 2004 & NIMAS
SLIDE 8 - Focus on Students
Remind yourself and your campus who these students are a nd what they need
Introduce the human factor!
o Blind and visually impaired (B/VI)
o Persons with learning disabilities
o Persons who lack the ability to
physically manipulate a book
o Approx. 2% of Higher Education students require E-text for their books
All of us use E-Text when we work on a computer these students just need it differently
SLIDE 9 – Tips for Talking
Remember what happens when we ASSUME
Be Clear and Concise in Language?
o eBook vs. E-Text?
o Applications and Devices?
o DAISY? NIMAS? Chaffee? Huh?
Be patient with others
Build consensus on campus
Bring student voices to the table
Know what you are talking about!
SLIDE 10 - Who Is Responsible for What?
o It is not the publisher‟s responsibility to provide access for students.
o While publishers may assist us by providing files, the institution is responsible
under the law.
o DSS responsible for direct service provision
o The student has inherent responsibilities
SLIDE 11 - Institutional Responsibilities
Provide equitable access
o Access includes both books and instructional materials
Follow legal mandates
SLIDE 12 - Disability Services Responsibilities
Verify student documentation
Verify ownership of material
Keep documentation on file
Maintain production records
Enforce DRM practices
Protect file distribution
Actually do the work!
SLIDE 13 - Determining Accommodations
Who determine E-Text as an accommodation?
Different disabilities have different needs
Policy & Procedures for implementation?
SLIDE 14 - Handling Files
Archive your E-text.
Keep copies for other students‟ requests.
Keep every file created at every step
o .tif files, .pdf files, .doc files, etc.
Reporting and data collection systems
Document use of file sharing systems
Secure distribution systems
Password protect if possible
SLIDE 15 - Student End-User Responsibilities
Own copy of book
Agree not to duplicate or share material
Code of conduct
Agree to policies and procedures
Return materials as necessary
SLIDE 16 - End-User Responsibilities
Approved for the accommodation.
Submit a list of books or other materials; including:
o complete course number
o instructor name
o complete title of text
o author or authors (editor if applicable)
o edition or publishing date
o ISBN number (if possible)
Required to purchase each book requested
o May need to provide proof of book ownership
o May need to provide hardcopy
o May need to provide syllabus
SLIDE 17 - End-User Responsibilities
Must have some idea of what they want/need
o Specific formats for specific disabilities
Must communicate with DSS/E-Text Staff
o But must not be a PITA (patience is the answer)
Must be understanding of process
Must stay out of the way
Must triage their own materials
What do they need specifically
Avoid „blanket‟ requests if possible
Must be flexible as regards specific needs
SLIDE 18 - Copyright & Students
Make sure students are very clear about their responsibilities
Always include the title page and copyright info as part of the material you provide
Cover yourself by including copyright disclaimer based on Chafee language
Create a form (contract?) for students to sign-off on policies
Include copyright information on CD labels or download sites
SLIDE 19 - Disclaimer Patterned on Chafee
Build into the Front Matter of DTB‟s
Include on CD label and as .txt file on CD
Require review for downloaded materials
o This textbook is in a specialized format for use by student with print disability.
o Any further reproduction or distribution of this material is an infringement of
o Copyright (date/year)
o Publisher Name
SLIDE 20 – Policy
SLIDE 21 - Legal Need for Policy
A public entity violates its obligations under the Americans with Disabilities Act when it
simply responds to individual requests for services on an ad-hoc basis.
A public entity has an affirmative duty to establish a comprehensive policy in compliance
with ADA Title II in advance of any request for auxiliary aids or services.
SLIDE 22 - Getting Started
At a minimum, you should articulate
o Institutional commitment and institution-wide responsibility
o Who is authorized to receive requests for alternate formats
o How requests can be made
o Notice/timeliness requirements
o Consequences for non-conformance
Get your ducks in a row!
SLIDE 23 - Determining Policy
Appropriate Dean or Senior Administrator
o ethics issues and control
Policies and procedures concerns
o how to deal with a limited resource ($)
o how to plan for future access
o how to include student input
o how to get campus buy- in (very important!)
SLIDE 24 - Developing Policy
Develop policies and procedures for provision of alternate format materials
Timeliness of response
Security (and violations of same)
SLIDE 25 - Developing Policy
How will notice be provided by all agents of the institution on availability of alternate
formats? (library materials, institutional publications, etc.)
What is considered essential course material or essential for student success?
How will materials be secured?
How will violations be handled?
SLIDE 26 - Establishing Policies
Timelines and turn-around times
o make requests
o provide books
o provide syllabuses
o amount of time to do conversions
Books disassembled and later rebound
New books for scanning (or no editing)
Level of editing
Working with the bookstore
Disciplinary action for abuses
Training students on technology
SLIDE 27 – Getting and Staying Organized
Workflow & Processes
Databases & Spreadsheets
Triage (Incoming Choppers!)
SLIDE 28 - Plan Ahead
Where are you now?
What do the numbers tell you?
What is your current process? (map it)
What will a new process look like? (map it)
What equipment do you have in place?
What is the institution doing?
o Mandatory Laptops
o Computer Labs
SLIDE 29 - Workflow & Process
Think Assembly Line
o Henry Ford did not invent the automobile he figured out how to mass produce it!
Workflow the Process
o Literally map it out = visualize!
Anticipate growth and problems
Use Excel or Mind-Mapping software
SLIDE 30 - Understand „one-size‟ DOES NOT „fit-all‟
One solution will not fulfill every need
Stay flexible throughout processes
Keep your options open
o Graphic – parable of the blind men and the elephant
SLIDE 31 – Database and Spreadsheets
For years we have used an Excel Spreadsheet
o Student Data
o Textbook Data
o Track workflow
o Date and Initial Stamps
Working towards a DataBase
o Access or FileMaker
o Will provide greater control
SLIDE 32 – Triage
The determination of priorities for action in an emergency situation
Date-Stamp incoming requests
Have students supply syllabi
Use your best judgment
Keep end-users informed of progress
Inform them of worst case scenarios
Provide materials in piece-meal if necessary
SLIDE 33 - Production Facilities
Burn & Save
Print & Label
o (ALL SPECS ARE CURRENT AS OF 11/10/2006)
SLIDE 34 – Basic Workstation - Minimum Requirements
1 GB RAM
80 GB Harddrive
o External storage
USB Ports [1 on the front]
OK to start out with a converted workstation while you are figuring out the process
SLIDE 35 – Advanced Workstation - The Best Bang for Your Buck!
Pentium „4‟ or better (Dual/Quad Core)
2 GB RAM (4 GB max)
o More does not mean better
Lots o‟ USB Ports
Dual 19” [or better] Monitors
o These are dedicated, non-general purpose units!
SLIDE 36 – Basic Software
Windows XP [Home or Pro]
Internet Explorer [v.6]
Adobe Reader [v.7]
Victor Reader Soft
SLIDE 37 – Production Software
o EasePublisher & Producer
Kurzweil (if applicable)
o AT&T Natural Voices
o PDF Transformer
o FineReader [in- house scanning]
o Adobe Acrobat Standard or Professional
HTML Editing [optional]
o FrontPage or Dreamweaver
SLIDE 38 – Monitors
Cathode Ray Tube [CRT] versus
Liquid Crystal Display [LCD]
Resolution & View Quality
Size & Weight
Multiple is Good!
SLIDE 39 – Scanners
We like Canon and Fujitsu
Consider the following:
o Color [for color dropout]
o Duplex [two-sides at once]
o Automatic feed [pages per minute]
Questions to ask…
o What other resources do you have?
o How much volume are you doing?
o What is your budget?
o Shared access?
SLIDE 40 - Server Support
Should you hook into network server?
Beware of conflicts & issues
Set up an independent server?
What to run off the server?
Use for storage or production?
Best software to use?
Who is in charge of this thing?
SLIDE 41 – De-Spining Books
Book Choppers (Guillotines)
o Local copy center
o Campus print shop
SLIDE 42 – Burners and Drives
Be sure to have good burning software
o Roxio recommended
SLIDE 43 – Print and Label
Wide-Mouth Printer for Large Print Materials
Label Printers for CD‟s and Storage
Good Ol‟ Sharpie Marker
SLIDE 44 – Storage (bigger is better)
o Separate storage from operations
CD / DVD
o Filing System
o Storage of discs
SLIDE 45 – Work Space
Do not mix E-Text production with general computer use
o Tables & chairs as important as computers
o Natural light or good sources
o Trackballs vs. mice
o Keyboard options
o Out of main traffic areas
SLIDE 46 – Budgeting
No Exact Formula:
o Every institution budgets differently
o Accommodation funding (auxiliary aids)
o Student employee regulations
o Budget lines, etc.
o Number of staff hours x staff wages + materials
o Add 10-15% to total for overhead, etc.
o 1 interpreter for 1 class for 1 semester for one student
o All of the resources necessary for E- Text production for all students approved
SLIDE 47 – Staff and Train
Who Are We?
Why are we doing this?
Sense of Urgency
SLIDE 48 – Production Staff
o Graphic – Picture of Boston University E-Text Production Staff 2006
SLIDE 49 - Why and for Whom?
For your fellow students
For students with print disabilities
The 2% of Higher Education students who require E-text for their books
To learn some wikked cool skills!
It‟s a job out of the ordinary
SLIDE 50 - Recruiting Staff
Know what skills you seek
Create job descriptions
Pay well ($)
o These are not run-of-the- mill W/S jobs
o Student Employment Office
o Campus Newspaper
o Targeted Bulletin Boards
Network with current staff
o Students of this ilk tend to know each other
o Recruit your friends!
Get Yourself A Geek!
SLIDE 51 - Simple Job Description
Convert textbooks and other materials into alternate formats and produce electronic
textbooks and digital materials for students with print disabilities and other impairments.
Experience with web development and/or copy editing. Experience with MS-Word and
Windows XP environment. Knowledge of access technologies and alternate media
appreciated but not required.
Dependability a must!
SLIDE 52 - Learning the Hardware
Start the newbie‟s out with scanning
Get them comfortable with the process
Make sure they know what they can and cannot do on the computers
o O.K. to plug iPod into speakers
o NOT O.K. to surf MySpace music
o O.K. to check eMail in downtime
o Not O.K. to have IM running in background
SLIDE 53 - Learning the Software
Start training with specializations
Fit newbie's into production line
Retrain returning vets (the summer is long – people forget)
Make use of available training materials
SLIDE 54 - Learning the Terminology
Lot‟s of specialized terms used here
o DAISY / DTB
o E-Text / Alt-Format
o Scan / Scanning
o All the Paperwork Bits
o File Format Designations
o Disability Categories
o Workflow & Process Terms
SLIDE 55 – DAISY Talking Books
This is an important part of staff training - make sure they know what a DTB is!
o A Digital Talking Book [DTB] is a multimedia representation of a print
o Navigable digital files
o Replacement for audio tape, MP3, and plain text
“Flavors” of DAISY
o Text only
Format used by Bookshare
o Audio only
Format used by RFB&D
o Text and audio in sync
Format created in- house
This is what you are creating!
SLIDE 56 – Graphic: Visual of how DAISY Books synch Text Side with Audio Side through the
Navigation Control Center and make use of Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
SLIDE 57 – The “parts” of a DTB
ALL of these parts make up a DAISY Talking Book
Individual parts can be used by other applications
o SMIL Files
o HTML files
o MP3 files
o Text files
o Picture Files
SLIDE 58 - You Are The Leader
Luck will land a good staff!
Patience will mold them into an excellent staff!
Most (all) of them will be students
Remember your role as teacher and administrator
Make the job fun!
o “I‟ll tell you what leadership is. It‟s persuasion and conciliation –
and education – and patience” – General Dwight D. Eisenhower
SLIDE 59 – Basic Step-by-Step
1. End-User Approved for E-Text Accommodation
Determine appropriate format(s)
2. End-User requests specific texts as per procedures
3. E-Text checks sources
RFB&D, Bookshare.org, AMX database, etc.
4. E-Text and/or End-User provides books
5. Scanning / Editing / Producing / Testing
6. Delivering Materials to End-Users
7. Troubleshooting/ Gathering Feedback
8. Gathering Returns @ End of Semester
9. Do it ALL over again!
SLIDE 60- Do the Work
Boston University Office of Disability Services DAISY Production Training Module
Note: This is in a state of flux as of 11/10/2006
SLIDE 61 – Distributing E-Text
Burned onto CD/DVD
Flash Drive / Portable Memory
Web Based / Server
SLIDE 62 - Quality Control
Spot Check Materials
o Opportunity to train staff on playback devices
Know the equipment
o Be prepared to troubleshoot
Seek feedback from end-users
o Don‟t assume all is well
o Build feedback into request system
SLIDE 63 - Common Problems
Books not available before start of classes
Purchasing the book holds up requests
o Order the book anyway, do the conversion but do not release it to the student until
s/he has a copy
o Rehab can do more than one voucher for the student (e.g., if one late book is
holding up the purchase)
o Should DSS purchase book?
Professor is uncertain as to edition
o Syllabi says one title…Bookstore says another
Start of semester inundation!
The dreaded coursepack!
No one else has any idea what you are creating and the work involved!
SLIDE 64 - More Common Problems
Training of staff
o time and training materials
Quality of equipment
Scans will require editing
o Files from publishers will likely require clean-up and secondary processing
o “streaming consciousness files”
o files from publishers are not always usable
Determine the amount of editing
o work with student end-user
o how much is needed?
SLIDE 65 - Outsourcing?
Are resources available?
How much of process?
o DAISY Production
While getting up to speed?
Collaboration with others?
State / Local systems in place?
SLIDE 66 - Contact Presenter
Boston University Office of Disability Services