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Muscles of the Neck_ Back_ and Abdomen - PowerPoint

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					Muscles of the Neck, Back,
and Abdomen


  KNR 181 Anatomy Lab
Movement of the head, neck,
and trunk (torso):
 Flexion: bending forward
 Extension: straightening head/neck
  or trunk.
 Hyperextension: going beyond
  normal extension.
 Lateral flexion: bending to the side
 Rotation: turning side to side
Flexion and extension of the
head
Lateral flexion and rotation:
Muscles that move the head
 Anterior:
   Rectus capitis anterior
   Longus capitis
   Scalenes (support and respiration)
 Anterior/Lateral:
   Sternocleidomastoid
 Posterior:
     Longissimus capitis (part of erector spinae)
     Spinalis capitis
     Splenius capitis
     Semispinalis capitis
Sternocleidomastoid
Sternocleidomastoid:
 Origin:
   Manubrium (sternum) and clavicle.
 Insertion:
   Mastoid process (temporal bone)
 Action(s):
   Both: flexion of the head and neck
   Single: rotation and lateral flexion
Semispinalis capitis
Semispinalis capitis
 Origin:
   Transverse processes of C4-T7 vertebrae
 Insertion:
   Occipital bone
 Action:
   Extension of the head at the neck (both)
   Rotation of the head at the neck (one
    side)
Splenius capitis
Splenius Capitis
 Origin:
   Spinous process of cervical and thoracic
    vertebrae (and ligamentum nuchae)
 Insertion:
   Mastoid process (temporal bone) and occipital
    bone
 Action:
   Extension of the head at the neck (both)
   Lateral flexion and rotation of the head at the
    neck (one side)
Spinalis capitis (medial) and Semispinalis
capitis (lateral)
Spinalis capitis
 Part of the Erector Spinae group
 Origin:
   Spinous processes of cervical and
    thoracic vertebrae
 Insertion:
   Occipital bone
 Action:
   Extension of the head at the neck
Longissimus capitis
Longissimus Capitis
 Part of the Erector Spinae group
 Origin:
   Spinous processes of cervical and thoracic
    vertebrae
 Insertion:
   Mastoid process
 Action:
   Extension of the head at the neck (both)
   Lateral flexion and rotation of the head at the
    neck (one side)
Posterior Neck Muscles (that
move the head):
 Origins:
     Longissimus capitis=cervical and thoracic vertebrae
     Splenius capitis= cervical and thoracic vertebrae
     Spinalis capitis= cervical and thoracic vertebrae
     Semispinalis capitis= cervical and thoracic vertebrae

 Insertions:
     Longissimus capitis= mastoid process
     Splenius capitis= mastoid process and occipital bone
     Spinalis capitis= occipital bone
     Semispinalis capitis= occipital bone
Posterior Neck Muscles (actions)
 Actions:
   Longissimus capitis= extension and
    lateral flexion of the head at the neck
   Splenius capitis= extension, lateral
    flexion, and rotation of the head at the
    neck
   Spinalis capitis= extension and lateral
    flexion of the head at the neck
   Semispinalis capitis= extension and
    rotation of the head at the neck
Muscles of the vertebral column
that move the back/torso:
 Superficial muscles (Erector
  Spinae)
   Spinalis group (medial): capitis, cervicis,
    thoracis
   Longissimus group (intermediate):
    capitis, cervicis, thoracis
   Iliocostalis group (lateral): cervicis,
    thoracis, lumborum
Erector spinae:
 Iliocostalis     Longissimus   Spinalis
Spinalis group   (cervicis and thoracis)
Longissimus Group   ( cervicis and thoracis)
Iliocostalis cervicis
Iliocostalis thoracis and lumborum
Semispinalis cervicis
Semispinalis Thoracis
Muscles of the Vertebral column
 Deep muscles
     Interspinalis
     Intertransversales
     Multifidus
     Rotatores
     Semispinalis cervicis and thoracis
     Psoas minor
     Quadratus lumborum
Interspinalis
Intertransversarius
Rotatores
Multifidus
Quadratus Lumborum
Quadratus Lumborum
Quadratus Lumborum
 Origin:
   Iliac crest (pelvis)
 Insertion:
   12th rib
   Lumbar vertebrae (transverse processes)
 Action:
   Lateral flexion of the lumbar spine.
   Also functions to stabilize the
    pelvis/lumbar spine
Muscles of the abdomen
   Rectus abdominis
   External oblique
   Internal oblique
   Transverse abdominis
Rectus Abdominis:
 Origin: pubis     (pubic
  crest, symphysis pubis)
 Insertion: sternum
  and ribs (xiphoid
  process, cartilage)
 Actions:
   Both=flexion,
    compression
   Single= lateral
    flexion
External Obliques:
 Origin: ribs (lower 8)
 Insertion: Iliac
  crest, pubis,
  inguinal ligament,
  linea alba
 Actions:
    Both: flexion
    Single: lateral
     flexion, rotation
 External Oblique
 External oblique
Internal Obliques:
 Origin: Iliac crest,
  inguinal ligament
 Insertion: ribs,
  linea alba
 Actions:
   Both: flexion
   Single: lateral
    flexion, rotation
Internal Oblique
Internal oblique
Transverse Abdominis:
 Origin:
   Iliac crest,
    cartilage of ribs
 Insertion:
   Pubis, linea alba
 Action:
   Compression,
    forced expiration
Transverse Abdominis
Transverse abdominis
Muscles of the Thorax:
 Used for respiration
   Scalenes
     Anterior, middle, and posterior
     Elevates the first two ribs to increase thoracic
       volume
   Intercostals
     External intercostals: expand the chest
     Internal intercostals: forced expiration
   Diaphram
     Responsible for most of breathing movements
Scalenes (muscles in the neck)
 Anterior Scalene
 Middle Scalene
 Posterior Scalene
   These assist with respiration (elevates
    upper ribs).
   They also produce lateral flexion and
    rotation at the cervical spine.
Anterior Scalene (lateral view)
Middle Scalene (anterior view)
Posterior Scalene (lateral view)
External Intercostals
Internal intercostals
Diaphram
Application questions:
 Which exercise is better for the development of
  the abdominal muscles- leg lifts or sit-ups?
  Analyze each exercise in regards to the action
  of the abdominal muscles, and defend your
  answer.
 Why is good abdominal muscular development
  so important?
 Why do weak abdominal muscles get blamed
  for lower back problems?
 What muscle group works antagonistically to
  the abdominals?
Muscular analysis chart

Cervical spine    (head/neck)   Thoracic/Lumbar spine (torso)

Flexion                         Flexion

Extension                       Extension


Lateral flexion                 Lateral flexion


Rotation                        Rotation

				
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posted:10/2/2011
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