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					                            Tips For Writing Paper 1 Documents Tests

You have one hour to complete the test and of all the IB history tests Paper 1 is the most demanding in terms of
time.

QUESTION ONE - Part A (This question is divided into two sections “a” and “b”. You should only dedicate 10
minutes to all of question one, both parts “a” and “b”):
 This is usually a "why" question worth three marks. Correspondingly, you should make sure you offer three
   reasons that answer the “why” question from the document you have been asked to examine.
 Marks are awarded according to the extent to which you can put into your own words the answers to the
   question. This is a basic comprehension question. They are asking you to state, in your own words, three
   things from the document(s) the question pertains to.
 You should separate each of your three responses by leaving a line between each but should still state your
   answer in the form of a sentence. This way the marker sees clearly that you have noted three different points.
 This can potentially be an easy three marks but you have to note three things and attempt to avoid duplication
   (saying basically the same thing in two different ways).

QUESTION ONE - Part B:
 There usually is a "message" question that often (but not always) refers to an illustration (in many cases a
  photograph or political cartoon, though recently there have been charts or statistics).
 If it is an illustration you need to give the overall message (Over 22, 000 Japanese were forcibly removed
  from the coast of British Columbia by the Canadian government).
 You also need to prove it by DESCRIBING the illustration or cartoon (we know this because an RCMP
  officer with “Canada” on his hat is pulling Japanese caricatures away from a sign titled “British Columbia
  Coast” all the while counting beyond 22 000). You can also quote any caption or sentences that may be part
  of the image to demonstrate your understanding of the message.
 Two marks are awarded for your response to this question. The two questions the marker usually asks is: “did
  they provide a correct response as to what the message of the source is?” and “did they explain how the
  message was communicated?” If their answer is “yes” to both of the questions, you should expect to receive
  two marks for this part of the test.

QUESTION TWO (you should only dedicate 10-15 minutes to this question)
 This question is worth 6 marks, and often calls for you to compare and contrast, or to prove something from
  one source by reference to others.
 If it is compare and contrast question, show the marker exactly how the two are the same by providing a short
  quote with a brief explanation of the quote (both felt the internment of the Japanese was a bad thing). Next,
  you will need to show how they are different. Again, you will do this by providing a short quote with a brief
  explanation (although internment was distasteful, one document felt it was necessary “Canadians on the
  Pacific are entitled to and insist on getting complete protection from treachery, protection from being stabbed
  in the back” (Doc B)). While the second document found it to be unnecessary and unacceptable, "It's mostly
  racial prejudice, and jealousy” (Doc D)). Again, make sure that when offering quotes (and you likely should)
  that you explain the quotes in the context of the question being asked, instead of just laying the quotes out
  there for the marker and expecting him or her to interpret the reason you offered the quote – quotes need
  short, succinct explanations! You need to demonstrate that you are answering the question.
 When presenting your compare and contrast, separate each comparison and each contrast with a space
  (normally expect to present 1 or 2 comparisons and 1 or 2 contrasts – never expect to provide more than a
  total of three comparisons and contrasts). Never provide only contrasts or comparisons you must do at least
  one of each.
 The other type of question involves proving something from one source by reference to one or two other
  sources.
 If you are proving something from one source by reference to others you need to be very clear. You should
  make two or three major comparisons (use major paragraph breaks to clearly indicate three separate points).
    Explain how one document (Document “D” in the example below) supports what is said in another document
    (Document “B” in the example below). Just like the compare and contrast you need to use a short quote and
    an explanation of the quote. It should look something like this: Document “B” says, “place quote here” by this
    it means “place explanation here”. Document “D” supports this when it says, “place quote here” this supports
    what is said in Document “B” because, “place explanation of how Document D supports Document B here”.
    After you have done this once you should likely do it one or two more times in order to attain full marks.
   A typical mistake on this question is describe a number of issues from one document and then attempt to
    compare all of those issues with the second document. This approach is confusing for the marking and is not
    an effective method of comparing documents; you will not receive a good mark if you choose to take this
    approach.

QUESTION THREE (you should only dedicate 15 minutes to this question)
 This is the Origin, Purpose, Value and Limitation (OPVL) question. You need to do an OPVL for each source
  you are asked to discuss. Do each one separately. For example, do your OPVL for Source A, then an OPVL
  for Source C. UNDERLINE of the terms to ensure they have been discussed.
 The following are examples of possible OPVL responses and explanations as to how they were done.
 “The origin of source D is a diary (A Child in Prison Camp) written by a prisoner, Shizuye Takashima, in
  1971, it is a primary source.” Note the three essential features of developing your origin response. 1. The
  name and type of document. 2. By whom it was written. 3. Whether or not it is a primary or secondary
  resource.
 “Its purpose was to record her thoughts about all the events occurring around her at that time. She probably
  wanted to read it herself when she got older, or have her family read it, or maybe even have it published some
  day.” Here you see a full explanation of all the possible purposes of a source of this type. You will note that
  its purpose for a historian has not been discussed; instead all that is stated is purpose behind why an individual
  may create a diary.
 When discussing the values and limitations of a document you are always doing so from the perspective of a
  historian studying the topic of the documents test.
 “Its value is that she was an eyewitness to the events she is describing and people don't generally lie to
  themselves in their diaries. A diary is especially valuable to a historian studying Japanese Internment because
  you get a personal perspective on how internment would have affected a Canadian of Japanese origin and
  their family.”
 “The limitation to a person studying Japanese Internment is that she was only one person so you don‟t have
  the perspective of all Internees or of government officials. Being a prisoner, she obviously didn't have access
  to important people like Mackenzie King and/or other government documents surrounding the internment
  issue. So, if one were attempting to assess the decision to intern the Japanese, the diary of a survivor would
  obviously provide a very one-sided perspective on the issue; she would not have given any positive rationale
  for the internment. As well, there is no perspective. A survivor is very close to the event and fails to provide
  any background into the historiographical debate regarding the justification (or lack thereof) of Japanese
  Internment.”
 The most important thing to remember is you are examining the document for its value and limitation to YOU
  as a historian NOT to the people during the time in which the document was compiled. You wouldn‟t describe
  the value of the diary to the woman writing the diary or in the people listening to a speech. Also, generic
  values and limitations will not result in full marks. Instead, you must explain why it is important in studying
  the topic being referenced (Japanese Internment in the case of our example).
 Marks are usually divided up by giving a half mark for a good discussion of the origin of each document for a
  total of one mark for the origin of both documents. Also, a half mark is given for a good discussion of the
  purpose of each document for a total of one mark for the purpose of both documents. One mark is given for
  assessing the value of each document for a total of two marks. Also, one mark is given for assessing the
  limitation of each document for a total of two marks. However, this should only be viewed as a guide. The
  OPVL section is given an overall mark out of six and not broken down as I have it. See the chart below for
  typical OPVL responses. Remember in IB half marks are never awarded.
                              A Guide to Doing OPVL on Documents Tests
    Type of                Origin              Purpose                      Value                               Limitation
   Document                                                                                       All excerpts will be limited in that you
                                                                                                  are only seeing a small part of a larger
                                                                                                  field of study.
Diary/ Personal      Primary document.     To record personal     Eyewitness to events and        Opinion will be skewed by limited
Journal              Written by the        perspective of         usually written                 personal perspective, i.e. time to
                     author for the        events. Sometimes      immediately or shortly          reflect on events and personal
                     author.               for the purpose of     after they occurred.            involvement in events (bias). If
                                           publication.           Authors unlikely to lie.        intended for publication the author
                                                                                                  may adjust their reflection
                                                                                                  accordingly. No historiography.
Reminis cence/       Primary document.     To offer an            Eyewitness account that         Length of time between events and
Biography            A firsthand written   eyewitness             offers personal insight         recollection can lead to loss of
                     account of events     perspective on an      (they were there) and           information or details being altered.
                     or a written record   event.                 awareness of many details       Because it is intended for publication
                     based on a set of                            of the event.                   the author may adjust their reflection
                     interviews.                                                                  accordingly. No historiography.
Academic             Secondary             To educate             This is an expert opinion       Usually not an eyewitness, author can
M agazine/Journal/   Document. Usually     colleagues,            derived through many            err deliberately or accidentally, not
Book                 by an expert (often   students and the       years of primary document       very useful for a quick overview since
                     academic              public.                research in archives and a      analysis is usually in great detail. What
                     historian).                                  thorough knowledge of           the historian believes (their school of
                                                                  secondary works on the          thought) will impact their perspective
                                                                  topic. Their credentials (if    resulting in bias. Where the historian is
                                                                  you are familiar with           from will impact their perspective.
                                                                  them) can also be a value.
General Text         Secondary             To educate             Offers quick overview for       Usually not an expert on every topic in
                     Document. Usually     students and           students studying the           the text so there are often gaps and
                     written by a panel    possibly the           topic. This is an opinion       errors. Often not an eyewitness. Where
                     of experts (often     public.                by a historian with             the historian is from will impact their
                     academic                                     expertise in the subject        perspective. What the historian
                     historians) on the                           area, although not              believes (their school of thought) will
                     topic.                                       necessarily all the topics.     impact their perspective resulting in
                                                                  Contains information            bias. Limited historiography.
                                                                  derived from primary
                                                                  research and knowledge of
                                                                  secondary works on the
                                                                  topic.
Cartoon              Primary Document.     To educate,            Offers at least one person's    Only one person‟s view on the politics
                     Done by the artist    entertain, and often   perspective on issue of the     of the day. Often exaggeration used for
                     for public            to sell newspapers     time. Offers insight to the     comic effect. M eaning can be hidden
                     consumption at the    or journals.           political climate of the        by many of the subtleties of the
                     time                                         day.                            artwork itself or the era that it was
                                                                                                  written in. No historiography.
Speech               Primary Document      To orally              Offers the official view of     M ay not be the real views of speaker
                                           communicate a          the speaker.                    as speeches are designed to sway
                                           message to a given                                     opinion. M issing visual and oral cu es
                                           audience.                                              such as body language, intonation,
                                                                                                  irony, sarcasm, etc. that you are unable
                                                                                                  to appreciate in written form. No
                                                                                                  historiography.
Internal M emo       Primary Document      Private, written       It is an official view like a   One person‟s perspective. Also, an
                                           communication          speech but it often             “insiders” view meaning that there is
                                           between officials      comprises private thoughts      an assumed knowledge on the part of
                                           often in a             as well. In some cases can      the reader. M emo could be used as a
                                           government or          reveal information that         tool of persuasion rather than a tool of
                                           business setting.      was not originally              information limiting its historical
                                                                  intended for public             usefulness. No historiography
                                                                  consumption.
QUESTION FOUR
 This question is worth eight marks so spend the most time on this question. I recommend 20-25
  minutes.
 To start I would recommend that you have a two sentence intro that includes a thesis statement that
  responds to the question being asked (not a thesis question, a STATEMENT , you are supposed to be
  answering a question). You may leave room for this and write your „answer‟ in after you have
  completed the bulk of your response if you feel unsure as to how your response is likely to develop.
  However, it would be best practice to have this figured out well before you start writing. Developing
  a short outline on scrap paper or the back of the test where you jot down a few of points you are
  going to use to answer the question would be helpful here. Remember, time is limited an
  introduction longer than three sentences is too long.
 Next, you should develop a paragraph where almost every source is mentioned and mined for
  information that supports the thesis up top. Feel free to bunch a few sources together if they agree
  (“Both Source A and B show that the government was in favour of interning the Japanese…”). Offer
  brief quotations to support what you are saying, but do not let the quotations stand alone. They need
  to be explained in a way that shows how they are supporting your thesis/answering the question
  being asked. Whether you are summarizing a document or using a quote, source you‟re the
  information you are providing regularly so the marker knows this information is from the documents
  and that you are using them well.
 Finally, write a large paragraph that also answers the question/supports your thesis. Mention books,
  articles, and documentaries we have used in the study of this topic. Name names (both historical
  characters and authors), offer dates, numbers, quotes, etc. to prove you really know your stuff.
  Again, all of this information needs to be used in concert with your response to the
  question/supporting your thesis statement. Do not do an information dump. Instead, use the
  information to answer the question. If there is time, write a one sentence conclusion that summa rizes
  your point of view. If you run out of time, write down as much as you can, in point form, regarding
  what you know about the question being asked. You are likely to pick up a mark, maybe two, by
  doing this.
 A word of caution. This approach of splitting up the response into a “documents” section and a
  “personal knowledge” section is only a suggestion. Many students prefer to incorporate their own
  knowledge of the topic in with the information from the documents. As you will note below, you
  must demonstrate use of both the documents and personal knowledge and the method noted above is
  the clearest way to demonstrate that you have done both. That being said, I leave the choice up to
  you, I have seen both methods used very effectively.
 It is important to note that this question is worth 8 marks. The IB will not allocate a mark any higher
  than a five out of eight (usually lower) if you use only the documents or use only your own
  knowledge. If you hope to achieve a grade that is higher than five on this question you need to use
  both the documents and your own knowledge.
                            Document Test: Japanese Internment
Instructions :
Refer to the following documents and answer all the questions listed below

Sources in this booklet have been edited: word additions or explanations are shown in square
brackets [ ]; substantive deletions of text are indicated by ellipses in square brackets […]; minor
changes are not indicated.

1. (a) Why, according to Source B, were the Japanese interned? [3 marks]
   (b) What message is being conveyed in Source E? [2 marks]

2. In what ways do the views expressed in Source B (and maybe Source C) support the
   conclusions drawn in Source D? [6 marks]

   OR*

   Compare and contrast the views regarding Japanese Internment in Sources B and D. [6 marks]

3. With reference to the origin and purpose, assess the value and limitations of Sources A and C
   for historians studying Japanese Internment. [6 marks]

4. Using these sources and your own knowledge, explain to what extent you agree with the
   statement, “The internment of Japanese Canadians was an unjustified act by the Canadian
   government.” [8 marks]

*Note: you will not be given the option of both on a test; instead I am providing an example of the
two ways in which question 2 is usually posed.

Source A
In Ottawa, the RCMP and military believed that British Columbia‟s Japanese Canadians posed little
threat to security, but racist mood gathered momentum within the province. There was a fear of
invasion…. Some families were divided, with the men sent to work camps while women and
children were sent to defunct mining towns in the province‟s interior.
- Excerpt from Canada: A People’s History Volume 2, by Don Gillmor (2001)

Source B
... Canadians on the Pacific are entitled to and insist on getting complete protection from treachery,
protection from being stabbed in the back.. . We have at least 24 000 of Japanese origin in our
province, all in the coastal area - fishermen, men working in our woods in the lumbering industry,
men farming on both sides of the great Fraser River Valley, which means that they are astride both
of our transcontinental lines. There has been treachery elsewhere from Japanese in this war, and we
have no reason to hope that there will be none in British Columbia...if we were Canadians in Japan,
we might feel much the same; we would be only too willing to assist British troops should they
attempt to land on the Japanese coast. The only complete protection we can have from this danger is
to remove the Japanese population from the province...
- Howard C. Green, MP for Vancouver South (January 24, 1942)
Source C
...a very great problem to move the Japanese and particularly to deal with the ones who are
naturalized Canadians or Canadian born.. .there is every possibility of riots. Once that occurs, there
will be repercussions in the Far East against our prisoners. Public prejudice is so strong in B.C. that
it is going to be difficult to control the situation; also moving men to camps at this time of year is
very difficult indeed. I did my best to get decisions from the Cabinet and matters sufficiently
advanced to be prepared for afternoon questions [in the House of Commons].
- Excerpt from the diary of Prime Minister Mackenzie King (February 19, 1942)

Source D
I often wonder about this war. The Japanese are my father's and mother's people. Strange to be
fighting them. My father's nephews are all in the army. We do not receive any letters from our
uncles and aunts in Japan and we do not know if they are alive or not. Father does not speak of them
much. I ask father, "Why are we fighting?" "For land and other things," father replies. "This is why
we are here." "But I'm not Japanese, like you. I was born here. So were you." I look at Yuki. She
says, "That's nothing - a Jap is a Jap, whether you're born here or not!" "Even if I change my
name?" "Yes, you look oriental, you're a threat." "A threat? Why?" "God only knows!" Yuki
replies. "It's mostly racial prejudice, and jealousy. Remember we had cleared the best land all along
the Fraser Valley. Good fisherman. This causes envy, so better to kick us out. The damn war is just
an excuse. Dad knows. The West Coast people never liked the Orientals. "Yellow Peril" is what
they call us."
        I look at father. "Yuki is speaking the truth," he says. "This is why we had better return to
Japan when we can." Yuki looks surprised. "Return to Japan? I don't want to go. What would I do
there?" Father looks at us. "Would you rather stay in camps? Be treated like dogs? You know you
could never get a decent job in Vancouver. Look at cousin Robert, a university graduate, an honors
student. No one would hire him. So he's a gardener, just like me. Is this what you want? To be
always a third-class citizen? I mind. I didn't come to this country for this kind of treatment.
Democracy! I'm a Canadian. I have to pay all the taxes, but I have never been allowed to vote. Even
now, here, they took our land, our houses, our children, everything. We are their enemies. Don't you
understand? I have no desire to be part of this country. There is no future for you here either."
- Excerpt from A Child in Prison Camp, by Shizuye Takashima (1971)
Source E

				
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