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VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 24

									                    Sara GUTIÉRREZ LANZA
                Carlos BUSNADIEGO GUTIÉRREZ
                Joaquín COSMEN SCHORTMANN
                    Fermín CATALÁN RAMOS
                             GMV



     GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD
 APPLICATIONS-: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS
   / GALILEO FOR ROAD USER CHARGING
  AND VALUE ADDED SERVICES FOR THE
               ROAD SECTOR
Session 6: Electronic toll collection systems
GNSS for INnovative road Applications


GINA
GNSS for INnovative road
Applications : THE ADOPTION
OF EGNOS / GALILEO FOR
ROAD USER CHARGING AND
VALUE ADDED SERVICES FOR
THE ROAD SECTOR
27/05/2009
ITS 2009 Polish Congress, Warsaw
CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. The GINA project approach and innovation
3. The use of integrity in road pricing
4. The project trials
5. The impact of road pricing in pollution and congestion
   management
6. Conclusions




GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                       Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 3   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR ROAD
USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED SERVICES FOR
THE ROAD SECTOR

INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION (I)

 Growth in passenger car fleet in UE + PND “boom”=>applications
beyond navigation possible
 Big challenges in the road sector:
   – Safety
   – Infrastructure financing
   – Congestion and pollution
 Different applications
   – Road Pricing
   – Value Added Services: Pay As You Drive (PAYD), info-mobility etc.
 Still obstacles for large scale take off of these services
   – Large scale GNSS-based Road Pricing technical and economical feasibility not
     proven yet
   – Need to understand benefits related to congestion and pollution management
   – Need to demonstrate the potential of VAS running on same platform
   – GPS performances

GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                       Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 5   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
INTRODUCTION (II)
Electronic Fee Collection systems (urban and highways) are
operational today and will be common practice in EU in the future
GNSS is a competitor technology wrt DSRC with clear
advantages due to its flexibility and cost-efficiency for
wide networks:
   – German Toll Collect: today
   – Dutch national scheme (ABvM) y UK; Congestion Charging in London
     and others under definition (France, Sweden, Slovakia...)
Still some questions concerning the large scale deployment of a
GNSS-only based road pricing system and other value added
services
GINA will address these obstacles and will progress in bringing
GNSS-based Road Pricing and VAS a step closer to maturity


 GINA will address the adoption of EGNOS/GALILEO in the road sector
 considering the technical feasibility of the concept on a large scale, its
 economic viability and positive impacts in congestion and pollution
GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                       Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 6   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR ROAD
USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED SERVICES FOR
THE ROAD SECTOR

THE GINA PROJECT
APPROACH AND
INNOVATION
THE GINA PROJECT APPROACH
AND INNOVATION(I)
–    GINA: project co-funded by GSA/EC,
     FP7 GALILEO Call 1, coordinated by
     GMV
–    Collaborative   Project,    Activity:
     Exploiting the full potential, Area:
     Mass Market Applications, Topic:
     GALILEO-2007-1.1-01      Innovative
     GNSS-based Road Applications
–    GINA:
       Collaborative Project
       24 months
       2.2 M€ (~1.3 M€ funded)
       12 partners from 7 countries, whole
        value chain coverage




GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                       Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 8   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
THE GINA PROJECT APPROACH
AND INNOVATION(II)
   GINA main objectives:
     Analysis of the context (legal, regulatory, interoperability, standardisation) of
      a nation-wide GNSS-based RUC (and VAS on same platform) with especial
      emphasis on market and business potential aspects for a commercially
      feasible solution
     Trials: implementation of a large-scale demonstrator of GNSS-based Road
      Pricing at national level and VAS (PAYD for car leasing companies and traffic
      information generation, modelling and provision) using the Dutch ABvM as a
      reference
     A solid dissemination strategy.
   Not another proof-of-concept: progress in the adoption of the use of
    GNSS (EGNOS, Galileo) in the road sector
     EGNOS OBUs calculating positions with integrity (validated in CLoCCS,
      ABvM)
     Demonstration of “real” applications: ABvM and end users (ARVAL)
      requirements
 Proposed solution close to commercialization and subject to be adopted
  and replicated in other countries
 1 OBU –multiple services
 Relating the use of RUC and VAS with pollution and congestion


GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                       Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 9   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR ROAD
USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED SERVICES FOR
THE ROAD SECTOR

THE USE OF INTEGRITY IN
ROAD PRICING
CHARGING SCHEMES AND “GEO-
OBJECTS”
Different Charging Schemes identified (distance based, time-based, zone
based….)
In all schemes a basic first step is to identify
whether the vehicle is using the infrastructure ->
“geo object” which, when vehicle is inside,
triggers the charging:
     Cordon; Virtual Gantry; Segment

Geo-object identification to define total fixed                                  GP4              GP2
charge (London) or special tariffs(e.g. price per                                       GP1
kilometer in the Dutch system)
GNSS (alone or combined with other sensors) is
also used in distance based systems (to measure                              GP5
                                                                                       GP0
                                                                                                GP3
the distance driven)



The Geo-object identification is critical: Incorrect identification can have
and impact in the charge computation
GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                        Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 11   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
MISSION REQUIREMENTS

Thus, the basic use of GNSS is to identify whether (and when)
the vehicle is within the geo-object. Potential use also as
measurement of traveled distance
In this approach two main mission requirements appear:
AA  high percentage of the vehicles
                                                                                                             GNSS Position
that are within the geo-object have
                                                                 Example of
to be identified as such: charging
AVAILABILITY                                                     not fulfilment
                                                                             Real Position
AAn  extremely low percentage of
the vehicles that are not within the                                            GNSS Position
geo-object can be identified as                                   Example of
within the object: OVERCHARGING




                                                                                                  Error
                                                                 not fulfilment
probability
                                                                                         Real Position



What are the numerical values associated to those requirements?

GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                                   Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 12        II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009            logo
THE REQUIREMENTS (EFC)

                    No overall consensus
                    EC EFC documentation reviewed by Expert Group 9
                    (11/2006):
                    CCharging  Availability: “ … geo-objects are guaranteed to
                    be successfully recognised with a success rate of at least
                    99.99%.”
                    OOvercharging  Probability: “False recognition of a geo-
                    object should be less than 1 in 106”
                    Second one is much more demanding: figure itself
                    and affects a potentially larger population (not the
                    users but all vehicles in the proximity)!!!
                    System has to be specially designed to satisfy it.



GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                        Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 13   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
GPS BASED POSITION ERRORS
GPS has very good average performances but some factors affect
the resulting errors:

         NLOS Multipath: in urban and semi-urban environments
          multipath provokes large errores (> 100 m with probability
          >0.1%)
         Interferences (deliberate or
          non-deliberate) / Spoofing

         Ionosphere
         Satellite failures:
            – 15 satellite failures per
              year in average
            – Some of these errors provoke
              errors of about 100’s of metres
              (!) at some European
              locations.



GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                        Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 14   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
SOLUTIONS TO AVOID
OVERCHARGING                                                     Real position

Avoiding overcharging requires specific
mechanisms to compensate large position
errors. Two solutions:                  GNSS solution


 Introduction of additional sensors
 and/or roadside infrastructure:
 complex and expensive

POSITION INTEGRITY
 Errors are bounded by the computed
  Protection Level. Large PLs
  indicate large position uncertainty.
 Simple solution. Truly GNSS-only                                        Protection
                                                                            Level
  system.

 Specific algorithms needed in the
  Rxr
 Low Cost OBU(<100€)




GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                           Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 15      II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
APPLICATION OF GNSS TO ROAD
CHARGING
Vehicle is charged only when inside the geo-object: 1 or more PLs totally
inside the geo-object=> geo-fencing based on PLs (not on calculated
position)


I-10 OBU (GMV allroad) to be used in
GINA will calculate positions with
integrity (PLs computation) based on
specific algorithms. Additionally all
requested functionalities (e.g.
Communications, geo-fencing in “fat”
and “smart” architectures, etc.)




GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                        Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 16   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR ROAD
USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED SERVICES FOR
THE ROAD SECTOR

THE GINA PROJECT TRIALS
THE TRIALS (I)

– Implementation of a large scale demonstrator at national scale
  (in Netherlands) for RUC and VAS (PAYD for car leasing
  companies and traffic information generation, modelling and
  provision)
– 2 levels:
    Exhaustive performance analysis: conclusions wrt EGNOS/Galileo
     performance (as compared with very accurate references) in terms
     of GNSS performance, distance measurement, GEO objects
     identification, charging performance, vs. Other systems (GPS or
     other technologies) [specially end-to-end charging performances as
     compared with existing requirements of ABvM (mainly charging
     accuracy and overcharging probability)]
    End-to-end performance analysis: an overall assessment of the
     capabilities of the system from different perspectives and an
     exhaustive analysis for variables where a reference is not needed.


GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                        Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 18   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
THE TRIALS (II)




– Implementation and evaluation of a cost-efficient enforcement
  mechanism (ANPR)




GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                        Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 19   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR ROAD
USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED SERVICES FOR
THE ROAD SECTOR

THE IMPACT OF ROAD
PRICING ON POLLUTION AND
CONGESTION MANAGEMENT
IMPACT ON POLLUTION AND
CONGESTION MANAGEMENT
   While debate on “Eurovignette” Directive which lays down
    common rules on pricing of transport infrastructure, motivated
    by the “greening” of surface transport and the need to
    internalise external costs:
         Pollution
         Noise
         Traffic congestion

   CO2 emissions: car model + driving behaviour
   Data collected during GINA trials processed to relate RUC and
    VAS with pollution and congestion
   GNSS + CANbus information + drivers’ feedback => how
    “green” driving of trials participants has been



GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                        Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 21   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR ROAD
USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED SERVICES FOR
THE ROAD SECTOR

CONCLUSIONS
CONCLUSIONS
   Great challenges in the road sector: safety, finacing, congestion
    & pollution
   Satellite navigation has advantages wrt other technologies for RUC
    (flexibility and low cost) but GPS has some weaknesses.
   Integrity of position: a flexible and efficient mechanism for correct charging
    and protection of the user against overcharging
   GINA will implement a totally operational large-scale demonstrator of a
    road pricing (+VAS) scheme in the Netherlands (future ABvM) => main
    reference for future projects.
   Dutch ABvM: much more demanding that Toll Collect or other schemes: all
    vehicles, all roads => results will be a powerful tool to show GNSS potential to
    key stakeholders and decision makers (Dutch Government, authorities etc.)
   Exhaustive performance analysis
   Compliant with European standards, regulatory framework and interoperability
    guidelines
   1 OBU – multiple services
   Special emphasis on market potential and business model analysis


GINA: THE ADOPTION OF EGNOS/GALILEO FOR
                                                                                                        Company’s
ROAD USER CHARGING AND VALUE ADDED
SERVICES FOR THE ROAD SECTOR              01/10/2011   Page 23   II ITS Polish Congress , Warsaw 2009      logo
                         Thank you!




Sara Gutiérrez Lanza -   sgutierrez@gmv.com

								
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