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Patrolling I - USMA


									United States Military Academy
  Patrolling I
                  United States Military Academy

 • Patrolling Defined
 • Principles of Patrolling
 • Types of Patrols
     – Reconnaissance
     – Combat
     – Tracking
 • AAR Patrolling CFT
 • Patrolling TDG
FM 7-8 Change 1
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• Patrols are missions to gather information
  or to conduct combat operations. Infantry
  platoons and squads conduct three types
  of patrols: reconnaissance, combat and
• Patrol base not occupied for more than 24
  hours except in an emergency
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            Elements common to
                 the patrol
•   Headquarters Element
•   Aid and Litter Team
•   Enemy Prisoner of War Team
•   Surveillance Team
•   EnRoute Recorder
•   Compass Man
•   Pace Man
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        Principles of Patrolling
• Planning – quickly make a simple plan and effectively
  communicate it to lowest level
• Reconnaissance – your responsibility to confirm what
  you think you know and find out what you don’t
• Security – preserve your force as a whole, and your
  recon assets in particular
• Control – clear concept of the operation and
  commander’s intent, coupled with disciplined
  communications, to bring every man and weapon you
  have available to overwhelm your enemy at the decisive
• Common Sense – do what you are supposed to do
  without someone having to tell you, despite your own
  personal discomfort or fear

(Ranger Handbook p. 5-1)
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             Site selection
• Determined by a map or aerial
• Satellite Imagery also a valid option
• Determine alternate sites if the patrol base
  is unsuitable or must be evacuated
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            OBJ BLACK

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     Planning Considerations
• There are security measures to consider:
  – Terrain off main lines of drift
  – Terrain near a source of water
  – Terrain enemy considers of little value
  – Observation Posts
  – Defense of Patrol Base
  – Withdrawal Plan
  – Noise/Light Discipline
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       Patrol Base Occupation
•   Reconnaissance of Patrol Base
•   Drop off soldiers at OP
•   Maintain security and occupy Patrol Base
•   Emplacement of Weapons
•   Assign sectors
•   Send out R&S teams (gather information)
•   Determine if patrol base will remain
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• Reconnaissance Patrols
  – Area
  – Zone
  – Route
• Combat Patrols
  – Ambush
  – Raid
• Tracking Patrols
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     Reconnaissance Patrols
• Provide timely and accurate information on
  the enemy and terrain
• Confirm leader’s plan before execution
• Information Requirements must be known
  for each mission from Commander
• Organization
  – Reconnaissance Team
  – Reconnaissance and Security Team
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       Area Reconnaissance
• Conducted to obtain information about
  specific location and the area around it
  (single target, grid or objective on overlay)
• Platoon/Squad uses surveillance or
  vantage points for observation
• Considerations:
  – Surveillance team included in leader’s recon
    from ORP
  – After observation of objective for set period of
    time all elements return to ORP and report
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       Zone Reconnaissance
• Conducted to obtain information on enemy,
  terrain, and routes within a specified zone
• Techniques include use of moving elements,
  stationary teams, or a series of area
  reconnaissance actions
• Moving elements through a zone using fan, box,
  converging routes, and successive sectors (FM
  7-8 p.3-12)
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        Route Reconnaissance
• Conducted to obtain detailed information about one route
  and all the adjacent terrain or to locate sites for
  emplacing obstacles
• Oriented on a road, narrow axis or general direction of
• Engineer assistance
• Detailed information about trafficability, enemy activity,
  NBC contamination, aspects of adjacent terrain (FM 7-8
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                 Combat Patrol
• Conducted to destroy or capture enemy soldiers or
  equipment; destroy installations, facilities, or key points;
  or harass enemy forces
• Also provide security for larger units
• Two types are ambush and raid (FM 7-8 p. 3-19)
• Organization: Assault element, security element, support
  element, breach element, demolition team, search team
• Squad leader should also assign EPW, Aid and Litter
  and Demo teams for any patrol
• If any member of a patrol leave the main body a five
  point contingency plan is always issued
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• Surprise attack from a concealed position on a moving or
  temporarily halted target (FM7-8 p.3-20)
• Initiate ambush with the highest casualty producing
• Typical organization includes security, assault and
  support elements
• Hasty or deliberate; type-point or area; Linear or L-
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• Combat operation to attack a position or
  installation followed by a planned
• Squads do not execute raids
• Sequence of raid similar to ambush
• Assault element may have to breach
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           Tracking Patrol
• A platoon or squad may receive the
  mission to follow the trail of a specific
  enemy unit (FM 7-8 p. 3-30)
• Soldiers look for signs left by the enemy
• Gather information about the enemy unit,
  the route and surrounding terrain as they
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AAR Patrolling at CFT
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You are the 1st Squad leader, 1st platoon, A Company, 3-27 IN. Your battalion has recently taken over the area of responsibility (AOR) from a
U.S. Army battalion. You have an additional fire team from B CO after the company was tasked to be the brigade QRF.

Your AOR is in an urban environment characterized by densely but haphazardly arranged mud brick houses of one and two stories with flat roofs,
with the occasional taller building—usually a mosque or other religiously associated structure. The main roads are paved and two lanes wide.
Side roads are also paved but only one and a half lanes wide. In addition, there are numerous narrow dirt alleyways only suit able for foot traffic.

As you know the DIABLO you face wears no standardized military uniform and often appears in civilian dress, uses Soviet-era style infantry
weapons (AK–47s, light machineguns, and rocket propelled grenades), and has the occasional command of 82mm mortars and 12.7mm
machineguns. Their main tactic is the ambush, initiated by tripwire or command detonated improvised explosive device. The ene my rarely stands
to fight, even after such ambushes. When they do it is often the signal of a major engagement. S –2 (intelligence) believes such battles center
around religious sites.

The U.S. Army unit operating prior to your arrival had been relatively successful in matters of civilian affairs and civil -military relations. They had
initiated a ―weapons buy back program,‖ paying on a sliding scale in U.S. dollars for each weapon turned in depending upon it s lethality. Despite
such gains, the AOR still had a share of insurgent attacks.

Currently, your platoon is on its second patrol. You are moving from south to north, your squad on the left flank, 2d Squad i n the center with the
command element, and 3d Squad on the right. You have only your organic weapons and are in radio contact with the other squads and command
element, though such contact is not always 100 percent due to the urban environment.

The 2-hour patrol is broken by the sound of yelling and screaming kids coming at you from your left through an alley. You turn t o see four young
boys, 8 to 10 years old, each with different types of ammunition. One boy has a belt of 12.7mm around his neck; two boys hold 82mm mortar
rounds like dead fish, from their fin-tails (you note one is fused); and to your horror, the fourth clasps a grenade, spoon in place, like a dead frog,
but from your angle you cannot see signs of the pin.

At this instant there is the sound of an explosion, and a large dust cloud forms to your front. ―Sergeant,‖ yells your 1st Fi re Team leader, ―Watson
is down hard. Perez is hit too, but maybe not as bad.‖ One kid drops his mortar round and flees, followed by the kid with the 12.7mm. Then, AK–
47 fire erupts from a nearby building behind you.

What now, Sergeant? In a time limit of 45 seconds, determine what actions you would take, what orders you would issue, and wh at reports, if
any, you would make.
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• Soldiers immediately take up nearest covered and concealed
  positions and return fire in the direction of contact.
• SL orders teams to locate and engage suspected enemy positions
  with fire
• SL orders Aid and Litter team to treat Watson and Perez until
  casualties can be evacuated
• SL determines if he or she can gain/maintain suppressive fires or if
  squad has to move out of the engagement area
• Assess situation quickly to gather sufficient information to send a
  SALUTE report up to higher
• Contact 2nd and 3rd SLs for reinforcement
• SL determines to assault or enter/clear the building behind squad
• SL sends SALUTE report to PL and maneuvers
• SL calls for indirect fire

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