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					                                             A M o n t h l y Newsletter

 Libertarian Forum
Joseph R. Peden, Publisher                                                                                       Murray N. Rothbard. Editor
VOLUME 111, NO. 4                                            April, 1971                                                                      75c

The Conning Of America
    Never let it be said that the Lib. Forum i s a grim,                   that, in addition, the true humanity - the individuation of
relentless monolith. Indeed, even within the Sober Center                  every person and his full creative development - would be
of the anarcho-capitalist movement, we have a range                        stifled in the bud, would be destroyed on the a l t a r of the
of views stretching a l l the way f r o m J e r r y Tuccille to            crippling and profoundly anti-human ideal of equality and
myself. Everyone else, f r o m Bill Buckley t o Ed Muskie to               uniformity.
Abbie Hoffman, is a damned extremist, outside of o u r                        Reich's hatred of work and the division of labor erupts
mainstream dialogue.                                                       in a l l s o r t s of ways: f o r example, his glorification of
     Thus, I disagree totally with J e r r y ' s overall estimate of       hippie youth because they wear all-purpose uniforms,
Charles Reich and h i s "greening*. To the contrary, I                     where one s e t of clothes suffices every person f o r all his
regard Reich's Con Game a s largely a P. R. shuck, and to                  activities: playing, sleeping, etc. Those of us who wear
the extent that the phenomenon is real, a s a symptom of                   suits f o r working, d r e s s i e r clothes f o r parties, shorts f o r
a diseased society and a degenerate culture rather than                    athletics, p a j a m a s f o r sleeping, etc. a r e reviled f o r
any s o r t of ally in the fight f o r liberty.                            "alienating" themselves by splitting themselves up into
     To r a i s e the least important point f i r s t , the aesthetics     different roles. The uni-clothed man o r woman, on the
of the title i s itself enough to render to Reich the back of              contrary, i s ready at any moment to r o l l in the g r a s s o r
our hand. Who can fail to reach f o r his figurative musket                mud, to sleep, walk around, etc., thus preserving his per-
a t anyone who uses a word like "greening" in the title                    petual state of ad hoc spontaneity (read: irresponsibility
of a book - o r anywhere e l s e f o r that m a t t e r ? Have we lost     and caprice, o r "whim-worship"). Let us s e t aside the
all respect f o r the English language? Indeed, if we wished               c o r r e c t but too easy point that one g r e a t attraction for the
to s k i r t the edges of obscenity, the "browning" of America             hippies i s that the uni-clothes don't have to be washed.
would be a f a r more accurate title.                                      More important, this example a t one and the s a m e time
     But the concept of "greening" has m o r e important im-               reveals the hippie-Reich hatred f o r work, and f o r the
plications. F o r Professor Reich is in h i s book a naive                 division of labor.
and adoring celebrant of every repellent aspect of our                        On work: it i s c l e a r that no one, even in our permissive
youth anti-culture. The "greening" is Reich's symbol of his                age, i s going to hold a job for long wearing uni-clothes,
hoped-for massive rejection of technology and civilization                 especially if he has just rolled in the mud. Secondly,
 per se and the return to the tribe, the commune, the soil,                the adoration of caprice and whim-worship means that no
and primitivism generally. The fact that Reich i s opposed                 one will be able to launch a career, to do a concentrated job
to Con I1 I find l e s s than impressive, since he i s hardly the          of productive work, to advance his mind and intellect,
f i r s t to take up the cudgels against the ideology of state             o r indeed to do any amount of passable work at all. And
corporatism. More important is Reich's equally scornful                    a s f o r the division of labor, the old left-wing assault on
rejection of Con I: i.e., the ethic of work, purpose, reason,               "alienation" i s very precisely the product of the absurd
the f r e e market, technology, civilization, and private                   leftist myth that specialization, concentration on a par-
property - which, I insist, i s intimately wrapped up with                 ticular line of endeavor, "alienates" one from the "whole
libertarianism and certainly with any libertarianism that is                man", from the product of one's labor, etc. In recent
rational and workable in a country of two hundred million                  years, it has been fashionable on the Left to exalt the
population. Above all, and like s o much of the Left, Reich                "early Marx", who concentrated his hostility upon "aliena-
and the anti-culture totally reject the division of labor          -       tion" and the division of labor, a s contrasted to the "later
                                                                           Marx" beloved of the Old Left. But the later Marx, a s
a system absolutely crucial to the survival of man in the
age of m a s s population a s well a s to the full development of          baneful a s he was, at least tried to a r r i v e a t a rational
the faculties and abilities of every man. But the Left                     system, and tried to understand the workings of society
hates and reviles the division of labor because such division               in a systematic way. In our proper reaction against the
leads straight to variety and diversity - t o the individuation             Old Left, let us not leap from the frying pan of Old Left
of every man - and thereby negates the Left-socialist-                      state despotism to the f i r e of New Left nihilism and bar-
communalist ideal of equality and uniformity of all men.                    barism.
Equality and uniformity can only be achieved in a world of                     In short, I say to hell with both Con I1 and Con 111.
s m a l l primitive communes, in which every man and woman                  The only hope for America, and for the r e s t of the world
does everything at once. The least one can say about                       f o r that matter, is a r e t u r n to Con 1.
such a world i s that the vast bulk of the c u r r e n t population            To quote again from Frank S. Meyer's devastating
would quickly starve and die out; the most one can s a y i s                                                             (Continued o n paye 2)
Page 9                                                     T h e Libertarian Forum
                                                                                                                                       April, 1971

THE CONNING OF AMERICA                  -
                                        ( C o n t i n u e d from page 1)
                                                                            technological and business jobs to keep our society and our
                                                                            economy going and progressing. In short, the sons of the
 blast a t the youth culture ("Counterculture o r Anti-culture ?*,         blue-collar workers will r i s e rapidly to fill the jobs
 National R e v i e w , NOV. 3):                                           abandoned by the effete and permissively raised children of
      *It is not a counterculture, it is an anti-culture, f o r             the affluent. In this way, the "working class" will triumph
                                                                            in a manner which will be a s gall and wormwood to the
                    .. .
 culture is and always has been dependent f o r i t s very exis-
tence on civility             The hallmark of the counterculture,
however, is precisely its principled hatred of civility,
                                                                            Marxists who have called for a proletarian uprising,
                                                                           Surely this i s an excellent and hopeful prognosis f o r
i t s violent opposition at all levels to ordered freedom,                 America - an America where Horatio Alger will be more
to the tradition of rational discourse, to the very structure              relevant than he has been for many decades,
of civilized life. Above all, it hates the prime characteristic                In short, Con 111 is profoundly dysfunctional a tragic  -
of the civilized man, that internalized discipline which looks             dead end f o r America. Whoeverfollows that route will end up
with suspicion upon those spontaneous, unexamined emotional                a s the flotsam and jetsam of our society; f a r from allying
reactions we have inherited from our barbarian and animal                  ourselves with the "greens", we should give them nothing
past. The unexamined life which Socrates found unworthy of                 but our contempt. We should ally oursel--es with the healthy
civilized man is to the devotees of the counterculture their                                                                   -
                                                                           r a t h e r than the diseased forces in America with the decent
be-all and end-all    ...       The constant target of their attack
is 'middle-class values', a phrase that inquiring analysis
                                                                           citizens of the working and middle classes - and upper a s
                                                                           well who cleave to the Con Ivirtues of hard work, purpose,
                                                                           and rational individualism. The r e a l struggle of the future
reveals to denote the entire gamut of the values upon which
Western civilization is founded              Marijuana, addictive
o r not, physically harmful o r not, is celebrated a s a mode
                                                                           is Con I vs. Con 11, and our task is to "r a i s e t h e con-
                                                                           sciousness" of the Con I's, to show them that s o long
of escape from conceptual thinking, from the pressures                     a s the corporate statists of Con I1 a r e on their backs,
of self-discipline without which civilization is impossible".              they will never be allowed to achieve their own values
                                                                           and life-goals. Let the Con I11 dropouts sink into the cess-
     "Add to this stew the sort of beliefs and myths that                  pools of their own making. Our lot is with William Graham
pervade the counterculture       -    the hatred of the 'ethic of          Sumner's Forgotten Man, the "honest, sober, industrious
achievement', the attack upon the nuclear family and hetero-               citizen, unknown outside his little circle, paying his debts
sexual monogamy in the name of 'polymorphous sexuality':                   and taxes, "the man "who has nopoliticalinfluence, and who
s t i r in the superstitions that proliferate within it - astrology,       has known no way in which to secure the chances of life
phony Eastern mysticism, Satanism. Corrosive of reason                     except to deserve them", the man "hard at work tilling the
and tradition alike  . ..    '
     One point that the youth culture makes is a perpetual
                                                                           soil to get out of it the fund for all the jobbery, the object
                                                                           of all the plunder, the cost of all the economic quackery, and
gripe at the alleged "hypocrisy" of their elders. Yet what                 the pay of a l l the politicians and statesmen who have sacri-
is more grossly hypocritical than the spectre of this Charles              ficed his interests to his enemies." Our lot is with Middle
Reich, very comfortably ensconced in his professorship a t                 America.
Yale, wearing love beads, celebrating the hip, and calling                                                  0
upon everyone e l s e to drop out, to take to the tribal and the
communal hills? What is more repulsive than this man, living
 high on the hog from the royalties of a runaway best seller,               First Midwest Libertarian Festival
 sneering at "capitalist greed", scoffing at the materialism
 of our culture, etc.? I think it perfectly legitimate to call                Come one, come all! The Middle West, which has been
 upon Professor Reich to put up o r shut up: to drop out him-              lagging behind the two Coasts in holding libertarian fes-
 self, to leave Con I1 Yale, to abandon his materialistic                  tivals, announce its f i r s t libertarian conference!
 royalties, and to hie him to a hippie commune, o r forever                   The Midwest Libertarian Festival will be held on Sat-
 hold his peace, Are there any takers on a bet that the good               urday, May 1, a t Northern Illinois University, DeKalb,
 professor will do no such thing? How much longer a r e we                 Illinois, at 10:OO A. M. Host: Paul Varnell.
 going to reward these parasites, waxing fat by exploiting                    Exact location of the conference will be available a t
 a "materialismn which they themselves proclaim to be the                  the Information Desk, Student Center.
 quintessence of evil? How much longer a r e we to take such                  Guest Speakers: Tibor Machan, David Friedman, Joseph
 Con Men seriously?                                                        DeJan.
      Unquestionably the best article I have seen on the Reichian
 greening was by the sociologists Peter and Brigitte Berger
 in the New York T i m e s Op-Ed page of Feb. 15, "On the Eve              "Feudalism, serfdom, slavery, all tyrannical institutions,
 of the Blueing of America". The Bergers brilliantly and                   a r e merely the most vigorous kind of rule, springing out
 incisively make the crucial point: that despite Reich's                   of, and necessary to, a bad state of man. The progress
 arrogant claim to be the prophet of a coming America                      from these is in a l l c a s e s the same-less government.*
 composed exclusively of primitive tribal communes, that
 this counter-cultural dropping out will only affect the sons
                                                                           --- Herbert Spencer.
 and daughters of the upper classes. Perhaps there will
 be mass dropouts from work, from reason, from respon-
 sibility and purpose, but these dropouts will come only                                               AVAILABLE!
 f r o m upper-class Jews and WASPS, dropping out from                                         1968 Pearl Harbor issue of
  affluence, Harvard, and Berkeley. But the working-class
 kids, the students at Fordham and Wichita State, a r e not                                       Left And Righf.
  about to drop out, not by a long shot. They have not been
                                                                                          The final story of Pearl by the historian,
  raised in a luxury which they can afford to scorn in order
  to seek out a "romantic" life of egalitarian poverty. They                                     HARRY ELMER BARNES.
  have been raised close enough to poverty to hate it and to                                           $1.25 per issue.
  devote themselves to escaping from its spectre. In short,                                   BUY FROM LEFT AND RIGHT,
  the working class kids, and especially such "ethnicsn a s
  Poles, Irish, and Italians, a r e not going to drop out; on the                Box 395 Cathedral Sta.                 e
                                                                                                                       Nw York, N. Y. 10025
  contrary, t h e y will r i s e up rapidly to fill the needed
April, 1971                                                       T h e Libertarian Forum                                                                    Page 3

                             Stateless Societies: Ancient Ireland
                                                                   B y J o s e p h R. P e d e n
       Libertarians have often d r e a m e d of escaping the tyranny                  up in the g r e a t struggle f o r national liberation than Mac-
 of the State; s o m e have sought to do s o by seeking refuge                       Neill, have candidly admitted the e m b a r r a s s i n g fact: I r i s h
  in distant and uninhabited lands where they could live in                          society w a s indeed anarchic. As D. A. Binchy, the leading
  s o l i t a r y hermitage o r in s m a l l communities held together               zontemporary I r i s h expert on ancient I r i s h law, h a s written:
 by the principle of voluntary association and mutual aid.                             t h e r e w a s no legislature, no bailiffs, no police, no public
  But historians know that s u c h experiments seldom s u r v i v e                  enforcement of justice" a n d "the State existed only in
  in peace f o r long; s o o n e r o r l a t e r the State finds and con-            embryo". "There was no t r a c e of State-administered
 f r o n t s t h e m with i t s instinctive will to violence, i t s mania            justice".
 f o r coercion r a t h e r than persuasion, f o r compulsion r a t h e r                 But if Ireland w a s e s s e n t i a l l y an a n a r c h i s t i c ( o r liber-
  than voluntarism. Such has been the f a t e of the Mormons                         t a r i a n ) society, how w a s law and o r d e r maintained? How
 and Mennonites, the Jehovah's Witnesses and the Amish                               w a s justice s e c u r e d ? Was t h e r e not incessant warfare and
 people, among others.                                                               r a m p a n t criminality?
      As exploited peoples a l l o v e r the world a r e beginning to                     To a n s w e r the l a s t of t h e s e questions f i r s t - o f c o u r s e
 realize, t h e i r t r u e enemy is always within t h e i r m i d s t      -        t h e r e w e r e w a r s and crime. Has t h e r e e v e r been a society-
 the c o e r c i v e violence of the State - and it m u s t be fought                s t a t i s t o r otherwise - without war and c r i m e ? But I r i s h
 constantly in the v e r y h e a r t of i t s dominions. E v e r y                   2 a r s w e r e a l m o s t n e v e r on the s c a l e known among o t h e r
  l i b e r t a r i a n must fight the State f r o m w h e r e he is: i n h i s        civilized* European peoples. Without the coercive ap-
 home, h i s place of business, in the schools, community                            p a r a t u s of the State which can through taxation and con-
  and t h e world a t large. His t a s k is to r e s i s t the State                 scription mobilize l a r g e amounts of a r m s and manpower,
 and to dismantle i t by whatever m e a n s a r e a t hand.                          the I r i s h w e r e unable to s u s t a i n any l a r g e s c a l e military
       Historically, States do not dismantle willingly o r easily.                   f o r c e i n the field f o r any length of time. I r i s h wars, until
  While they can disintegrate with s t a r t l i n g speed, a s in                   the l a s t phase of the English conquest in the 16th and 17th
  Russia in 1917 o r F r a n c e in 1968, a l m o s t always new                     centuries, w e r e pitiful b r a w l s and cattle r a i d s by European
  States a r i s e to take their place. The r e a s o n f o r this, I                standards. The contemporary Irish historian, Kathleen
  believe, is that men cannot bring themselves to believe                            Hughes, h a s r e m a r k e d that one reason why the English
  in the practical feasibility of a society i n which p e r f e c t                  conquest, begun i n the 12th century under Henry I1 and
  liberty, security of life and property, and law and justice                        completed only under William 111 in the late 17th century,
 c a n be attained without the c o e r c i v e violence of the State.                w a s s o long in being achieved was the lack of a well-
  Men have f o r s o long been enslaved by the State that they                       organized State in Celtic Ireland. A people not habituated to
  cannot r i d themselves of a Statist mentality. The myth of                        a Statist conception of authority a r e incapable of considering
  the State as a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of s o c i a l reality constitutes        a defeat in w a r a s anything m o r e thana t e m p o r a r y l i m i t a t i o ~
  the g r e a t e s t single obstacle to the achievement of a                        upon t h e i r liberty. Submission to the enemy is viewed a s no
  l i b e r t a r i a n voluntarist society.                                         m o r e than a n e c e s s a r y and t e m p o r a r y expedient t o p r e s e r v e
       Yet the historian, if he but chooses t o look and r e p o r t                 one's life until opportunity f o r revolt and r e c o v e r y of
  his findings, knows that many societies have functioned                            liberty p r e s e n t s itself. The English, of c o u r s e , considered
  successfully without the existence of the State, i t s c o e r c i v e             the I r i s h notorious in t h e i r faithlessness (they repeatedly
  apparatus and monopoly of organized violence. It is my                             repudiated oaths of submission and allegiance to t h e i r
  purpose h e r e to p r e s e n t one example of such a society,                     English conquerors); they w e r e repeatedly c h a r a c t e r i z e d
  one that existed f o r m o r e than a thousand y e a r s of recorded               by English c o m m e n t a t o r s a s natural-born, incorrigible
  history, terminated only by the m a s s i v e military e f f o r t s               rebels, b a r b a r i a n s , savages who refused to submit to the
  of a m o r e populous, wealthy and a g g r e s s i v e neighboring                 kind of law and o r d e r offered by the English State. The
  State. I will d e s c r i b e f o r you the millenial - long a n a r c h i c       Irish, unfettered by the s l a v e mentality of people accustomed
  society of Celtic Ireland - destroyed a f t e r a six-century                      to the tyranny of the State, simply refused to s u r r e n d e r
  struggle against the English State in the wake of the m i l i t a r y              t h e i r liberty and libertarian ways.
  victories, confiscations and genocidal policies of s u c c e s s i v e                  Let u s now examine m o r e closely Irish society and
  English governments in the 17th century.                                           I r i s h s o c i a l institutions.
       English historians have usually justified Ireland's f a t e by                     The b a s i c polity of the ancient I r i s h was the T u a t h .
  characterizing i t s people a s uncivilized and barbaric, i t s                    Membership w a s r e s t r i c t e d to F r e e men who owned land,
  society a s being anarchic. Christopher Dawson is quite                            o r w e r e m e m b e r s of recognized learned professions, -
  c l e a r on this point: "The e s s e n c e of b a r b a r i c society is          poets, s e e r s , physicians, j u r i s t s o r clergymen, o r who w e r e
  that it r e s t s upon the principle of kinship r a t h e r than on                skilled craftsmen, m i l l e r s , metal workers, architects,
  that of citizenship, o r that of the absolute authority of the                     wood c a r v e r s , shipwrights, fishermen, musicians, chariot-
  State". Ireland c e r t a i n l y relied upon kinship relationships                m a k e r s , etc. Excluded w e r e propertyless men, slaves,
  in i t s s o c i a l cohesion and it never by any s t r e t c h of                 f o r e i g n e r s , outlaws and minor artisans. Political actions
  imagination enjoyed the dubious benefit of a citizenship                           w e r e undertaken within the annual assembly of all the
  conferred by the absolute authority of the State.                                  F r e e men; kings w e r e elected o r deposed, w a r s declared
       The distinguished Anglo-Irish historian of the Norman                         and peace t r e a t i e s a g r e e d upon, questions of common i n t e r e s t
  invasion and colonization of Ireland, G. H. Orpen, s a i d                         discussed and policies decided. The assembly was the
 quite frankly that Celtic I r i s h spciety w a s 'anarchic"                        s o v e r e i g n people acting.
  in that i t had s c a r c e l y any of the political institutions                       The m e m b e r s of the tuath w e r e not necessarily bound
  o r officials customary in a "civilized society". Nationalist                      by t i e s of kinship, except incidentally. It was not a t r i b e
  historians like Eoin MacNeill, who actively participated                           o r clan i n the s e n s e of being based upon a common kin-
, i n the overthrow of English r u l e in the period 1916-1922,                      s h i p - r e a l o r imaginary. Kinsmen often lived and a c t e d
  considered these opinions just another s m e a r by the                            within different Tuatha and individual m e m b e r s could and
  English conquerors and insisted that t h e ancient I r i s h had                   often did secede, and join another tuath. Also two o r m o r e
 a s much of a State a s they needed.                                                 tuatha could and did c o a l e s c e into one body. The tuath i s
       A younger generation of I r i s h historians, less caught                                                                           (Continued on page 4 )
Page   4                                               The Libertarian Forum                                                  April, 19r2

STATELESS SOCIETIES: ANCl ENT IRELAND                                     surety guaranteed with his own property the payment of
                                            (Continued from page 4)       a debt which the debtor did not o r could not pay; another
                                                                         kind saw the s u r e t y pledge his person that the debtor
  thus a body of persons voluntarily united f o r socially               would not default; if the debtor did default, the surety
  beneficial purposes and the sum total of the landed prop-              had to s u r r e n d e r himself a s a hostage to the creditor;
  e r t i e s of its members constituted i t s territorial dimension.    he then had to negotiate a settlement with his captor.
  Historically there were f r o m 80 to 100 o r s o tuathaat             In a third instance, a man might pledge to join the creditor
  different periods in Irish history, and few were l a r g e r           in enforcing the judgement against the debtor if he failed
 than perhaps a quarter to a third of the modern Irish                   to pay the full amount of the judgement; in this c a s e the
 county. The population i s unlikely to have exceeded 25,000             debtor was liable to double damages since he must pay the
souls, and was usually smaller.                                          original creditor and also pay a compensation to the surety
     The chief personage within the tuath was the king. The             f o r compromising his honor.
nature of kingship in ancient Ireland must be sought in                       Almost every conceivable legal transaction was worked
pre-Christian times. As is commonly the c a s e among an-                out through the taking and giving of sureties. As the Irish
cient peoples, the basic social unit h e r e the tuath - was             law made no distinction between torts and criminal offences,
                                                                         a l l criminals were considered a s debtors owing restitu-
essentially a cultic association. The cult is the basis f o r
social, political and military cooperation among the body                tion and compensation to their victims         -     who thereby
of worshippers. The king i s f i r s t and foremost the high             became their creditors. The victim gathered his sureties
priest of the cult; he likewise presides over the assembly              and proceeded to apprehend the criminal o r to publicly
of worshippers and acts in their behalf in secular a s well             proclaim h i s suit and demand that the criminal submit
a s sacred functions. The Irish kings were clearly the chief            t o adjudication of their differences. At this point the
priests of the tuath; their inauguration ceremonies, the s i t e s      criminal might send his sureties to negotiate a settlement
of the assemblies, the traditions of the people confirm                 on the the spot o r agree to submit the c a s e to one of the
this fact. The conversion to Christianity modified the                   filid.
religious functions of the kings to fit the requirements of                  The Irish law recognized the all too likely fact that a poor
Christian practices, but did not entirely eliminate them.               man may have difficulty in getting a rich, powerful man to
    As ,was common, the kingship was hereditary, like pagan             submit a dispute to negotiation o r arbitration by the filid.
priesthoods. The king was elected by the tuath from within              It therefore provided f o r a special kind of distraint. Ac-
a royal kin-group (the derbfine) consisting of all males in             cording to this procedure, the plaintiff was obliged to
three generations descending from a common ancestor who                 appear a t the gate of the defendant's house and sit there
was a king. The royal kin-group usually nominated one of                f r o m sunset until sunrise fasting the whole while; the
its members, o r if a dispute a r o s e and could not be settled        defendant was likewise bound either to keep a s i m i l a r fast,
otherwise, joint kings were elected. Kings who displeased               o r submit to adjudication of the dispute. If he broke his fast,
the tuath were often deposed, and those who were mutilated              o r refused to submit to adjudication f o r three days, h e was
in any way had to abdicate - the result of a religious taboo,           said to have lost his honor within the community, and could
one of many that were attached to the office of king.                   notn enforce any claim of his own. As the law code put
    To what extent was the king the representativeof a State?           it: He who does not give a pledge to fasting i s an evader of
The Irish kings had only two functions of a State-like                  all. He who disregards a l l things i s paid by neither God nor
character: they were required to preside over the assembly              man*. Thus the ultimate sanction was to be considered an
of the tuath and represent it in negotiations with other                outlaw by the community - to lose one's own legal status.
 tuatha; and they were expected to lead the tuath into battle           This custom, which invokes the moral feelings of the com-
when it went to war. He clearly was not a Sovereign him-                                                                   the
                                                                        m i i ~ i t yto insure justice, was used d ~ ~ r i n g Anglo-Irish
self and exercised no rights of administering justice over              war of 1916-22 when Irish prisoners in English custody
the members of the tuath. When he himself was party to                  used the hunger s t r i k e to win p ~ b l i csympathy f o r their
a suit, he submitted his c a s e to an independent judicial             cause. (Those remiqded of the tactic of Gandhi in his
arbiter. And he did not legislate.                                      struggle against British imperialism should not be sur-
    How then was law and o r d e r maintained?                          prised to learn that ancient Hindu law has a fasting pro-
     F i r s t of all, the law itself was based upon immemorial         cedure just like that in ancient Irish law).
custom passed down orally through a c l a s s of professional                The essentially libertarian nature of Irish society can
jurists known a s the filid. These jurists added glosses to             also be seen in the fact that the native Irish never issued
the basic law f r o m time to time to make it fit the needs of          coinage. Historians have generally interpreted this phe-
the times; several schools of jurisprudence existed, and the            nomenon a s another sign of the barbaric nature of the Irish
professional jurists were consulted by p a r t ~ e s disputes
                                                          to            society and i t s economic and technological backwardness.
for advice a s to what the law was in particular cases, and              Indeed, although in contact with the Celtic s t a t e s of ancient
these same men often acted a s arbitrators between suitors.              Britain and Gaul, and l a t e r with the Roman and Anglo-Saxon
They remained at a l l times private persons, not public                peoples of Britain, and with the Viking princes who es-
officials; their functioning depended upon their knowledge              tablished trading colonies a l l around the coasts of Ireland,
of the law and the integrity of their judicial reputations.             a l l of whom issued silver coinage within their realms, it is
They a r e the only "judges" Celtic Ireland knew; their                 strange that the Irish never followed suit. They certainly
jurisprudence was h e r only law, national in scope, and                had a c c e s s to both gold and silver f r o m native sources;
completely detached from the tuath, the kings and their                  they travelled abroad and knew the monetary usages of
respective wishes.                                                       their neighbors; and the metalworkers capable of creating
     How was this law of the filid enforced? The law was en-             such masterpieces a s the T a r a brooch o r the Ardagh
forced by the action of private individuals allied with the              chalice were certainly capable of striking coins.
plaintiff and defendant through a system of sureties. Men                     Why then did they not do s o ? Libertarians can s e e one
were linked together by a number of individual relation-                possible reason immediately. Coinage is usually the product
ships by which they were obligated to stand surety f o r one             of the State monopolists, who, through legal tender laws,
another guaranteeing that wrongs would be righted, debts                 compel s e l l e r s to accept state coinage which is always
paid, judgements honored, and the law enforced.                         overvalued in comparison to i t s bullion value. Only the
     The system of sureties was s o well developed in Irish              coercive power of the State can sustain the use of a debased
law that there was no need f o r a Statist system of justice.            coinage in the f r e e market which p r e f e r s blillion which
There were three different kinds of surety: in one the                                                             (Continued on page 8 )
April, 2971                                             T h e Libertarian Forum
                                                                                                                                Page 5

                                                                        a s positive and beneficial. He is too tolerant of the wide-

II   Bits And Pieces
                    By Jerome Tuccille
                                                                  11    Suit epitomized the American Corporate immage, and pro-
                                                                        spread use of drugs and their so-called "mind-expanding"
                                                                       faculties, even a s drugs - especially hard drugs - a r e be-
                                                                        coming l e s s and l e s s important on the campus social scene.
                                                                        Most damaging of all is Reich's condemnation of reason and
                                                                        logical thought in favor of "less rigid" forms of com-
   (This article will appear in a paperback anthology,                  munication: mind expansion, mysticism, rapping, etc.
                                                                        It was precisely this lack of commitment to logical and
dealing with Charles A. Reich's The Greening of America,
to be published later this year.)                                       constructive thinking which was responsible f o r the gradual
                                                                        degeneration of the New Left between 1965and 1970. Starting
                                                                        out with a healthy, though basically instinctive penchant
    The division between libertarians and conservatives                 f o r decentralized political power at home and anti-militarism
in Right Wing circles has received a good deal of pub-                  in foreign affairs, the New Left, largely because of i t s
licity in the past few years, and especially since the                  failure to develop a positive and rational program of its
early fall of 1970. Libertarians have accused the Buck-                 own, turned to philosophical nihilism and terroristic acts
leyites of sacrificing their stated principles in favor of              of "propaganda by the deedw a s a means of bringing down
individual liberties in order to c a r r y on an increasingly           the Corporate State. Without a sound philosophical base,
hawkish foreign policy against Communist China and the                  and the ability to translate abstract principle into concrete
Soviet Union; the conservatives have derided libertarians               political terms, no movement can hope to survive over
f o r failing to understand the ominous nature of the com-              the long run. It would be a sad development if this basic
munist threat which they regard a s the single greatest                 flaw in Reich's conception of Consciousness I11 was to
evil afflicting mankind today. For those on the Left who                become responsible for i t s demise over the next few years.
have been confused by all this ideological squabbling off                   Less crucial than this i s the fact that Reich doesn't seem
their starboard, it is worth taking a look a t some of these            to fully understand the cause of the transition between
                                                                        Consciousness I an$ Consciousness 11. He defines Con-
distinctions more closely.
    The libertarian-conservative rift does not merely involve           sciousness I a s the American dream          ... that success is
                                                                        determined by character, morality, hard work and self-
differences over foreign policy, a s some have claimed.
While the conservatives have included a large dose of                   denial." Consciousness I believes in self-interest, com-
libertarian rhetoric in the presentation of their philosophy,          'petitiveness and suspicion of one's neighbors. Consciousness
especially a s regards economic freedom in the market-                  I1 is defined a s the belief in the supremacy of organizations
place, their main concern has always been the maintenance               and institutions over the Ethic of individual freedom. Con-
of traditional order in society. They speak of individual               sciousness I1 is the "assumption of corporate power to plan
liberty, but by no means in absolutist terms. According
to William F. Buckley, Jr., the freedom of the individual
                                                                        the economy, allocate resources, divide a r e a s of business
                                                                        activity, fix prices, limit entry of new businesses, and.
                                                                        control the buyers themselves." But Reich r e f e r s to the
 is to be contained within the structure of an orderly society
based on the preservation of traditional western religious              growth of monopolies and corporate power, and the con-
 and cultural values. Order has always taken dominance                  sequent destruction of the f r e e market, a s the aggrandize-
over liberty in the conservative hierachy, and this accounts            ment of :private power" which later gave way to the creation
f o r their championship of censorship laws and other legisla-          of the Corporate State." He fails to understand that the
 tion governing the sexual and moral practices of the pop-              emergence of Corporate Power and the development of
 ulation.                                                               the Corporate State a r e one and the same thing. He still
     Libertarians, on the other hand, a r e absolutists on the          clings to the erroneous view that the f r e e market brought
 question of individual liberties. While f r e e market liber-          about its own destruction and resulted in "monopolistic
 tarians a r e committed to an Ethic of private property and            private power," and that the Corporate State was established
 economic freedom, their main emphasis is on v o l u n t a ~ i s m ;    during the Roosevelt e r a a s a means of regulating the
 that is, they a r e not concerned about the habits and life-           inequities of the marketplace.
 styles of other people s o long a s they remain non-aggres-                This is simply not the case. A s we have learned from a
 ive. The individualist libertarian i s willing to permit others                            -
                                                                        variety of sources free market economists Murray Roth-
 to group together in communes, to s h a r e their wealth and           bard, Ludwig von Mises and Henry Hazlitt on the Right;
 property and means of production, if such a system is                  revisionist historians Gabriel Kolko, William A. Williams
 organized on a voluntary basis. He is not interested in                                                         -
                                                                         and G. William Domhoff on the Left the consolidation of
 regulating the non-violent activities of the general citizenry         monopoly power in the late-nineteenth century was brought
 in any way, even when he considers their moral and cultural            about with the vital assistance of an already-emerging
 values to be at total variance with his own. The libertarian            Corporate State sixty years before Franklin D. Roosevelt
 believes in defensive violence when his own freedom is                  came along. Reich correctly identifies the great "Robber
  threatened, but he will never t r y to violate the rights of          Barons" of the 1900's - Vanderbilt, Carnegie, Harriman
  others o r force them to adopt a certain pattern of life              and Ford among others - a s the r e a l "socialists" and
  because he thinks it is morally superior.                              "collectivizers" of American society, the "uprooters" and
     So we see how David Brudnoy, writing in the December                "killers" of the "American dream." But he does not
  15, 1970 issue of National R e v i e w , can denigrate The             recognize the fact that these "subversives" did not destroy
   Greening of .'irneri$a by Charles A. Reich a s an "Epistle            the freedom of Consciousness I by "market exploitation,"
  to the Unwashed. The conservative is morally outraged                 but, rather, they used State Power a s a means of destroy-
  by Reich's infatuation with the youth subculture, and not             ing the competitiveness and decentralization of the market
  impressed at all by the fact that Reich's message is pro-             to further their own interests. Consciousness I and the
  foundly libertarian in most of i t s major aspects, The               freedom of the marketplace was not subverted by a "Cal-
  sensibilities of the conservative, his disdain f o r all cultural     vinistic" uptightness and suspicion of one's fellow man,
  innovations outside the mainstream of the American tra-                a s negative and unhealthy a s these attitudes are. The
  dition, take priority over his rhetorical devotion to the              Ethic of individualism and f r e e trade was ultimately brought
  principles of voluntarism and individual f r e e d o m                down by the only power capable of doing the job - the power
     There is much one can say against the Reich book. He                of political authority acting to further the interests of a few
  is too eager to embrace every aspect of the youth subculture                                                     (Continued on page 6 )
Page 6                                                  T h e Libertarian Forum                                              April, 1971

                                                                        ing on a level f a r below that which we have a right to expect.
                                                                        On top of it all the tax schedule is higher now than it has
 corporate lobbyists at the expense of the powerless multi-             e v e r been -    many claim we have reached the saturation
     Against these defects in the Reich presentation, we can
                                                                        point -     and our local governments a r e all claiming bank-
                                                                        ruptcy. So we have empty public coffers, a near collapse
 counterbalance his masterful dissection of Consciousness               in all our vital institutions and an excruciating tax rate
 I1 and his description of Consciousness I11 and the pros-              which, if it is raised much higher, will most likely foster
 pects it offers for the "Greening" of the American society             a state of active resistance in the law-abiding middle
 of the future. No one has succeeded a s Reich h a s in driving         class. No one but the most adamant Consciousness I1
 to the core of the Corporate State mentality. In the 1950's            will deny that the machine is, indeed, self-destructing.
the Organization Man and the Man in the Gray Flannel                        Now we come to Consciousness IIL According to Reich,
Suit epitomized the American Corporate image, 'and pro-                 Consciousness I11 "starts with self. In contrast to Con-
vided us with a good deal of insight into the dehumanizing              sciousness 11, which accepts society, the public interest,
aspects of a society in which the individual had lost almost            and institutions a s the primary reality, I11 declares that
complete control over the direction of his own life. We                 the individual self i s the only true reality." I11 'postulates
lived with this new awareness f o r a while and lamented                !e absolute worth of every human being - every self."
the fact that Big Government, Big Business, Big Labor,                    But 111's do not compete in 'real life," They do not
Big Bombs and Big Politics seemed to dominate our entire                measure others, they do not s e e others a s something to
way of life. But before we could do anything to rectify

                                                                                                            ...". . .
                                                                        struggle against. People a r e brothers, the world is ample
the situation, we suddenly passed from the bland and face-              f o r all."    Consciousness I11 rejects           manipulation of
l e s s Eisenhower e r a into the grinding crush of John F.             others, f o r one's own purpose.             This emphasis on in-
Kennedy's Ivy League imperialism. From Dwight D. Eisen-                 dividual self-esteem and corresponding respect for the
hower, father of a l l the people -he was the American people           individuality of all others, with the accent on non-violence,
f o r Christ's sake!   -    we placed our fate in the hands of          non-coercion and non-aggression, is the basis f o r the liber-
J.F .K.'s think-tank intellectuals and his legions of pragmatic          tarian philosophy. Consciousness 111, shorn of the negative
social engineers. And then, of course, in the aftermath the  -          aspects outlined e a r l i e r - reliance on drugs anddenigration
aftermath of L.B.J. and Vietnam and the inevitable erosion              of rational thought    -      is profoundly libertarian in all its
of civil liberties at home - the problems of the Man in the             elements.
Gray Flannel Suit were suddenly trivial by comparison. We                   If Reich is guilty of anything in his discussion of the
now look back to the "Ike" days with a certain fondness, a s            Consciousness 111 mentality, his guilt r e s t s in a naive
if everythitg was really okay back in the '5OPs, those halcyon          faith that a change in consciousii'ess will revolutionize
y e a r s of f r e e enterprise," rock 'n roll and Thursday             the entire face of American society. It is true, certainly,
night bowling games.                                                    that a fundamental change in everyone's basic attitudes
     This i s the great power of the Reich analysis. He opens           toward life will eventually result in a complete restructur-
our eyes wide and clear to the fact that we have been living            ing of a society's political, social and cultural institutions.
 a dream for fifty years and longer. Onone hand there is the            But this is rather like saying: if everyone refuses to aggress
 Consciousness I1 mentality reassuring us that things will              against his neighbors, we will have eliminated the need
be all right again with the proper planning, proper organi-             for police protection; or, if everyone stopped drinking to
zation, proper reordering of priorities; the Consciousness              excess we will have done away with alcoholism. The Reich
 I1 mentality with the sheer arrogance to a s s e r t that Vietnam      prescription f o r a Revolution by Consciousness is actually
would never have been if only J.F.K. were still around - the            a tautology. The Revolution and the adoption of Conscious-
 same J.F.K. of the Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile show-                 ness 111 a r e identical. We will have a libertarian society
 down, the same J.F.K. who was responsible f o r unleashing             if everyone becomes a libertarian. We will have an end
 Robert MacNamara on the world. And on the other hand we                to military imperialism and an expansion of domestic
 have Consciousness I still adhering to the brainless as-               civil liberties if Richard Nixon, J. Edgar Hoover, Melvin
 sumption that the Organization Man was a f r e e enterpriser,          Laird, John Mitchell and every other power-merchant
 that the Man in the Gray Flannel Suit was a heroic in-                 in the country becomes a 111, a libertarian. Until that
 di-vidualist who would find his true level through integrity           happens, unfortunately, we must continue to resist, to
 and hard work in the open marketplace.                                 disobey, to fight against the Corporate machine in the most
     Both Consciousness I and I1 a r e living the lie. I i s more       intelligent manner we know how. It is necessary, a s long
 lovable, perhaps, in that he i s the one who has had his               a s the military draft remains in force, to fight it openly
 ideals shot down and his dreams destroyed. But I1 has                  and support those who refuse to have their lives national-
 also become victimized by his own system to such an extent             ized in the name of national defense; to engage in tax
 that he believes - he actually b e l i e v e i after all that has      resistance a s a means of weakening the power of cen-
 happened - that another forty billion dollars o r a new                tralized government; to boycott elections when no real
 busing law is going to cure the ills of mankin5                        alternatives a r e offered; to agitate f o r local control of
    In one of Reich's mostincisive chapters, The Machine                schools, police, sanitation and other civic institutions;
  Begins to Self-Destruct, he describes how this gigantic               to keep the pressure continually on the political structure
  bureaucratic Monolith i s already collapsing of i t s own inef-       in order to break it down and make it more responsive;
 ficiency. The Corporate State is falling apart because of              to work f o r reform within the system to achieve desired
  its inability to function any longer. We see it happening             changes in our judicial, social and economic policies,
  every day, all around us, particularly in our urban centers.          and to implement revolutionary tactics such a s massive
  We a r e undergoing nothing l e s s than a complete institutional     civil disobedience whenever reform becomes impossible.
  breakdown. Our educational facilities f o r elementary and                This i s not to minimize the impact of the Reich message,
  high school grades a r e virtually inoperative, and in many           however. He has given us a valuable document in this time
  c a s e s they have become a physical a s well a s a mental           of violence and militaristic nation-states. Charles Reich is
  hazard to the young. Police protection - theoretically a              a true revolutionary, a brother in the struggle against
  necessary evil designed f o r the protection of life and              power and political tyranny. It is f o r libertarians, and anyone
  property has long been an agency of domestic imperialism.             e l s e who believes in the future of mankind, to join in the
  Sanitation, f i r e prevention, housing, libraries, museums,          expansion of Consciousness 111, to improve upon it and
  parks, transportation, nearly every civic service one can             intellectualize it in the a r e a s it i s weakest, and to get on
  think of is either in a state of disrepair, o r else it is operat-    with the struggle to "Green" and libertarianize the earth.
April, 1 971 ,                                           T h e Libertan'an F o m m                                               Page 7

            A Libertarian Rebuttal: Conservatism Examined
                                                      By James Dale D a v i d ~ o n

   Those who have followed the growing split in the right                  Mr. Buckley s a y s that libertarians a r e naive, but one
wing movement realize that many old-fashioned, red-                    could hardly imagine a more naive, mindless doctrine
blooded Americans would be perfectly happy to s e e the                than conservatism. Conservatives do not believe anything
collapse of the U. S. Government. This         - you may say     -     in particular. They have no specific philosophy. Inpractice,
                                                                       they a r e always a generation o r s o behind the times.
is not an ordinary opinion. Obviously not. But it is hardly s o
harebrained a s it might seem. Advocates of libertarianism             Whatever the liberals advocated 25 years ago, conservatives
have made a compelling case f o r a totally f r e e market, a          a r e defending today. If you doubt it,.employ an empirical test.
case which most people have never heard and much of which              Read today's Mr. Buckley and try to distinguish his pitch
has only recently been s e t forth f o r the f i r s t time. Dr.       from that of yesterday's Harry Truman. The difference is
Murray Rothbard, the outstanding economist, has published              not worth yawning over.
POWER AND MARKET, a devastating critique of all functions                   It does not take much of a philosopher to realize that
of government. It would be hard to over-estimate the force              with the conservative position constantly (if slowly) changing,
of Dr. Rothbard's ideas. Writing in the February issue                  those who advocate it a r e caught up in a plexus of ab-
of the INDIVIDUALIST, Senator Mark Hatfield comments                    surdities. F o r example, Buckley is deeply offended by
a s follows: "(N)ot only does he argue persuasively against             unflattering comparisons between heroes of the American
the economic functions of government, but also suggests                 state and their counterparts abroad. His attitude is inevitable,
alternative methods of dealing with problems normally as-               f o r by the very nature of conservatism, conservatives
sumed by government. In other words, one cannot off-                    cannot s e e all societies in the same light. Conservatives
handedly reject the thesis of this book a s a flight of fancy."         favor stability and preservation of the status quo. But they
    When a U. S. Senator says that a proposal to abolish                can favor only one status quo at a time. If they were logical,
his job cannot be dismissed a s a flight of fancy, you may              they could hardly help but admire such noble personages
properly infer he is telling the truth. Libertarianism makes            a s P r e m i e r Kosygin, who has probably done more to maintain
2ense. Those who have never been attracted to conventional              the status quo than any government leader in this century.
  right wing" thought find libertarianism appealing. This is            Kosygin is one of history's great conservatives.
not lost on Mr. William Buckley and his conservative                        Buckley and his crowd cleave to contradictions which
cohorts at NATIONAL REVIEW. Ever since libertarian ideas                would make modest men blush. They claim to be a force
came to public attention, the Buckley crowd has tried                   against statism. Yet their most notable libertarian gesture
desperately to obviate their appeal. Having no arguments                of the past decade was when James Burnham came out in
to answer libertarianism, the conservatives have turned                 favor of legalizing firecrackers. They say they favor
to ad hominem attack. At first, Buckley suggested that all              liberty. But their prime occupation is apologizingfor Richard
libertarians were, in his words, "irresponsible libertines.*            Nixon, a man who has about a s much respect for human
The contention was that anyone who takes liberty seriously              liberty a s Mao Tse Tung. Buckley says that he and his
invites being debauched. The conservatives abandoned this               chums understand what the f r e e market really is. Yet
approach only when the appeal of debauchery proved ir-                  who among them (I do not count Henry Hazlitt a s part of the
 resistible. After one speech delivered by Mr. Buckley to a             Buckley crowd) was ever concerned o r knowledgable about
 Young Americans f o r Freedom group, hundreds of listeners             economics? Look at the backgrounds of the NATIONAL
responded to warnings of "libertinism" by seeking out a                 REVIEW contributors. They a r e a coterie of ex-commies
 libertarian meeting in order to join in the fun.                       and religious mystics and theocrats.
    It i s now obvious, even to conservatives, that in a country            As the American state becomes more totalitarian (and who
 where "X"-rated movies a r e sold out the charge of de-                could deny that it is?), Mr. Buckley will be impelled by
 bauchery does little to discourage converts. The latest                the dynamics of his own illogic to apologize f o r whatever
 conservative tactic, one presently employed, is to suggest             happens. He has gone along with the gag this far. Why
 that all libertarians a r e crude, naive fanatics. The con-            stop now? Unless he admits to the libertarian contention
 servatives' version of a libertarian, if he could be brought           that political positions need not be defined by what is
 to life, would be a s o r t of humorless, philosophic bird-            admissible in the status quo, Buckley will turn out to be
 watcher who falls out of bed every morning a t four to sneak           no better than the tired old men of another time who
 out in the woods in search of a previously unsighted solips-           shrugged over Auschwitz and Buchenwald.
 ism. Consider the notion, popularized by Buckley, that                                                KJ
 libertarianism arises from a desire to de-nationalize
 lighthouses. In a flood of articles in various publications
 in recent months conservatives have harped continuously                INTELLECTUAL AMMUNITION. The Sil Services Bulletin,
 about lighthouses, s o much s o that one wonders about the             the largest periodic listing and review of new and classic,
 source of their fascination. In all of libertarian literature          libertarian and'objectivist works is now available FREE
 there is scarcely one sentence about lighthouses.                      to all interested persons. Every Bulletin includes reviews
    SO why - you wonder       -   is there such a big fuss? The         of over 20 different libertarian books and publications,
                                                                        in objective philosophy, f r e e market economics, revisionist
 answer i s that a s always it is the conservative tactic to
 portray any departure from the status quo a s something                history, romantic fiction and anti-politics. Magazines offered
 ridiculous. In all the conservative attacks upon libertarians          include the Individualist, R e a s o n , The Libertarian Forum,
 one would be hard pressed to find one argument which does                the Libertarian Connection, Efficacy, the Personalist and
 not r e s t upon the contention that an idea is silly if i t s im-      Invictus. Authors of books offered include Rand, Rothbard,
 plications extend beyond the bounds of consensus politics.             LeFevre, Hazlitt, Branden, Kolka, Spooner, Tucker and
 But surely, you may tell yourself, there must be more to               many others. If you have been looking f o r intellectual
 conservatism than that. No, hardly. Conservatism i s just              ammunition, you will find it in the Sil Services Bulletin.
 what Russell Kirk has always -insisted it should be the
 belief that whatever exists is good.
                                                             -          F o r your f r e e subscription write: SIL, Dept. LF, 40C
                                                                         Bonifant Road, Silver Spring, Md. 20904.
    Page 8                                                                   T h e Libertarian Forum                                                      April, 1971

                                                                                             There was no lunging f o r the microphone by rowdies of
                                                                                             any of the factions. More and more it becomes clear that
                                                                                             SIL and its affiliates - and regardless of minor differences
     exchanges at its free market value rather than a t a state
     imposed exchange rate.
                                                                                             within i t s ranks       -
                                                                                                                      a r e going to be the major conduits f o r
                                                                                             libertarian organizing in this country,
        Thus the peculiar absence of coinage among the Irish a                                    Highlight of the conference was the debate between Roy
     thousand years after its introduction in Britain is further                             Childs, Jr. and the sinister Jeffrey St. John, veteran Ran-
     testimony to the absence of the State in Irish society.                                 dian-Buckleyite radio and TV commentator, on "anarcho-
        Under the impact of the Norman invasion of Ireland in                                capitalism vs. limited government". Making his debut a s a
     the twelfth century, Irish institutions and customs under-                              debater, Roy gladdened the hearts of all libertarians by
    went considerable strain a s they tried to cope with s o                                 clobbering and turning-inside-out the suave rhetorician,
     alien a social and political system a s that represented by                             trapping St. John repeatedly in ignorance, logical contra-
     the statism of the English imperialists. But in,the end                                 dictions, and outright evasions. More important, the largely
     the two systems were incompatible. Under the Tudor                                      neo-Randian audience realized this full well, andwas deeply
     monarchy with its strong absolutist tendencies, a systematic,                           impressed by Roy's superior logic. Now that the Ranaian
    intense and ultimately successful policy of conquest and                                 monolith has been shattered forevermore, there a r e a great
    cultural genocide was directed against the native Irish.                                 many Randians around the country who a r e interested in
    The rebellions, conquests, and confiscations of the 17th                                 and susceptible to the rational arguments for anarcho-
    century finished the destruction of the old anarchic society.                            capitalism.
    Yet surely the spirit of liberty lived on in the hearts of the                                All this illustrates a growing truth about our movement:
    Irish peasantry to emerge again and again down to the present                            that the most susceptible to extensive and long-lasting
    day whenever -tne oppression of the foreigners became                                    conversion to Liberty a r e f a r more the sober, sensible
    too great. The shadow of the past is always very real and                                middle classes of our country, rather than the drug-besotted
    present in Ireland, and the memory of liberty has never                                  r a n t e r s against work, individualism, an! private property,
    faded from the minds of the people.                                                      that handful calling f o r destruction of Amerika" and all
       Note: Historians Triting about stateless societies have                               i t s works.
    a tendency to use statist" terminology and conceptions
    in describing essentially stateless ideas and institutions.
    Irish historians have been particularly guilty in this
    respect. Least affected a r e the works of Myles Dillion,                                Army Intelligence Reads The Forum
    T h e Celtic Realms (London, 1967), and Early Irish Society
    (Dublin, 1954); also D. A. Binchy, Anglo-Saxon and Irish                                   Recent revelations of the snooping activities of Army
    Kingship (London, 1970); and Kathleen Hughes, in h e r                                   Counterintelligence showed that the Army was engaged in
    introduction to A H i s t o ~ yof Medieval Ireland   (London,                            massive spying and reportage on virtually every group -
    19681, by A. J. Otway-Ruthven.                                                                                        -
                                                                                             left o r right-wing in some way outside the Establishment
                                                                                             consensus in American life. One of the activities of the
                                                                                             Army's Counterintelligence Analysis Branch (CIAB) was to
                                                                                             subscribe to "underground" publications, and the cover
       Libertarian Conference                                                                address it used was "R. Allan Lee Associates" of Alex-
                                                                                             andria, Va. When the revelation broke recently, we realized
                                                                                                                                ssociates had been un'til               '
        The libertarian conference held at Columbia u n i v e r s i u
    Law School, New York City, on March 13-14, was a re-
                                                                                                                                um, only failing to renew
    sounding succ,ess. Three hundred people attended the c o d
    ference, and everyone was struck by the seriousness an
                                                                                                                                    ddress the CIAB i$
                                                                                                                            vast a r r a y bf s u b s c r ~ b q @ + ,?'
    eagerness to learn of virtually everyone in the                                                                         yen if you are using stoE7n
    Gary Greenberg," rJie New York Libertarian Associati                                                                     taxpayers; maybe you'-
    and Society for Individual Liberty (SIL), a r e to be commended                          learn something from reading us. And more important,
    f o r an excellent and expert organizing job. In contrast                                to you, Mr. and Mrs. Libertarian out there, if the CIAB is
    to the RLA conference in New York a year and a half ago,                                 reading us avidly and with care, can you afford to lag
"   there was no hysteria, no uproar, no screaming at each                                   behind?
    other by Left, Center, and Right factions of the movement.
                                                                                             The Ltberlar
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          City                            State                      zip
                                                                                                       Tampart College L i b r Li r y '
                                                                                                                                 a -72

                           Subscrlptlon   IS   8 8 . 0 0 per year.
                                                                                                       F i r s t Western Bank 91dg
              Bulk Rates. 20 or more, 106 e a c h . 5 0 or more 86 each.
             Llbertanan Forum A s s o c ~ a t esubscrlptlon $15. 00 or more.
                                                                                                       F o u r t h a n d Main St
                          THE LIBERTARIAN FORUM                                                        Santa A n a , Ca. 92701
                                                                                                                      -   -    .    .

                   Box 341         Madl son Square Statlon
                         New York, New York 10010                                                             I               First Class             I
                                                                     Published Every Month. Subscription Rate: $8.00 Per Year


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