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					  Knowledge
about Language
Sentences
             Sentences
• A sentence is a group of words which
  makes complete sense.
• This is NOT a sentence: To draw a line
  you must
• This IS a sentence: To draw a line you
  must use a ruler.
              Exercise 1
Some of the groups of words below are
sentences because they make complete
sense by themselves. Write out ONLY
these sentences remembering to add a
capital letter and put a full stop at the
end of the sentence.
               Exercise 1
1.   my chair squeaks
2.   kicking a ball
3.   i like Mr Johnson
4.   lovely rice pudding
5.   this is funny
6.   the manager of the club
7.   she bought a new dress
8.   playing a game of darts
              Exercise 2
• Look back at the first exercise. Pick out
  groups of words which were not
  sentences because they did not make
  complete sense by themselves. Add your
  own words to them to make them into
  sentences. Do not forget to add a
  capital letter and put a full stop at the
  end of the sentence.
               Exercise 2
1.   my chair squeaks
2.   kicking a ball
3.   i like Mr Johnson
4.   lovely rice pudding
5.   this is funny
6.   the manager of the club
7.   she bought a new dress
8.   playing a game of darts
             Exercise 3

• Write out the following into sentences
  remembering to add capital letters and
  full stops. You should have five
  sentences once you are finished.
              Exercise 3
• Billy and Jud live at home with their
  mother who is called Mrs Casper Billy
  works at a local paper shop twice a day
  to raise money for his family he
  recently found a kestrel on a local farm
  and has decided to raise one of the
  chicks his headmaster at school is called
  Mr Gryce he is a strict man who has
  caned Billy on many occasions
Capital Letters for
  Proper Names
 Capital Letters for Proper Names

• Capital letters are not only used at the
  beginning of sentences. They are also
  used for proper names. Proper names
  are names of particular people,
  particular places, particular times and
  particular things (especially titles of
  books, films etc.)
             Exercise 1
• Add another couple of examples to each
  of the following categories of proper
  nouns.
• People: Alison, Miss Foster.
• Places: Scotland, Livingston.
• Times: Friday, September.
• Things: River Clyde, Ben Nevis.
• Titles: Dr Who, Die Hard.
                Exercise 2 Kes
•    Write out the sentences below using capital letters
     where they are needed. Remember that the word I is
     always written as a capital letter.
1.   billy and jud are brothers.
2.   last saturday billy went looking at kestrels.
3.   mrs casper is billy‟s mother.
4.   mr gryce is billy‟s teacher.
5.   billy lives in england.
6.   billy stole a book called the falconer‟s handbook from
     the library.
7.   jud is a bully who works as a miner.
8.   billy‟s best friend is called macdowall.
                    Exercise 2
•    Write out the sentences below using capital letters
     where they are needed. Remember that the word I is
     always written as a capital letter.
1.   fiona and helen have gone to aberdeen today.
2.   last wednesday inspector sims talked to our class.
3.   william defeated harold at the battle of hastings in
     1066.
4.   after a fierce battle william wallace beat the english
     army.
5.   the two countries signed a treaty of friendship.
6.   nairobi is the capital of kenya
7.   my favourite programmes are hollyoaks and the x
     factor.
Nouns
• Learning Intention: to recognize
  the features of a noun.
• Nouns are words which refer to people,
  places and things. In this exercise we
  will be looking at three different types
  of noun: COMMON nouns, PROPER nouns
  and COLLECTIVE nouns.
• Common Nouns
• A common noun is a word which refers
  to a person, place or thing. Look around
  you and you will see plenty of things-
  perhaps a chair, a desk, a wall. These
  are all common nouns.
                Exercise 1
•    Give four common nouns for each of
     these general terms:
1.   fruit i.e. banana, apple, peach and kiwi.
2.   vegetables
3.   sports
4.   jobs
5.   musical instruments
                  Exercise 2
• Fill in the missing nouns from this passage.
• Most of the time I enjoy going to school. I think if we
  had to stay at _______ every day we would soon
  become bored. Sometimes I walk to ________ but if
  I am in a hurry or if the ___________ is bad I get a
  bus. Travelling by ___________takes ten minutes
  but if I‟m walking it takes ________. Every
  __________ the school day begins with registration.
  This is to keep a record of how many ____________
  are absent. If you have been absent from school you
  must give your registration _____________ a
  ___________ from your parents on your return.
• Proper Nouns
• Proper Nouns are the actual names of
  people, places and things and they
  always begin with a capital letter.
                    Exercise Three
•   girl
•   river
•   writer
•   book
•   month
•   teacher
•   country
•   school
•   ocean
•   train station
•   T.V. station
•   day
•   planet
•   shop
•   city
•   singer
             Exercise 4
• Rewrite this passage giving each proper
  noun capital letters. Remember, if a
  proper noun consists of two words (as
  does your name) each word begins with a
  capital letter.
• I walked to school this morning with peter davidson.
  His family have just moved into higbury road and that
  means we are neighbours. His mother had intended to
  send him to st michael‟s high in the city centre but
  when they got here they discoved that highbury
  academy was closer to where they lived.
• This was peter‟s first day at higbury academy and he
  was put into mr brown‟s registration class. At
  breaktime I introduced peter to stephen, alec and
  john and we had a quick game of football before the
  bell went. peter supports manchester united.
• Collective Nouns
• Collective nouns are the names for
  groups or collections of nouns.
                  Exercise 5
Give the collective noun for each of these groups of
common nouns.
• apple, banana, pear
• carrot, onion, potato
• badminton, football, swimming
• teacher, secretary, electrician
• flute, guitar, piano
• English, French, Spanish
• wardrobe, table, chair
• bus, aeroplane, train
• dog, giraffe, canary
• skirt, jacket, trousers
                    Exercise 6
Match the common nouns with    Common      Collective
their appropriate collective
nouns.                         Nouns       Nouns
 Collective Nouns              geese
• fleet
• range                        wolves
• mob                          bees
• gaggle
• swarm                        ships
• shoal                        fish
• herd
• pack                         gangsters
                               mountains
                               cattle
               Exercise 7
• Underline all the nouns used in this extract
  from „Private Peaceful‟
• I knew that Big Joe would put his slowworm in
  with all his other creatures. He kept them in
  boxes at the back of the woodshed at home-
  lizards, hedgehogs, all sorts. I stroked his
  slowworm with my finger and said that it was
  lovely which it was. Then he wandered off,
  walking down the lane humming his oranges
  and lemons as he went, gazing down in wonder
  at his beloved slowworm.
Verbs
                  Verbs
• A verb is an action or a „doing‟ word.
• Examples of verbs in the following passage
  are underlined:
• The teacher strolled into the room and
  closing the door, sat down. When he saw
  Maria hanging from the light fittings he flew
  into a rage and screamed at her. I laughed
  and he shouted at me too. When he calmed
  down, Maria and I apologised for what we had
  done.
                  Exercise 1
Copy and underline the verbs in these sentences.
1. We study Geography at school.
2. Lava flows from a volcano.
3. More rain falls in Scotland than England.
4. Ships load and unload in docks.
5. The English Channel separates France and England.
6. The teacher is standing at her desk.
7. Alison is always eating crisps.
8. Peter wanted his dad to take him to the football
    match.
9. We are going to the cinema to see “Harry Potter.”
10. The audience enjoyed the concert very much and
    applauded loudly.
             Exercise 2
• For each letter of the alphabet give a
  verb.
• For example:     A    apply
                   B    buy
                   C    catch
                Exercise 3
• Copy this passage into your jotters and fill in
  the spaces with appropriate verbs.
• My parents refused to let
  me_____________ go out with my friends
  unless I ___________ my marks at school.
  My work had been acceptable at primary
  school but at secondary I was
  ____________ it difficult to
  _____________ ____________ with the
  class. I dreaded getting my end of term
  report. I _________ it would be awful.
               Exercise 4
• Match the nouns        Nouns       Verbs
  with their             Cat         Blows
  appropriate verbs.
                         Ball        Falls
• For example: a cat
                         Dog         Shines
  (noun) miaows (verb)
                         Wind        Miaows
                         Rain        Barks
                         Lightning   Grow
                         Flowers     Bounces
                         Sun         strikes
Adverbs
• An adverb is a word which describes a
  verb. Adverbs describe how an action
  takes place. Adverbs add meaning to
  verbs.
• For example: „She talked quietly‟ gives
  us more information than „she talked.‟
• „He stopped suddenly‟ gives more
  information than „he stopped.‟
         Rules of Adverbs
• Most adverbs end in –ly and are formed
  by adding –ly to the adjective. For
  example:
  – Calm becomes calmly
  – Bitter becomes bitterly
• If the adjective ends in –y, we change
  the y to an i and add-ly. For example:
  – Angry becomes angrily
  – Happy becomes happily
         Rules of Adverbs
• Some words, particularly those ending in
  –c, form their adverbs by adding –ally.
  For example:
• Frantic becomes frantically
• Dramatic becomes dramatically.
• Some adverbs are irregular and do not
  follow this pattern at all. For example:
  here, sometimes, soon, here, never, too.
               Exercise 1
Copy out and complete these sentences
with a suitable adverb.
1. She held the child ___________
2. I sat __________ in my favourite chair.
3. I will come and see you shortly.
4. He stopped speaking _____and sat down.
5. The car swerved ________.
6. I carried the tray of drinks ______ so as
   not to spill anything.
                  Exercise 2
• Change these words into adverbs by adding –ly, -ily,
  or –ally. For example: beautiful becomes beautifully.

•   Angry                 Pathetic
•   Modest                Depressing
•   Suspicious            Automatic
•   Plain                 Loud
•   Punctual              Sudden
•   Patient               Quiet
•   Weary                 joyful
•   Pleasant              Broad
             Exercise 3
• For each letter of the alphabet give an
  adverb.
• For example:     A    angrily
                   B    bitterly
                   C    calmly
Use of tense
          Use of Tenses
• Whenever you use a verb (an action or
  „doing‟ word) you will need to show
  whether you are talking about the past,
  the present or the future.
         The past tense
• The past tense describes actions which
  took place in the past. Many of the
  verbs end in –ed.
• Example: The man talked on his mobile
  phone as he walked down the road.
• However sometimes the verbs don‟t end
  in -ed.
• Example: We ate the meal in silence
  until my mother spoke.
       The present tense
• The present tense describes things that
  are happening now.
• Example: I am thirteen years old and I
  have brown hair.
          The future tense
  The future tense lets you write about things
  that have not yet happened. There are three
  ways to create the future tense:
• add „will’ before the verb i.e. I will visit my
  family
• add ‘shall’ before the verb i.e. I shall visit my
  family
• add ‘going to’ before the verb i.e. I am going
  to visit my family
                      Exercise 1
Write a sentence for each of the following verbs in the present
tense.
1. kicks
2. throws
3. punches
4. runs
5. smashes
6. catches
7. jumps
8. swings
9. swim
10. dives
11. drives
12. laughs
               Exercise 2
• In this passage everything happens in the
  present tense. Rewrite the passage putting all
  the underlined verbs into the past tense.
• I walk into the room and see a man standing
  there. He is about six feet tall and has a
  black beard. He wears a blue suit and carries
  a green overcoat. I ask him what he wants and
  he tells me wants to speak to my mother. He
  says that I should tell my mum that he is
  there. As I leave the room he asks me my
  name which I tell him. My mum comes in and
  he tells her that he is a policeman.
                        Exercise 3
Write a sentence for each of the following verbs in the past tense.
1. hope
2. like
3. tease
4. hire
5. describe
6. notice
7. starve
8. scare
9. swerve
10. destroy
11. giggle
12. laugh

Example: I hoped that my team would win the Championship this year.
                  Top Tip
To form the past
tense of a verb ending
with a consonant
followed by y change
the y to and I and add
–ed.
For example:
Marry….. married,
Hurry…….hurried
                  Exercise 4
Write a sentence for each of the following verbs in the
past tense.

1.   carry
2.   supply
3.   spy
4.   apply
5.   reply
6.   deny
7.   study
8.   Worry

Example: I carried the shopping bags to the car.
          Exercise 5

Present                Past
                       drank
  sit
 sing
                       rang
 know
                        ran
               Exercise 6
Rewrite these sentences from the present to
the future tense using the words will or
shall.
1. I swim every afternoon.
2. I do my homework.
3. I run to school.
4. We listen to our teacher.
5. He sings very well.

				
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posted:10/2/2011
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