TV Drama Section A: Textual Analysis and Representation Candidates should be prepared to analyse and discuss the following: technical aspects of the language and conventions of the moving image medium, in relation to the unseen moving image extract, as appropriate to the genre and extract specified, in order to discuss the sequence‟s representation of individuals, groups, events or places: Camera Shots, Angle, Movement and Composition • Shots: establishing shot, master shot, close-up, mid-shot, long shot, wide shot, two-shot, aerial shot, point of view shot, over the shoulder shot, and variations of these. • Angle: high angle, low angle, canted angle. • Movement: pan, tilt, track, dolly, crane, steadicam, hand-held, zoom, reverse zoom. • Composition: framing, rule of thirds, depth of field – deep and shallow focus, focus pulls. The Specs • The unseen moving image extract will be four to five minutes long and will be from the following genre: TV Drama • The sequence will be taken from a contemporary British one-off or series or serial drama programme. • There will be viewing and note-making time for Section A. The timings and rules for viewing of extract and note-making will be explained. Editing • Includes transition of image and sound – continuity and non- continuity systems. • Cutting: shot/reverse shot, eyeline match, graphic match, action match, jump cut, crosscutting, parallel editing, cutaway; insert. • Other transitions, dissolve, fade-in, fade-out, wipe, superimposition, long take, short take, slow motion, ellipsis and expansion of time, post-production, visual effects. Sound • Diegetic and non-diegetic sound; synchronous/asynchronous sound; sound effects; sound motif, sound bridge, dialogue, voiceover, mode of address/direct address, sound mixing, sound perspective. • Soundtrack: score, incidental music, themes and stings, ambient sound. Mise-en-Scène • Production design: location, studio, set design, costume and make-up, properties. • Lighting; colour design. It is acknowledged that not every one of the above technical areas will feature in equal measure in any given extract. Therefore examiners are instructed to bear this in mind when marking the candidates‟ answers and will not expect each aspect will be covered in the same degree of detail, but as appropriate to the extract provided and to the discussion of representation. Candidates should be prepared to discuss, in response to the question, how these technical elements create specific representations of individuals, groups, events or places and help to articulate specific messages and values that have social significance. Particular areas of representation that may be chosen are: – Gender – Age – Ethnicity – Sexuality – Class and status – Physical ability/disability – Regional identity AO1 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of media concepts, contexts and critical debates, using terminology appropriately and with accurate and coherent written expression. AO2 Apply knowledge and understanding to show how meanings are created when analysing media products and evaluating their own practical work. AO3 Demonstrate the ability to plan and construct media products using appropriate technical and creative skills. AO4 Demonstrate the ability to undertake and apply appropriate research. For G322, you are assessed on AO1 and AO2 Thinking about genre • Start thinking about the role genre plays in broadcasters‟ and tv producers‟ thinking as well as in audience‟s viewing. • Your TV viewing: – What are some of your favourite TV programmes? – Why do you like them? – Are you aware that you are looking at a programme in a particular genre? Contrasting TV Genres • http://www.channel4.com/tv-listings • http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcone/programmes/ schedules/london What genres can you identify? What do you notice about the scheduling? TV genres • Can you identify different genres? • Some programmes are seen as hybrids – which ones? • Take one example like Big Brother. Which elements of each genre can you identify? Why do you think programmes like these are produced? How would you label such programmes? How do broadcasters label them? (First research task) TV Genres • Do you think that broadcasters and producers consider different programmes they produce in terms of genre? • How far are the generic features of a programme part of audiences‟ viewing experience? In what ways? Audiences‟ ability to recognise the genre of a programme almost instantly means that they have assimilated the ingredients / conventions of a genre without realising it. As you study TV drama, think about how far the genre affects the nature of the drama. So what is TV drama? • TV Drama is a broad genre. At its simplest, it is fictionalised action in narrative form produced for television. • TV Drama includes everything from soap opera to classic literary adaptations as well as different narrative forms: single dramas, two-parters and mini-series to series, and continuing dramas. • This proliferation of sub-genres has its roots in the 1950s when the BBC and later ITV attempted to attract different kinds of audiences. It was then that the first children‟s serials, classic drama, crime dramas, medical series and adventure series appeared. • Despite this variety of sub-genres, broadcasting organisations still label their diverse kinds of drama “TV Drama” and promote them as such. • http://www.bbc.co.uk/drama/ • http://www.channel4.com/programmes/tags/drama • http://www.itv.com/drama/ Conventions of TV Drama • Watching an extract from The Bill. • Make some notes on: 1. Characters 2. Story / Narrative 3. Sets and settings 4. Camerawork 5. Dialogue, sound and music 6. Icons Why study TV drama and what to study? • TV is a vital genre to television, attracting large audiences, often global audiences. • In a digitally convergent environment, where new platforms are providing new forms such as „mobisodes‟ and interactive drama, and new means of distribution such as downloadable drama, the impact of the genre is set to continue. • It is therefore important to ask questions about TV drama programmes to find out how audiences relate to them and what kind of influence they may have. Note: Although the term "Mobisode" is trademarked by Fox, it is also used in media to refer to mobile telephone television episodes not affiliated with Fox. • The key issues are to identify how these basic conventions are used in the TV Dramas you are studying, and to explore how they help shape representations in each drama.