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					Living Things

Table of Contents
What Is Life?


Classifying Organisms


Domains and Kingdoms


The Origin of Life
Living Things - What Is Life?

                     Life Comes From Life
                                  Francesco Redi designed
                                  one of the first controlled
                                  experiments. In his
                                  experiment, Redi showed
                                  that flies do not
                                  spontaneously arise from
                                  decaying meat.
Living Things - What Is Life?

             Life Comes From Life
Louis Pasteur’s carefully
controlled experiment
demonstrated that bacteria
arise only from existing
bacteria.
Living Things - What Is Life?

           Redi’s and Pasteur’s Experiments




        Click the Active Art button to open a browser window
         and access Active Art about Redi’s and Pasteur’s
                             experiments.
Living Things - What Is Life?


                      Using Prior Knowledge
    Look at the section headings and visuals to see what this
    section is about. Then write what you already know about
    living things in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you
    read, write what you learn.
                                 What You Know
       1.   Living things grow.
       2.   Living things are made of cells.



                                  What You Learned
       1.   Unicellular organisms are composed of only one cell.
       2.   The cells of living things are composed of chemicals.
       3.   The cells of organisms use energy to do things they must do.
Living Things - What Is Life?

         The Characteristics of Living Things




         Click the Video button to watch a movie about the
                   characteristics of living things.
Living Things




          End of Section:
           What Is Life?
Living Things - Classifying Organisms

                  Levels of Classification
    As you move down the levels of classification, the number of
    organisms decreases. The organisms at lower levels share
    more characteristics with each other.
Living Things - Classifying Organisms


               Aristotle and Classification
                                 Many hundreds of years before
                                 Linnaeus, a Greek scholar
                                 named Aristotle developed a
                                 classification system for
                                 animals. Aristotle first divided
                                 animals into those he
                                 considered to have blood and
                                 those he did not. This graph
                                 shows Aristotle’s classification
                                 system for “animals with blood.”
Living Things - Classifying Organisms


               Aristotle and Classification
                                Reading Graphs:

                                   Into how many groups
                                   were these animals
                                   classified?


                                  3
Living Things - Classifying Organisms


               Aristotle and Classification
                                Interpreting Data:

                                   Which group made up the
                                   largest percentage of
                                   animals?


                                  Animals that fly
Living Things - Classifying Organisms


               Aristotle and Classification
                                Calculating:

                                   What percentage of these
                                   animals either fly or
                                   swim?


                                  78%
Living Things - Classifying Organisms


               Aristotle and Classification
                                Inferring:

                                   In Aristotle’s classification,
                                   where would a cow be
                                   classified? A whale?


                                  Cow- animals that walk, run,
                                  or crawl; whale- animals that
                                  swim.
Living Things - Classifying Organisms


               Aristotle and Classification
                                Predicting:
                                   Would Aristotle’s
                                   classification system be
                                   used today? Explain.
                                  Possible answer: This system
                                  includes only three categories, so it
                                  may not be very useful today. It also
                                  does not match that of modern
                                  scientists, who use characteristics
                                  other than movement to classify
                                  animals. For example, frogs
                                  and lions belong to
                                  very different groups.
Living Things - Classifying Organisms

                       Taxonomic Keys
    Taxonomic keys are useful tools for determining the identity
    of organisms.
Living Things - Classifying Organisms

                   Evolution and Classification
Species with similar evolutionary histories are classified more closely
together. These Galapagos finches may have arisen from a single
species and changed gradually over time to become three separate
species. Notice the differences in their appearance, especially their
beaks.




            eats                  eats                 eats
Living Things - Classifying Organisms


                           Asking Questions
    Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic
    organizer like the one below, ask a what, why, or how
    question for each heading. As you read, write the answers to
    your questions.
   Question                                 Answer
   Why do scientists classify?              Scientists classify because they want
                                            to organize living things into groups
                                            so they are easier to study.
   What system did Linnaeus use to          He used a system called binomial
   name organisms?                          nomenclature.

   What are the levels of classification?   Domain, kingdom, phylum, class,
                                            order, family, genus, species
Living Things - Classifying Organisms

          More on Classifying Living Things




        Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity about
                     classifying living things.
Living Things




          End of Section:
            Classifying
            Organisms
Living Things - Domains and Kingdoms

                   Three Domains of Life
    In the three-domain system of classifications, all known
    organisms belong to one of three domains–Bacteria,
    Archaea, or Eukarya.
Living Things - Domains and Kingdoms


                       Comparing and Contrasting
     As you read, compare and contrast the characteristics of
     organisms in domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya by
     completing a table like the one below.
                           Characteristics of Organisms
 Domain or Kingdom           Cell Type and Number         Able to Make Food?
 Bacteria                    Prokaryotes; unicellular     Some are able to make food

 Archaea                     Prokaryotes; unicellular     Some are able to make food

 Eukarya:                    Eukaryotes; unicellular or   Some are able to make food
            Protists         multicellular
            Fungi            Eukaryotes; unicellular or   No
                             multicellular
            Plants           Eukaryotes; multicellular    Yes

            Animals          Eukaryotes; multicellular    No
Living Things - Domains and Kingdoms

                    Links on Kingdoms




          Click the SciLinks button for links on kingdoms.
Living Things




          End of Section:
           Domains and
            Kingdoms
Living Things - The Origin of Life

             The Atmosphere of Early Earth
    On ancient Earth, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and
    methane were probably the most abundant gases in
    the atmosphere. There were frequent volcanic
    eruptions, earthquakes, and violent storms.
Living Things - The Origin of Life


            Identifying Supporting Evidence
    As you read, identify the evidence that supports scientists’
    hypothesis of how life arose on Earth. Write the evidence in a
    graphic organizer like the one below.
                                           Evidence

                                         Fossil evidence of
                Hypothesis                  achaea-like
                                            organisms


                Origin of life

                                         Fossils dated to be
                                        between 3.4 and 3.5
                                          billion years old.
Living Things - The Origin of Life

                Links on the Origin of Life




         Click the SciLinks button for links on the origin of life.
Living Things - The Origin of Life

          Modeling Conditions on Early Earth




       Click the Video button to watch a movie about modeling
                      conditions on early Earth.
Living Things




         End of Section:
        The Origin of Life
Living Things

                    Graphic Organizer
                             Living Things


                                 need

        Food                                             Homeostasis
                     Water               Living space
       made by

                                          to provide
      Autotrophs

                               Shelter            Food & water
       eaten by


     Heterotrophs
Living Things




       End of Section:
      Graphic Organizer

				
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