Craddock_FF_Safety_Survival

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					    Dekalb County
Fire Rescue Department




         Bill Craddock
 Firefighter Safety and Survival   1
                        Objectives
Discuss reasons for firefighter
fatalities
Identify Causes of Firefighter
injuries and Deaths
Define Mayday
Discuss the parameters of a
Mayday
Discuss the IC responsibilities
when a Mayday is call
Identify what to do when you call a
Mayday
Discuss and practice Self Rescue
Techniques



                                      2
Firefighter Down




                   3
    Video of
Downed Firefighter




                     4
   On-Duty Firefighter Fatalities:
                (1977-2005)
Year   Deaths   Year   Deaths Year Deaths
2005……115       1995……96      1985……126
2004……117       1994……104     1984……119
2003……112       1993……77      1983……113
2002…...100     1992……75      1982……125
2001……441       1991……109     1981……135
2000……102       1990……108     1980……140
1999……112       1989……119     1979……126
1998……91        1988……136     1978……171
1997……94        1987……131     1977……157
1996……95        1986……121
                                       5
Reasons for Firefighter Deaths and Injuries

 Ineffective size-up
 Improper strategic
 and tactical decisions
 Absence of an
 effective emergency
 rescue plan
 Lack of training
 Poor judgment


                                          6
Other Identified Causes of Injuries and
                Deaths
 Failure to recognize
 rapidly deteriorating
 conditions
 Inexperienced Officers
 Failure to use safety
 equipment
 Loss of water supply
 Freelancing


                                      7
  Sudden Unexpected Events
Lost/trapped or
unaccounted for
firefighter
Flashover
Backdraft
Rapid fire increase
Explosion
Collapse
Cardiac Emergency
                             8
      Can’t Happen Right?
You've carefully thought out all the angles.
You've done it a thousand times.
This is a routine fire.
It comes naturally to you.
You are confident.
You know what you're doing, its what
you've been trained to do.
Nothing could possibly go wrong, right ?

                                               9
Think Again!!!!




                  10
The life you save may be your
            own…

                                11
MAYDAY VIDEO




               12
           What is a Mayday
It is used internationally
as a distress signal in
voice procedure radio
communications.
It is used to signal a life-
threatening emergency
by many groups, such as
pilots (marine and air),
police and fire personnel,
and transportation
organizations


                               13
      What is a Mayday (cont.)
The call is always given three times in a
row.
Mayday, Mayday, Mayday !!!
This prevents mistaking it for some similar-
sounding phrase under noisy conditions.
It means HELP ME



                                           14
Reasons Firefighters Don’t Call a
            Mayday
1.   Pride
2.   Overconfident
3.   Denial
4.   Lack of Communication/
     Radio Traffic




                                15
    Reasons To Call A Mayday
   FALL
   COLLAPSE
   TRAPPED / CAUGHT
   LOST




                               16
    Defining the parameters of a
             “Mayday”
The “if” – “then” approach; call a Mayday if:
   You fall through the roof
   You fall through the floor
   You become tangled, stuck or pinned and can
   not free yourself quickly
   You are caught in a flashover
   You become lost or disorientated and you can
   not find the exit door or window quickly

                                                  17
Defining the parameters of a
         “Mayday”

Your primary exit is blocked by fire or
collapse and you are not at the secondary
exit in 30 seconds

Your partner collapses


Start them early, Cancel them if not
                needed
                                            18
                Case Scenario
An examination of three
Seattle near-misses
uncovered some
disturbing similarities
   None of the firefighters in
    distress called a Mayday
   None of their partners
    called a Mayday
   Nobody activated their
    emergency button
   None of the crew leaders
    activated their pass


                                  19
         Case Scenario cont..
Seattle findings cont’d
   None of their partners
    activated their pass
   Each firefighter became
    separated from his
    partner
   Each firefighter ran out
    of air
   Each firefighter suffered
    debilitating effects from
    carbon monoxide

                                20
What information should I give the
IC when I find myself in a Mayday
            situation?
              LUNAR
L – Location
U – Unit
N – Name
A –Air (you and partner)
R – Resources (What do I need to help me)
                                        21
What to do if you find yourself in
           trouble…

Do not panic. Stop and think about what
is occurring, your location in the building
and how you got there. This may help
you find your way out.
Keep your company together. Discuss
your problem and share information.
Admit that you are lost and call for help
with the radio and verbally to those that
may be near.
                                          22
What to do if you find yourself in
           trouble…
Follow a hose line or lifeline.
After you send the Mayday
communication, activate your PASS device
in a manner that will not interfere with the
rescue.
Conserve your air supply. (Air Conservation Drill)
Shine your light and position your PASS to
be most effective.
Make noises with a tool.
                                               23
 What to do if you find yourself in
            trouble…
Search for an opening.
Create an opening.
Wall Climb
Most residential
structures have
exterior walls that
are easy to breach.


                                      24
        Incident Commander
           Responsibilities
Stay calm
Immediately obtain situation
information
  L.U.N.A.R.

  Identify primary hazards to

   trapped firefighters
Immediately move fire ground
communications to another
TAC channel
Immediately call for more
equipment
Call a PAR

                                 25
        STANDARDIZED ACTIONS
                        of a
           Lost / Disoriented Firefighter
1. Control your P.A.S.S. device
2. Initiate a the “Mayday!” call
      L-Location
      U-Unit
      N-Name
      A-Air (you and partner)
      R-Resources (needs)
3. Monitor radio / Update Command
4. Use flashlight to signal
5. Use tools or debris to alert rescuers
6. Stay calm, conserve your air supply
7. Stay with your partner or crew           26
         STANDARDIZED ACTIONS
                         of a
            Lost / Disoriented Firefighter

8.  Attempt to locate an exit – Seek area of refuge
        Move towards visible light
        Listen for audible sounds
        Search walls for windows, doors, etc.
        Search for hose line (Read couplings)
        Attempt to locate a life line
9. Create an exit or opening
10. Go down steps unless in a basement or sub-
    floor
11. Assume defensive posture
        Right lateral side
        Protect face piece with gloves
                                                      27
 Self Rescue Techniques
Use Bail Out Rope                    Breach a Wall




                    Ladder Bailout




                                              28
Personal Equipment for Rescue
Door chocks
Medical shears or tin
snips
Lifeline
Rescue sling/webbing
Bail Out Rope



                                29
            Outdoor Drills
Air Consumption / Conservation Drill
Airpack Emergencies / Familiarization
Rapid Location of a Window, Clearing window
and First Floor Bailout
Disentanglement Drill
Wall Breach / Wall Climb
Ladder Bailouts – “hook 2 reach for 4”
Rope Bailouts
   Boot Rappel
   Body Rappel

                                              30
   Outdoor Drills
WE TRAIN AS WE FIGHT
  You need all your PPE
          Hustle
      Show Support
 Be safe and don’t get hurt


     HAVE FUN
                              31
Get out of the Classroom
           you
      SLACKERS



                           32
     Rapid Intervention Team
                     Day II
                  (RIT / FAST)
Objectives:

•Define what is RIT / FAST
    •Recommendations by NIOSH
    •Identify your responsibilities when assigned RIT
    •List equipment necessary for RIT
    •Discuss the two phases of RIT
    •What to do in RIT activation?
    •Discuss ways to communicate during a RIT
    activation
    •Discuss techniques to rescue a downed
    firefighter                                         33
               Definitions
R.I.T. Rapid Intervention Team
F.A.S.T. Fire Fighter Assist & Search Team
R.I.C. Rapid Intervention Crew
I.R.I. Immediate Response Team
F.R.A.T. Firefighter Rescue Available Team
R.D.U.      Rapid Deployment Unit
GO-TEAM



                                             34
           Why RIT / FAST
Too many firefighters have died needlessly. Their
deaths should make us think. In most cases,
something prevented their escape or their deaths
were caused by something that could have been
avoided.
The concept and tools for accessing and removing a
downed firefighter are the same philosophies that we
use to remove trapped occupants.
RIT/FAST does not take specialized tools and
techniques 99% of the time.


                                                       35
     NFPA 1500 Fire Department
Occupational Safety and Health Program
 NFPA major recommendations:
    Teams entering should operate in teams of
     two or more
    ARE TWO(2) ENOUGH???
    Team members in hazardous areas shall be
     in communication with each other through
     visual, audible or physical means or safety
     guide rope
    Minimum team of four members – two in and
     two out

                                                   36
    NIOSH Preventing Injuries and
       Deaths of Fire Fighters
NIOSH recommendations for firefighters:
   Employ “buddy” system whenever firefighters
    wear SCBA’s
   Never allow Firefighters to enter hazardous
    area alone
   Remain in contact
   Two firefighters should form a rescue team
    stationed outside the hazardous area


                                                  37
    NIOSH Preventing Injuries and
       Deaths of Fire Fighters
NIOSH recommendations for IC
responsibilities:
   Initial size-up and risk assessment
   Personnel accountability
   Establishing a RIT and ensuring they are in a
    position to respond efficiently




                                                    38
                OSHA says…
At least two properly outfitted firefighters
outside:
    Must be positioned outside the IDLH atmosphere
    Must account for the interior team(s)
    Must remain capable of rapid rescue of the interior
     team(s)


Are two enough ??



                                                           39
Equipment for initial RIT/FAST
PPE
SCBA with MASK
Hose line
Flashlight
Portable radio
RIT bag
TIC
Basic Forcible
Entry/Egress
Tools


                             40
 RIT/FAST Support Equipment
  Additional SCBA
  Hose line
  Ladders, Saws, Extra Rope,
  Specialized Equipment based on request
  from initial entry team (resources).

“The initial RIT/FAST team should communicate
 any additional resources required to extricate the
 downed firefighter to the IC.”
                                                      41
           RIT Activation
It’s time to go to work!
The access points should already be
determined.
Obtain a L.U.N.A.R.
Communicate with the downed firefighter.
Listen for a PASS device.
Follow a hose line if the firefighter was part
of fire attack.
                                             42
    RIT/FAST Communications
    Rescue operations remain on original
    TAC channel and all other operations
    move to another fire ground TAC
    channel.
     This ensures the downed firefighter,
      RIT/FAST, and the designated RIT/FAST
      commander to be operating on same
      channel.
NO UNNESSESARY RADIO TRAFFIC
                                              43
     Access to the firefighter
Obtain a L.U.N.A.R.
Take the shortest and safest route based on info
Use a search rope and a TIC
Firefighter with the TIC feeds the rope
Firefighters in back carry equipment
Firefighter up front stays in contact with
firefighter with the TIC. This firefighter does not
carry the TIC because he or she may need to
move obstacles and clear the path.

                                                  44
You’ve reached the firefighter, now
             what?
Get firefighter to a non hostile/safer area.
Check for breathing
Check SCBA for air level and functionality
Give a L.U.N.A.R. to the IC
Get fresh air to the firefighter if needed
Call for more help
Remove the firefighter

                                               45
 Additional RIT/FAST Duties
Assist with accountability
Monitor access to the
hazard area
Establish a secondary
means of egress
Throw Ladders
Establish emergency
lighting
Rope off the hazard area
Control utilities



                              46
               Remember
Fire Ground Operations Continue
   When someone is trapped and the fire is put
    out 98% of the problem is removed.
   NOW the trapped victim (Firefighter, or
    civilian) needs only air to survive.
   Removal/disentanglement/extrication could
    take a long time.
               REMOVE THE HAZARD


                                                  47
                    Outdoor Drills
Searches
    Grid
    Fan
    Mass Area Searches
Packaging
Drags and Carries
(1 and 2 Firefighter)
    Ladder, Hooks, other tools
    Webbing
        Girth Hitch
        Handcuff Hitch
        Airpack Slings



                                     48
          Outdoor Drills cont..
Getting Victim into
the window for
removal
   Lifting techniques
   Ladders and Pike
    Poles as Fulcrums
Denver Drill


                                  49
     Bottom Line

DO YOUR JOB!!!!!!!!




                      50
In Memory




William “Bill” Craddock   51

				
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