Chapter 6 Sensation _ Perception

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      Chapter 6
Sensation & Perception
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Sensation vs. Perception
   Sensation                Perception
     The raw data of          Process of
      experience                creating
                                meaningful
                                patterns from
-2 can be joined for            raw sensory
practical use                   information
     -Hearing aids
     -Robots
     -Flight simulators
Sensing
   5 Senses      Other senses
   Sight         Heat
   Touch         Pressure
   Smell         Pain
   Taste         Balance
   Hearing       Movement
                                                            chapter 6




Riddle of separate
sensations
Sense receptors
 Specialized cells that convert physical energy into
  electrical energy that can be transmitted an
  impulses to the brain
      Signals received by the sense organs stimulate different
       nerve pathways leading to different areas of the brain.
         Ex: Rub your eyes results in visual experience

Synesthesia
 A rare condition in which stimulation of one sense
  also evokes another
    Ex: See color purple and claim it smells like a
     rose
                                           chapter 6




Absolute threshold
   The smallest quantity of physical energy
    that can be reliably detected by an
    observer 50% of the time
                                                chapter 6




 Absolute thresholds
Vision
Candle flame from 30 miles on a clear night
Hearing
Tick of a watch from 20 feet in total quiet
Smell
One drop of perfume in a 3-room apartment
Touch
Wing of a bee on the cheek, dropped from 1 cm
Taste
One teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
                                        chapter 6




Difference threshold
   The smallest difference in stimulation
    that can be reliably detected by an
    observer when two stimuli are compared

   Also called the Just Noticeable
    Difference (JND)
                                                          chapter 6




Signal-detection theory
   Sensory Process                Decision Process
       Real stimulus                  No stimulus present,
        causes perception               mental error
       Example: phone                 Example: Waiting for
        rings and you hear it           phone call and in
                                        shower, think heard
                                        phone ring
                                                        chapter 6




Sensory adaptation and
deprivation
Adaptation
 The reduction or disappearance of sensory
  responsiveness when stimulation is unchanging or
  repetitious
 Prevents us from having to respond continuously to
  unimportant information
 Example: You cannot smell your perfume / cologne a
  few minutes after spraying

Deprivation
 The absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation
                                            chapter 6




Sensory overload
   Over-stimulation of the senses

   Can use selective attention to reduce
    sensory overload

   Selective attention: the focusing of
    attention on selected aspects of the
    environment and the blocking out of
    others (cocktail party phenomenon)
                            chapter 6




What we see
Hue
 Color Names related to
  the wavelength of light
  (ROYGBIV)
Brightness
 Amount of light emitted
  from or reflected by an
  object
Saturation
 Complexity of light
  waves
                                                         chapter 6




The Parts of the Eye
Cornea - Protects eye and bends light toward lens

Iris - Controls amount of light into eye

Pupil - Opening through which light reaches the retina

Lens - Focuses on objects by changing shape

Retina - Area where light is focused onto

Blind Spot - Area of retina where there are no receptors
Parts of the Eye



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Blind Spot



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                                              chapter 6




Color Vision - Receptor Cells
Rods                      Cones
 Receptors that           Visual receptors
  respond to light &        involved in color
  dark                      vision
 120 million per eye      8 million per eye

 Used for Night vision    Best in daylight

                           Sharpness of vision
                           chapter 6




Trichromatic theory

   Eye detects 3
    primary colors
       Red, Blue, Green
   All other colors
    derived by
    combination
   Limits does not
    explain color
    blindness or after
    image
Trichromatic Spectrum




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                                                 chapter 6




Opponent-process theory
   Visual system treats pairs of colors as
    opposing
       Red-Green
       Yellow-Blue
       Black-White
   Only one side may fire at a time
   Why cannot see reddish-green or yellowish-
    blue colors
   Explains Afterimage and Colorblindness
Afterimage
   The firing of cone has unused energy
    after viewing something steadily

   Visual system wants to return to balance
       Fires in opposite color
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Color Blindness
   It is inherited 8% males & 0.5% females
   Monchromats - see only black & white
   Dichromats - typically red / green cannot
    be seen
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                                           chapter 6




Vision is not a camera
   Most processing is done in the brain
   Flips the image right side up
   Fills in holes from blind spot
   Influenced by one’s experiences &
    expectations
                                                           chapter 6


Gestalt Principles
   Brain’s organization of sensory building blocks into
    meaningful units and patterns.
   Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka
Gestalt Principles
Figure- Ground
 In any visual image, figures can be
  distinguished from the ground on which
  they appear
Gestalt Principles
Proximity
 Things close to one another are grouped
  together
                       chapter 6




Gestalt principles
Closure
 The brain tends
  to fill in gaps to
  perceive
  complete forms
Gestalt Principles
Continuity                     Similarity
Seeing continuity in lines      Things that are
that could be interpreted as     alike are
either continuous or             perceived
abruptly shifting in
direction.                       together
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Gestalt Principles
   Design 3 images in your journal
     Each one must use a Gestalt principle

        Figure-ground

        Proximity

        Closure

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                                                   chapter 6




Depth and distance
perception
Binocular cues
 Visual cues that require the use of both eyes

 Convergence

    Turning inward of the eyes, which occurs
     when they focus on a nearby object
 Retinal disparity

    The slight difference in lateral separation
     between two objects as seen by the right
     and left eyes
Binocular Vision


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Binocular Vision


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Visual Field



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                                            chapter 6




Depth and distance
perception
Monocular cues
 Visual cues that can be used by one eye
 Light & Shadow
 Interposition
 Motion Paralax
 Relative Size
 Relative Clarity
 Texture Gradient
 Linear Perspective
    Constancy - the accurate perception of objects
    as stable or unchanging despite appearances

   Shape Constancy
       Shapes don’t change



   Size Constancy
       Ability to retain the size of
        an object regardless of
        where it is located
    Constancy
   Color
     Ability to perceive an object as the same color
       regardless of the environment
   Brightness
     The brain causes rods and cones to
       compensate for changes in brightness
Location Constancy
   Ability to keep an object in the
    environment steady
   If we are in motion, the environment
    must be steady, if the environment is in
    motion, we must be steady
Perceptual Illusions
   Occurs because of misleading clues in the
    stimulus giving rise to false perceptions

            The Müller-Lyer illusion
Journal Activity
1) Draw 2 lines to split your paper into fourths
2) Look at the image below with your right eye.
    (close/cover the left)
3) In the upper half of the paper, draw what you see
    with your right eye (line up the center line of the
    picture with the one on your paper)
4) Repeat with the left eye and the bottom half of the
   paper.
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Audition
                                               chapter 6




What we hear
Loudness
 The dimension of auditory experience related
  to the intensity of a pressure wave (decibels)
Pitch
 The dimension of auditory experience related
  to the frequency of a pressure wave
Timbre
 The dimension of auditory experience related
  to the complexity of a pressure wave
Decibel Levels
   10 - just above audible
   60 - normal conversation
   70 - disrupt sleep
   120 - thunder / rock concert
   130 - threshold of pain
   180 - space shuttle launch
Pitch
   Different species and ages can hear
    different tones

   Kilohertz

   Mosquito Buzz
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   Different instruments/tones are more
    pleasing to different people
   Most pleasing chord is the 5th of any
    note
   Some chords are more pleasing, and so
    songs using them may become more
    popular
      4 Chords - The Axis of Awesome
   Don’t Stop Believin’ - Journey
   James Blunt – Beautiful
    Black Eyed Peas – Where is the love)
    Alphaville - Forever young
    Jason Mraz – I’m yours
    Mika - Happy ending
    Alex Lloyd - Amazing
    The Calling - Wherever you will go
    Elton John - Can You Feel The Love Tonight
    Maroon 5 - She Will Be Loved
4 Chords
John Denver - Take Me Home, Country Roads
Rakim – Stay A While
Lady Gaga – Paparazzi
U2 - With or Without You
Crowded House - Fall At Your Feet
Kasey Chambers - Am I Not Pretty Enough
The Beatles - Let it Be
Michael Jackson – Man in the Mirror
Red Hot Chili Peppers - Under The Bridge
Daryl Braithwaite - The horses
Bob Marley - No Woman No Cry
Marcy Playground - Sex and Candy
4 Chords
Men At Work - Land Down Under
"Banjo" Paterson - WALTZING MATILDA
Jack Johnson – Taylor
Spice Girls – 2 Become 1
A ha - Take on me
Green Day - When I Come Around
Eagle-Eye Cherry - Save Tonight
Toto - Africa
Beyonce - If I were a boy
The Offspring - Self Esteem
The Offspring - You’re gonna go far kid
Cranberries – Zombie
OneRepublic – Apologize
4 Chords
Lady Gaga - Poker face
Aqua - Barbie girl)
Pink - You and your hand
Tim Minchin - Canvas bags
MGMT - Kids
Andrea Bocelli - Time to say Goodbye
Auld Lang Syne
Five for fighting - Superman
Axis of awesome - Birdplane
Missy Higgins - Scar
                      chapter 6




An ear on the world
The Parts of the Ear
Outer Ear
 Catches sound waves

 Travels to eardrum

Middle Ear
 Eardrum causes hammer, anvil, &
  stirrup to vibrate
The Parts of the Ear
Inner Ear
 Stirrup is attached to cochlea passing
  along vibration
 Cochlea is snail shaped structure filled
  with fluid and cilia (tiny hair receptor
  cells)
    Study Guide
   Retina               -Sensory Deprivation
   Cornea               -Adaptation
   Iris
                         -Trichomatic System
   Pupil
   Blind spot           -Selective Attention
   Rods and cones       -Signal Detection Theory
   Afterimage
                         -Loudness
   Color blindness
   Absolute Threshold   -Pitch
   Just Noticeable      -Timbre
    Difference
                         -Binocular vs Monocular
                           chapter 6




Auditory localization
   Sounds from
    different directions
    are not identical as
    they arrive at left
    and right ears.
       Loudness
       Timing
       Phase
   The brain calculates
    a sound’s location
    by using these
    differences.
                                                 chapter 6




Gustation (taste)
Taste buds
 Collections of taste-receptor cells
 No buds on center of tongue
 5 tastes - salty, sour, bitter, sweet, umami
Tastes of Flavor
Different people have different tastes and/or
  flavor based on:
 Genetics

 Culture

 Learning

 Food attractiveness

 Texture

 Temperature
Tasters
   Supertasters

   Tasters

   Nontasters
To taste…
   Determine your 5 favorite foods and 5 least
    favorite foods
       Explain why you like each one

   Interview 1 family member and 1 friend and
    have them do the same

   Bring in an example of 1 of these foods
       Only if possible - you will not be graded on
        whether or not you bring anything in

       Should be a tiny taste of the food
New Tastes
   Using a spoon (if necessary) try a small
    sample of the foods present.

   On a half-sheet of paper, describe what
    you are tasting in terms of sour, bitter,
    sweet, umami and salty.
Tastes around the world
   Grab 1-3 partners and pick up one of the
    packets describing a different culture’s food.

1) Make a list of foods that were eaten
       Include beverages and spices

2) Would you eat any of these foods?

3) What American/modern foods are similar to
  the ones you read about?
Olfaction (smell)
                                                 chapter 6




Smell: the sense of scents
   Airborne chemical molecules enter the nose
    and move through the nasal cavity.
   Receptors on the roof of the nasal cavity
    detect these molecules.
The Sense of Scents
   We discriminate among odors, but
    familiar scents are hard to identify
    (adaptation)
   Women more acute sense of smell
   Anosmia
       Complete loss of ability to smell
Why Smell?
   The part of the brain that processes smells is
    actually right there where the emotions

       odors were important for the survival of the
        species
Smell and Culture
   Fashions in odor change with the times. In the 17th
    Century, say the authors, the best-loved perfumes
    were spices, resins and incense-like aromatics. They
    suspect that a lovely court lady, deliciously spiced for
    her time, might be rushed to the nearest exit by
    moderns. They also suggest that expensive modern
    perfumes (containing synthetics and animal sex lures)
    might have caused a similar reaction at the court of
    Louis XIV.

   Fashions in smell vary with geography, too. The
    authors point out that Chinese gourmets, rebuked for
    liking "rotten eggs," can point with horror to the "rotten
    milk" (cheese) that Westerners find so delicious.
Most Preferred Scents
Cutaneous (touch)
4 Ways to Respond
   Pressure/touch
   Warm
   Cold
   Pain
   All intensities can be influenced by
    personal expectations
                              chapter 6




Gate-control theory of pain

   Experience of pain
    depends in part on
    whether the pain
    gets past a
    neurological “gate”
    in the spinal cord.
Identifying Items
   Describe what you are feeling within each
    bag
       Texture
       Feeling on skin
       Soft/hard
       Rough/smooth
       Etc

   What points on the human body are the most
    sensitive?
                              chapter 6




Gate-control theory revised
   The brain is capable
    of generating pain
    even without signals
    from nerves.
   Phantom Limb
   Placebo Effect
                                         chapter 6




The environment within
Kinesthesis
 The sense of body position and
  movement of body parts
Equilibrium
 The sense of balance

 Inner ear contributes to equilibrium
                                     chapter 6




    Depth Perception: Visual cliff
   Visual illusion of a cliff
   Babies show
    increased attention
    over deep side at age
    2 months, but aren’t
    afraid until about the
    age they can crawl.
                                               chapter 6




Psychological & Cultural
Influences
   We are more likely to perceive something
    when we need it and disregard when we don’t
    (inattentional blindness)
   What we believe
   Emotions, such as fear
   Expectations based on previous experiences
   Perceptual set: a habitual way of perceiving,
    based on expectations
   All are influenced by culture.
                                         chapter 6




Subliminal Perception
   Notion we may respond to stimuli below
    our level of awareness
   2/3 of American believe it is used and
    works on some level
   Only prove in highly controlled labs
Subliminal Messages
   Humans can be “primed” to look for
    specific traits based upon what may
    have flashed across the screen

   Humans that are “shown” a face, will
    prefer it over one they have not seen
Unconscious Messages
   Hoax in the 1950’s at movie theaters
       EAT POPCORN
       DRINK COKE
            Would work best if subjects were reminded to be
             THIRSTY


   Tapes to play while sleeping

   Not always effective, the subjects must be
    primed in order for the effect to take place
       Therefore not useful in advertising
Hidden Messages
   Advertisers use their money’s worth in
    ads
       Some may place “hidden” messages within
        an image or commercial to influence the
        audience
The AIDS epidemic
continues to focus on the
the established risk groups.
Find the hidden image



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                                           chapter 6




Extrasensory perception (ESP)
   The ability to perceive something without
    ordinary sensory information
   Has not been scientifically demonstrated
   Clairvoyance
   Telepathy
   Precognition
   Psycho kinesis
Testing…
   Psychic Tests

   Read Your Mind

   20 questions
Seeing is Believing
   We can convince ourselves that we we
    have seen is true
       Based on sensation rather than truth
       Eg: UFOs

   Things that scare us
Study Guide
   Gustation
      Taste buds
      5 flavors
      What affects taste/flavor
      Super/non tasters
   Olfaction
      Closest to emotions
   Cutaneous
      4 responses
      Gate-control theory and Phantom Limb
   Kinethesis and Equilibrium
   Subliminal Messaging and Perception
   ESP

				
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