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ORACLE 10G-A GRID DATABASE

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					ORACLE 10G-A GRID DATABASE


                       A Technical Report
                 Submitted in partial fulfillment of
                    the requirements for the
                Degree of Bachelor of Engineering
                  Under Berhampur University




                                By

SANDIP SARKAR                                      Roll # EI200210344




                      September - 2005


                Under the guidance of


             Mrs. SANGHAMITRA PATRI




  NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGY
    Palur Hills, Berhampur, Orissa - 761 008, India
ABSTRACT

Grid computing is poised to drastically change the economics of computing. Grid
computing can dramatically lower the cost of computing, extend the availability of
computing resources, increase productivity, and improve quality. The basic idea of grid
computing is the notion of computing as a utility, analogous to the electric power grid or
the telephone network. As a client of the grid, you do not care where your data is or
where your computation is done. You want to have your computation done and to have
your information delivered to you when you want it. From the server-side, the grid is
about virtualization and provisioning. You pool all your resources together and provision
these resources dynamically based on the needs of your business; thus achieving better
resource utilization at the same time. This paper describes the fundamental attributes of a
grid, and the trends in the IT industry that are moving enterprises towards grid
computing. It then examines the functionality available in Oracle Database 10g that
leverages these trends, and makes grid computing a reality, today.




                                             i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It feels nice to have got this opportunity to give vent the unbridled feelings of
gratitude imprisoned in the core of my heart.


It is my proud privilege to epitomize my deepest sense of gratitude and indebtedness
to my guide, Mrs. SANGHAMITRA PATRI for her valuable guidance, keen and
sustained interest, intuitive ideas and persistent endeavor. His inspiring assistance,
laconic reciprocation and affectionate care enabled me to complete my work smoothly
and successfully.


I acknowledge with immense pleasure the sustained interest, encouraging attitude and
constant inspiration rendered by Mr. Sangram Mudali, Director, NIST. His
continued drive for better quality in everything that happens at NIST and selfless
inspiration has always helped us to move ahead.



At the nib but not neap tide, I bow my head in gratitude at the omnipresent Almighty
for all his kindness. I still seek His blessings to proceed further.




                                                                       SANDIP SARKAR

                                                                       Roll # EI200210344




                                             ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS


ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ..............................................................................................iii

1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1
2. DATABASES AND THE GRID ............................................................................... 3
   2.1 GRID TERMINOLOGY ..................................................................................... 5
   2.2 GRID DATABASES----THE CURRENT STATE ............................................. 5
   2.3 INTEGRATING DATABASES INTO THE GRID ............................................ 7
   2.4 FEDERATING DATABASE SYSTEMS ACROSS THE GRID ..................... 10
3. VISION OF GRID COMPUTING .......................................................................... 16
   3.1 ENTERPRISE GRIDS ....................................................................................... 16
   3.2 GRID COMPUTING ATTRIBUTES................................................................ 18
   3.3 FIVE GENERATIONS OF DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING............................ 20
   3.4OPEN GRID STANDARDS .............................................................................. 21
4. ORACLE DATABASE 10g .................................................................................... 22
5. CONFIGURING AND INSTALLING ORACLE DATABASE 10g ON
STANDARDS- BASED COMPONENTS .................................................................. 29
6. OPERATIONAL BENEFITS .................................................................................. 31
7. POSITIONING FOR THE FUTURE ...................................................................... 34
8. CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................ 36
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 37




                                                              iii
1. INTRODUCTION

Every organization around the world struggles with the very high cost of its
information technology infrastructure. These very high costs arise from three primary
factors:
          Excess Computing Capacity: that is poorly utilized due to the need to build
           capacity for peaks, and the inability to use the spare capacity efficiently.
          Expensive Capacity Growth: due to the inability to add capacity quickly,
           when needed, and in low cost, modular units.
          High Management Costs: due to the complexity of systems; the
specialized management tools, procedures, and skills required; and the large amounts
of human intervention needed to manage systems.


Grid computing is a new software architecture designed to effectively pool together
large amounts of low cost modular storage and servers to create a virtual computing
resource across which work can be transparently distributed. Grid computing enables
computing capacity to be used very efficiently, at low cost, and with very high
availability. The resources in a grid can include storage, servers, database servers,
application servers, and applications. By pooling resources together, grid computing
can offer dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to these resources
regardless of their location and when needed. Grid computing thereby provides the
best solution to the need for computing and software capacity on-demand. While grid
computing has hitherto been primarily used by the scientific community to solve very
specialized problems, the rapid evolution of cost-effective networked storage; high
speed, high density blade servers; high speed network Interconnects; and low cost
operating systems coupled with the advances in systems software (Database Servers
and Application Servers) to exploit these advances have now made it possible for
enterprises to exploit grid computing. Recognizing the fundamental benefits grid
computing offers enterprises, Oracle offers organizations a comprehensive solution to
manage information and run enterprise applications on grids. Oracle Database 10g has
been designed to manage information on computing grids called database grids.
Oracle Application Server 10g (Oracle AS 10g) has been designed to run enterprise
applications on computing grids called application server grids. Both Oracle Database

                                            1
10g and Oracle Application Server 10g can be very efficiently managed in a grid
computing environment using Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control. Together
these products address the information technology challenges that organizations face
like:   Eliminating Excess Computing Capacity(Through automatic workload
management that distributes workloads to use spare computing capacity
efficiently), Enabling Modular, Inexpensive Capacity Growth (Through rapid and
efficient software provisioning that enables computing capacity to be added on
demand in low cost modular units) and          Radically Lowering Management Cost
(Through self-managing systems that reduce the need for costly, error-prone human
intervention; and through automated software provisioning and management across
many systems).


Oracle Database 10g is proven to be the fastest database for transaction processing,
data warehousing, and third-party applications on servers of all sizes. And it’s proven
to securely protect data and ensure data access 24x7, reducing the risk of data loss and
system downtime, while keeping the cost of computing down.




                                           2
2. DATABASES AND THE GRID
Let us examine how databases can be integrated into the Grid. Almost all early Grid
applications are file-based, and so, to date, there has been relatively little effort
applied to integrating databases into the Grid. However, if the Grid is to support a
wider range of applications, both scientific and otherwise, then database integration
into the Grid will become important. For example many applications in the life and
earth sciences, and many business applications are heavily dependent on databases.
First let us consider how databases can be integrated into the Grid so that applications
can access data from them. It is not possible to achieve this just by adopting or
adapting the existing Grid components that handle files, as databases offer a much
richer set of operations (for example queries and transactions), and there is much
greater heterogeneity between different database management systems than there is
between different file systems. Not only are there major differences between database
paradigms (e.g. object and relational), but even within one paradigm different
database products (e.g. Oracle and DB2) vary in their functionality and interfaces.
This diversity makes it more difficult to design a single solution for integrating
databases into the Grid, but the alternative of requiring every database to be integrated
into the Grid in a bespoke fashion would result in much wasted effort. Managing the
tension between the desire to support the full functionality of different database
paradigms, while also trying to produce common solutions to reduce effort, is key to
designing ways of integrating databases into the Grid.

The diversity of database systems also has other important implications. One of the
main hopes for the Grid is that it will encourage the publication of scientific data in a
more open manner than is currently the case. If this occurs then it is likely that some
of the greatest advances will be made by combining data from separate, distributed
sources to produce new results. The data that applications wish to combine will have
been created by a set of different researchers who will often have made local,
independent decisions about the best database paradigm and design for their data.
This heterogeneity presents problems when data is to be combined. If each application
has to include its own, bespoke solutions to federating information then similar
solutions will be re-invented in different applications, and effort wasted. Therefore, it


                                           3
is important to provide generic middleware support for federating Grid-enabled
databases.

Yet another level of heterogeneity needs to be considered. There is also the need to
build applications that also access and federate other forms of data. For example,
semi-structured data (e.g. XML), and relatively unstructured data (e.g. scientific
papers), are valuable sources of information in many fields. Further, this type of data
will often be held in files, rather than a database. Therefore, in some applications
there will be a requirement to federate these types of data with structured data from
databases. There are therefore two main dimensions of complexity in the problem of
integrating databases into the Grid: implementation differences between server
products within a database paradigm, and the variety of database paradigms. The
requirement for database federation effectively creates a problem space whose
complexity is abstractly the product of these two dimensions. Unsurprisingly, existing
database management systems do not currently support Grid integration. They are
however the result of many hundreds of person-years of effort that allows them to
provide a wide range of functionality, valuable programming interfaces and tools, and
important properties such as security, performance and dependability. As these
attributes will be required by Grid applications, we strongly believe that building new
Grid-enabled database management systems from scratch is both unrealistic and a
waste of effort. Instead we must consider how to integrate existing database
management systems into the Grid. As is described later, this approach does have its
limitations, as there are some desirable attributes of Grid-enabled databases that
cannot be added in this way and need to be integrated in the underlying database
management system itself. However, these are not so important as to invalidate the
basic approach of building on existing technology.

The danger with this approach comes if a purely short-term view is taken. If we
restrict ourselves to considering only how existing databases servers can be integrated
with existing Grid middleware then we may loose sight of longer-term opportunities
for more powerful connectivity. Therefore, we have tried to identify both the
limitations of what can be achieved in the short-term solely by integrating existing
components and cases where developments to the Grid middleware and database
server components themselves will produce longer-term benefits. An important aspect

                                          4
of this will occur naturally if the Grid becomes commercially important, as the
database vendors will then wish to provide ―out-of-the-box‖ support for Grid
integration, by supporting the emerging Grid standards. Similarly, it is vital that those
designing standards for Grid middleware take into account the requirements for
database integration. Together, these converging developments would reduce the
amount of ―glue‖ code required to integrate databases into the Grid.



2.1 GRID TERMINOLOGY

In this section we briefly introduce the terminology that will be used:

A database is a collection of related data. A database management system (DBMS) is
responsible for the storage and management of one or more databases. Examples of
DBMS are Oracle 9i, DB2, Objectivity and MySQL. A DBMS will support a
particular database paradigm, for example relational, object-relational or object. A
Database System (DBS) is created, using a DBMS, to manage a specific database.
The DBS includes any associated application software.

Many Grid applications will need to utilise more than one DBS. An application can
access a set of DBS individually, but the consequence is that any integration that is
required (e.g. of query results or transactions) must be implemented in the application.
To reduce the effort required to achieve this, federated databases use a layer of
middleware running on top of autonomous databases, to present applications with
some degree of integration. This can include integration of schemas and query
capability. DBS and DBMS offer a set of services that are used to manage and access
the data. These include query and transaction services. A service provides a set of
related operations.

2.2 GRID DATABASES----THE CURRENT STATE

In this section we consider how the current Grid middleware supports database
integration. We consider Globus, the leading Grid middleware before looking at
previous work on databases in Grids. The dominant middleware used for building
computational grids is Globus, which provides a set of services covering grid
information, resource management and data management. Information Services allow
                                           5
owners to register their resources in a directory, and provide, in the Monitoring and
Discovery Service (MDS) mechanisms through which they can be dynamically
discovered by applications looking for suitable resources on which to execute. From
MDS, applications can determine the configuration, operational status and loading of
both computers and networks. Another service, the Globus Resource Allocation
Manager (GRAM) accepts requests to run applications on resources, and manages the
process of moving the application to the remote resource, scheduling it and providing
the user with a job control interface.

An orthogonal component that runs through all Globus services is the Grid Security
Infrastructure (GSI). This addresses the need for secure authentication and
communications over open networks. An important feature is the provision of ―single-
sign on‖ access to computational and data resources.

The latest version of Globus (2.0) offers a core set of services (called the Globus Data
Grid) for file access and management. There is no direct support for database
integration and the emphasis is instead on the support for very large files, such as
those that might be used to hold huge datasets resulting from scientific experiments.
GridFTP is a version of FTP optimised for transferring files efficiently over high-
bandwidth wide area networks and it is integrated with the Grid Security
Infrastructure. There have been recent moves in the Grid community to adopt Web
Services as the basis for Grid middleware, through the definition of the Open Grid
Services Architecture (OGSA). This will allow the Grid community to exploit the
high levels of investment in Web Service tools and components being developed for
commercial computing. The move also reflects the fact that there is a great deal of
overlap between the Grid vision of supporting scientific computing by sharing
resources, and the commercial vision of enabling Virtual Organisations - companies
combining information, resources and processes to build new distributed applications.
Despite lacking direct support for database integration, Globus does have services that
can assist in achieving this. The Grid Security Infrastructure could be used as the
basis of a system that provides a single sign-on capability, removing the need to
individually connect to each database with a separate username and password.
However, mechanisms for connecting a user or application to the database in a
particular role, and for delegating restricted access rights are required but are not

                                           6
currently directly supported by GSI. A recent development - the Community
Authorisation Service - does offer restricted delegation, and so may offer a way
forward. Other Globus components could also be harnessed in order to support other
aspects of database integration into the Grid. For example, GridFTP could be used
both for bulk database loading and, where efficient, for the bulk transfer of query
results from a DBS to another component of an application. The MDS and GRAM
services can be used to locate and run database federation middleware on appropriate
computational resources. In the longer term, the move towards an OGSA service-
based architecture for Globus is in line with the proposed framework for integrating
databases into the Grid.



2.3 INTEGRATING DATABASES INTO THE GRID

In this section we describe a framework for integrating databases into Grid
applications and identify the main functionality. The proposed framework is service-
based. The Figure 1 shows the service-based framework, with a service wrapper
placed between the Grid and the DBS (we deliberately refer to DBS here rather than
DBMS, as the owner of the database can choose which services to make available on
the Grid, and who is allowed to access them). Initially, the service wrappers will have
to be custom produced, but, in the future, if the commercial importance of the Grid
increases, and standards are defined, then it is to be hoped that DBMS vendors will
offer Grid-enabled service interfaces as an integral part of their products. We now
discuss each of the services shown in Figure 1: Metadata:


This service provides access to technical metadata about the DBS and the set of
services that it offers to Grid applications. Examples include the logical and physical
name of the DBS and its contents, ownership, version numbers, the database schema
and information on how the data can be accessed. The service description metadata
would, for each service, describe exactly what functionality is offered. This would be
used by Grid application builders, and tools that need to know how to interface to the
DBS. It is particularly important for applications that are dynamically constructed –
the two-step access to data means that the databases that are to take part in an
application are now

                                          7
Known until some preliminary processing of metadata has taken place. Each run of
such applications may result in the need to access a different set of databases, and so
mechanisms are required to dynamically construct interfaces to those DBS – if they
are not all able to offer completely standard interfaces, then the metadata can be
accessed to determine their functionality and interfaces, so that they can be
dynamically incorporated into the application.

Query: Query languages differ across different DBMS, though the core of SQL is
standard across most relational DBMS. It is therefore important that the service
metadata defines the type and level of query language that is supported. To provide
input to scheduling decisions, and enable the efficient planning of distributed Grid
applications, an operation that provides an estimate of the cost of executing a query is
highly desirable. As described in the requirements section, the query service should
also be able to exploit a variety of communications mechanisms in order to transfer
results over the Grid, including streaming (with associated flow control) and transfer
as a single block of data. Finally, it is important that the results of a query can be
delivered to an arbitrary destination, rather than just to the sender of the query. This
allows the creation of distributed systems with complex communications structures,
rather than just simple client-server request-response.

Transaction: These operations would support transactions involving only a single DBS
and also allow a DBS to participate in application-wide distributed transactions, where
                                           8
the DBS supports it. There are a variety of types of transactions that are supported by
DBMS (for example, some but not all support nested transactions), and so a degree of
heterogeneity between DBS is inevitable. In the longer term, there may also be a need for
loosely co-ordinated, long-running transactions between multiple enterprises, and so
support for alternative protocols (e.g. the Business Transaction Protocol - BTP may
become important. Given the variety of support that could be offered by a transaction
service, the service-description metadata must make clear what is available at this DBS.

Bulk Loading: Support for the bulk loading of data over the Grid into the database
will be important in some systems. For large amounts of data, the service should be
able to exploit Grid communication protocols that are optimised for the transfer of
large datasets (e.g. GridFTP).


Notification: This would allow clients to register some interest in a set of data, and
receive a message when a change occurred. Supporting this function requires both a
mechanism that allows the client to specify exactly what it is interested in (e.g.
additions, updates, deletions, perhaps further filtered by a query) and a method for
notifying the client of a change.


Scheduling: This would allow users to schedule the use of the DBS. It should support
the emerging Grid scheduling service, for example allowing a DBS and a
supercomputer to be co-scheduled, so that large datasets retrieved from the DBS can
be processed by the supercomputer. Bandwidth on the network connecting them
might also need to be pre-allocated. As providing exclusive access to a DBS is
impractical, mechanisms are needed to dedicate sufficient resources (disks, CPUs,
memory, network) to a particular task. This requires the DBS to provide resource pre-
allocation and management, something that is not well supported by existing DBMS,
and cannot be implemented by wrapping the DBMS and controlling the resources at
the operating system level. This is because DBMS, like most efficiently designed
servers, run as a set of processes that are shared among all the users, and the
management of sharing is not visible or controllable at the operating system process
level.




                                            9
Accounting: The DBS must be able to provide the necessary information for whatever
accounting and payment scheme emerges for the Grid. This service would monitor
performance against agreed service levels, and enable users to be charged for resource
usage. The data collected would also provide valuable input for application capacity
planning, and for optimising the usage of Grid resources. As with scheduling, as a
DBS is a shared server it is important that accounting is done in terms of the
individual users (or groups) use of the DBS, and not just aggregated across all users.


2.4 FEDERATING DATABASE SYSTEMS ACROSS THE GRID

Last Section stressed the importance of being able to combine data from multiple
DBS. The ability to generate new results by combining data from a set of distributed
resources is one of the most exciting opportunities that the Grid will offer. In this
section we consider how the service-based framework can help to achieve this.

One option is for a Grid application to interface directly to the service interfaces of
each of the set of DBS whose data it wishes to access. This approach is illustrated in
Figure 2. However, this forces application writers to solve federation problems within
the application itself. This would lead to great application complexity, and duplication
of effort.




                                          10
To overcome these problems we propose an alternative, in which Grid-enabled
middleware is used to produce a single, federated ―virtual database system‖ to which
the application interfaces. Given the service-based approach proposed, federating a set
of DBS reduces to federating each of the individual services (query, transaction etc.).
This creates a Virtual DBS, which has exactly the same service interface as the DBS
described in the previous section but does not actually store any data (advanced
versions could however be designed to cache data in order to increase performance).
Instead, calls made to the Virtual DBS services are handled by service federation
middleware that interacts with the service interfaces of the individual DBS that are
being federated, in order to compute the result of the service call. This approach is
shown in Figure 3. Because the Virtual DBS has an identical service interface to the
―real‖ DBS, then it is possible for a Virtual DBS to federate the services of both
―real‖ DBS, and other Virtual DBS.

Two different scenarios can be envisaged for the creation of a Virtual DBS:

1) A user decides to create a Virtual DBS that combines data and services from a
specific set of DBS that they wish to work with. These may, for example, be well
known as the standard authorities in their field.

2) A user wishes to find and work with data on a subject of their interest, but they do not
know where it is located. A Metadata query would be used to locate appropriate datasets.
These would then be federated to create a Virtual DBS that could then be queried. At the
end of the work session, the Virtual DBS could be saved for future use.

How can the Virtual DBS be created? The ideal situation would be for a tool to take a
set of DBS and automatically create the Virtual DBS. At the other end of the scale, a
set of bespoke programs could be written to implement each service of the Virtual
DBS. Obviously, the former is preferable, especially if we wish to dynamically create
Virtual DBS as in the second scenario above. Bearing this in mind, we now consider
the issues in federating services.

The service-based approach proposed assists in the process of federating services, by
encouraging standardisation. However, it will not be possible to fully standardise all
services, and it is the resulting heterogeneity that causes problems. A tool could

                                            11
attempt to create a Virtual DBS automatically as follows. For each service, the tool
would query the metadata service of each of the DBS being federated in order to
determine their functionality and interface. Knowing the integration middleware that
was available for the service, and the requirements that this middleware had for the
underlying services, the tool would determine the options for federation. If there were
more than one option then one would be selected (possibly taking into account
application or user preferences). If no options were available then the application or
user would be informed that no integration of this service was possible. In this case,
the user would either not be able to use the service, or would need to write new
federation middleware to effect the integration, if that were possible.

Integrating each of the services proposed raises specific issues that are now described:
Query: Ideally this would present to the user a single integrated schema for the virtual
DBS, and accept queries against it. A compiler and optimiser would determine how to
split up the query across the set of DBS, and then combine the results of these sub-
queries. The major relational DBMS products already offer ―Star‖ tools that
implement distributed query middleware. Grid applications do however introduce new
requirements, in particular the need for conformance with Grid standards, and the
ability to query across dynamically changing sets of databases. The service-based
approach to Grid-enabling databases simplifies the design of federation middleware as
it promotes the standardisation of interfaces, but, as was stated in the requirements
section, it does not address the higher-level problem of the semantic integration of
multiple databases, which has been the subject of much attention over the past
decades. The nature of the Grid does however offer some interesting new
opportunities for distributed query processing. Once a query has been compiled, Grid
resources could be acquired on demand for running the distributed query execution
middleware. The choice of resources could be made on the basis of the response time,
and price requirements of the user. For example, if a join operator was the bottleneck
in a query, and performance was important, then multiple compute nodes could be
acquired and utilised to run that part of the query in parallel. If the user was charged
for time on the compute nodes, then a trade-off between price and performance would
need to be made. Further, because query optimisers can only estimate the cost of a
query before it is run, queries sometimes take much longer than expected, perhaps
because a filter or join in the middle of a query has produced more data than expected.
                                           12
An option here for Grid-based distributed query execution is to monitor the
performance at run-time and acquire more resources dynamically in order to meet the
performance requirements of the user.

Transaction: The basic transaction service described already supports the creation of
distributed transactions across multiple databases.
Bulk Loading: This could be implemented by middleware that takes a load file, splits
it into separate files for each DBS and uses the bulk load service of each individual
DBMS to carry out the loading.




Notification: A client would register an interest in the virtual DBS. Middleware
would manage the distribution of the notification operations: registration, filtering and
notification, across the DBS. This should ideally be done using a generic Grid-
enabled event service so that a database specific federation solution is not required.

                                           13
Metadata: This would be a combination of the metadata services of the federated
databases, and would describe the set of services offered by the Virtual DBS. At the
semantic, data-description level (e.g. providing a unified view of the combined
schema) the problems are as described above for the query service.

Scheduling: This would provide a common scheduling interface for the virtual DBS.
When generic, distributed scheduling middleware is available for the Grid, the
implementation of a federated service should be relatively straightforward.

Accounting: This would provide a combined accounting service for the whole virtual
DBS. As a Grid accounting service will have to support distributed components, the
implementation of this service should be straightforward once that Grid accounting
middleware is available.

As has been seen, the complexity of the service federation middleware will vary from
service to service, and will, in general, increase as the degree of heterogeneity of the
services being federated increases. However, we believe that the service-based
approach to federating services provides a framework for the incremental
development of a suite of federation middleware, by more than one supplier. Initially,
it would be sensible to focus on the most commonly required forms of service
federation. One obvious candidate is query integration across relational DBMS.
However, over time, applications would discover the need for other types of
federation. When this occurs, then the aim is that the solution would be embodied in
service federation middleware that fits into the proposed framework described above,
rather than it being buried in the application specific code. The former approach has
the distinct advantage of allowing the federation software to be re-used by other Grid
applications. Each integration middleware component could be registered in a
catalogue that would be consulted by tools attempting to integrate database services.
The process of writing integration components would also be simplified by each
taking a set of standard service interfaces as ―inputs‖ and presenting a single, standard
federated service as ―output‖. This also means that layers of federation can be created,
with virtual databases taking other virtual databases as inputs.

To conclude, we believe that if the Grid is to become a generic platform, able to
support a wide range of scientific and commercial applications, then the ability to
                                           14
publish and access databases on the Grid will be of great importance. Consequently, it
is vitally important that, at this early stage in the Grid’s development, database
requirements are taken into account when Grid standards are defined, and middleware
is designed. In the short term, integrating databases into Grid applications will involve
wrapping existing DBMS in a Grid-enabled service interface. However, if the Grid
becomes a commercial success then it is to be hoped that the DBMS vendors will
Grid-enable their own products by adopting emerging Grid standards.




                                           15
3. VISION OF GRID COMPUTING

The central idea of grid computing is that computing should be as reliable, pervasive,
and transparent as a utility. It shouldn’t matter where your data or application resides,
or what computer processes your request. You should be able to request information
or computation and have it delivered – as much as you want, whenever you want.
This is analogous to the way electric utilities work in that you don’t know where the
generator is or how the electric grid is wired. You just ask for electricity and you get
it. The goal is to make computing a utility – a ubiquitous commodity. Hence, it has
the name, ―grid.‖ Grid computing was conceived in the academic and research
communities. Much like internet computing, which grew from the communication
needs of dispersed scientific researchers, grid computing originated from the needs of
the scientific community’s needs to:


1. Create a dynamic computing environment for sharing resources and results
2. Scale to accommodate petabytes of data, and teraflops of computing power
3. And keep costs down


3.1 ENTERPRISE GRIDS

SETI@home, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, is one of the earliest
examples of a scientific grid. Signals from telescopes, radio receivers, and other
sources monitoring deep space are distributed to the PCs of individual science buffs
via the internet. This loose network of small computers crunches numbers, looking for
patterns that could suggest signs of intelligent life. Although the idea of harnessing
idle computers across the internet is intellectually interesting, businesses will never
want their data or their computing distributed to random computers. But, just as
businesses have brought the concepts of the public internet in-house to make
intranets, enterprises can bring the concepts of the scientific grids in-house to make
enterprise grids. With both public grids and enterprise grids, grid computing is about
harnessing the work of many of small computers. The need for low-cost computing
drove the SETI@home innovation. The primary benefit of grid computing to
businesses is achieving high quality of service and flexibility at lower cost. Enterprise
grid computing lowers costs by:
                                           16
1. Increasing hardware utilization and resource sharing
2. Enabling companies to scale out incrementally with low-cost components
3. Reducing management and administration requirements


Enterprise grid computing builds a critical software infrastructure that can run on
large numbers of small, networked computers, by combining two related concepts:
Implement One from Many:         Grid computing coordinates the use of clusters of
machines to create a single logical entity, such as a database or an application server.
By distributing work across many servers, grid computing exhibits benefits of
availability, scalability, and performance uses low-cost components. Because a single
logical entity is implemented across many machines, companies can add or remove
capacity in small increments, online. With the capability to add capacity on demand to
a particular function, companies get more flexibility for adapting to peak loads, thus
achieving better hardware utilization and better business responsiveness. Manage
Many as One: Grid computing allows you to manage and administer groups of
machines, groups of database instances, and groups of application servers at low-cost.
Grid computing first removes many of the administrative costs of managing a single
system by making each database and each application server adaptive to changing
circumstances. Then, the model makes managing many systems simple, by allowing
them to be managed as a single logical entity. Much of what makes grid computing
possible today are the innovations in hardware. For example,


1. Processors. New low-cost, high volume Intel Itanium 2, Sun SPARC, and IBM
PowerPC 64-bit processors now deliver performance equal to or better than exotic
processors used in high-end SMP servers.
2. Blade Servers. Blade server technology reduces the cost of hardware and increases
the density of servers, which further reduces expensive data centre real estate
requirements.
3. Networked Storage. Disk storage costs continue to plummet even faster than
processor costs. Network storage technologies such as Network Attached Storage
(NAS) and Storage Area Networks (SANs) further reduce these costs by enabling
sharing of storage across systems.
4. Network Interconnects. Gigabit Ethernet and Infiniband interconnect technologies
are driving down the cost of connecting servers into clusters.
                                           17
Although the newness of grid computing comes primarily from hardware, the power
of the grid infrastructure must be embodied in software. The capability of a database,
for example, to store and retrieve data through an abstract interface without knowing
much about the underlying location or structure of that data requires software
intelligence. The capability of an application server to begin distributing work to
newly added blade servers without going offline can only be accomplished with
software. By providing software to leverage and control new grid hardware, Oracle
supplies the grid infrastructure, and powers enterprise grids.


3.2 GRID COMPUTING ATTRIBUTES

The requirements for grid computing infrastructure can be described by the following
attributes:
1. Virtualization at every layer of the computing stack
2. Provisioning of work and resources based on policies and dynamic requirements
3. Pooling of resources to increase utilization
4. Self-adaptive software that largely tunes and fixes itself
5. Unified management and provisioning


Virtualization at Every Layer:
Virtualization is the abstraction into a service of every physical and logical entity in a
grid. Virtualization is important because it enables grid components (such as storage,
processors, databases, application servers, and applications) to integrate tightly
without creating rigidity and brittleness in the system. Rather than making fixed ties
that determine which application server node will handle requests from a particular
application, for example, or where a database physically locates its data, virtualization
enables each component of the grid to react to changing circumstances more quickly
and to adapt to component failures without compromising performance of the system
as a whole.


Dynamic Provisioning:
Provisioning simply means distributing supplies where they are needed. In the context
of the grid, ―supplies‖ may mean server requests that need to be handled, data that
needs to be accessed and used, or computations that need to be performed.
                                            18
Provisioning in the grid environment means a grid service broker that knows the
resource requirements of one element of the grid and the resource availability of
another element links the two together automatically and dynamically to make
efficient use of resources. Then it adjusts the associations as circumstances change.
Policies, such as response time thresholds or anticipated peak demands, can be used to
further optimize the associations of resource-requestors to resource providers.


Resource Pooling:
Consolidation and pooling of resources is required for grids to achieve better
utilization of resources, a key contributor to lower costs. By pooling individual disks
into storage arrays and individual servers into blade farms, the grid runtime processes
that dynamically couple service consumers to service providers have more flexibility
to optimize the associations. Resource sharing also happens purely in software. Web
services provide the model for applications to expose re-usable functionality for
discovery and invocation by unrelated applications.


Self-Adaptive Software:
With labour being the most significant portion of IT costs, savings due to better
hardware utilization or more responsive systems become irrelevant if the everyday
tasks of administrators are not automated and simplified. A grid infrastructure would
be unworkable if every node required constant manual tuning and intervention. A
critical grid infrastructure requirement is systems that automate the bulk of
maintenance and tuning tasks traditionally performed by IT staff. More of the tasks
that used to be performed by administrators must now be handled by the systems
themselves.


Unified Management:
Even with self-managing systems, human beings will always be involved in managing
an enterprise grid, but the management tasks required by humans should be simplified
with a single tool that can provision, monitor, and administer every element in the
grid. Such a tool should evaluate availability and performance from the perspective of
the user, such that any bottleneck in the system or any unavailable component raises
alerts. Most importantly, with a grid infrastructure, IT professionals must be able to

                                          19
treat groups of systems as a single logical entity so that tasks can be performed once
and executed on multiple machines.


Implement One from Many:          Together, the attributes of virtualization, dynamic
provisioning, and resource pooling form the requirements for software that
implements a single logical entity using many services running on multiple servers
and crossing multiple disks—an entity which delivers high quality of service from
low-cost components. Manage Many as One: Together, the attributes of self-adaptive
software and a unified management model form the requirements for dramatically
lowering management costs by viewing the entire enterprise grid as one simple whole.


3.3 FIVE GENERATIONS OF DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING

Grid Computing is merely the newest generation of distributed computing. The given
Table lists them. The industry is clearly entering the fifth generation now.


                   FIVE GENERATIONS OF GRID COMPUTING




Grid Computing is the result of several trends coming together. Some of these are the
following:
1. New standards for object-to-object communications making it easier to build
Multivendor, multiapplication networks.
2. High-performance microprocessors have become available, making it possible to
deploy large applications on a number of low-cost systems rather than a single mid-
range system.

                                           20
3. High-speed networking technology is becoming both less costly and readily
available, offering higher levels of performance when deploying distributed
application architectures.


As these trends combine, applications are likely to be segmented by function or
instance of a function. This approach will allow each function to be hosted on the
most cost-effective platform. In some cases, both types of segmentation will be used.
In the end, an organization’s systems can be considered a pool of shared resources
that adapt automatically to changing conditions and failures based upon rules of the
Organization’s choosing.


3.4OPEN GRID STANDARDS

With Oracle 10g, companies can begin implementing grid computing today, but the
open standards that will make grid computing as pervasive as the internet are still
under development, primarily by the Global Grid Forum (GGF). Oracle is a GGF
sponsor and participates in working groups, chairing the Data Access and Integration
(DAI) group. The Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) is a specification in
active development within the GGF to define the general services-based approach to
grid computing. Other working groups, such as Open Grid Services Infrastructure
(OGSI) and OGSA-DAI, endeavour to define the common interfaces and protocols
for various grid services. Oracle plans to actively support all grid-related open
standards as they emerge.




                                         21
4. ORACLE DATABASE 10g

Oracle 10g provides the first complete, integrated software infrastructure to power
grid   computing.    Oracle    10g   takes        the   fundamental   attributes   of   grid
computing…Implement One from Many, Virtualization at every layer, Dynamic
provisioning, Resource pooling.


Manage Many as One, Self-adaptive software, unified management…and implements
them throughout every element of the grid: storage, databases, application servers,
and applications. The diagram visually depicts the way Oracle 10g products and
features map to grid computing requirements.




The following sections describe how grid computing attributes are embodied in
Oracle’s three grid infrastructure products:
Oracle Database 10g
Oracle Application Server 10g
Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control



                                             22
Oracle Database 10g:
Oracle Database 10g builds on the success of Oracle9i Database, and adds many new
grid-specific capabilities. Other vendors implement certain portions of a grid
infrastructure, for example pools of virtualized storage are becoming common, but no
one else can provide a true grid database. Oracle Database 10g is based on Real
Application Clusters, introduced in Oracle9i. There are more than 500 production
customers running Oracle’s clustering technology, helping to prove the validity of
Oracle’s grid infrastructure.

Real Application Clusters: Oracle Real Application Clusters enables a single
database to run across multiple clustered nodes in a grid, pooling the processing
resources of several standard machines. Oracle is uniquely flexible in its ability to
provision workload across machines because it is the only database technology that
does not require data to be partitioned and distributed along with the work.
In Oracle 10g, the database can immediately begin balancing workload across a new
node with new processing capacity as it gets re-provisioned from one database to
another, and can relinquish a machine when it is no longer needed— this is capacity
on demand. Other databases cannot grow and shrink while running and, therefore,
cannot utilize hardware as efficiently. New integrated cluster ware in Oracle 10g
makes clustering easy by eliminating the need to purchase, install, configure, and
support third-party cluster ware. Servers can be easily added and dropped to an Oracle
cluster with no downtime. Oracle has the only database technology to include cluster
ware for all operating systems, which dramatically reduces the opportunities for
failure in a clustered environment.


Automatic Storage Management: Automatic Storage Management simplifies
storage management for Oracle Databases. By abstracting the details of storage
management, Oracle improves data access performance through sophisticated data
provisioning, without requiring additional work from DBAs. Instead of managing
many database files, Oracle DBAs manage only a small number of disk groups. A
disk group is a set of disk devices that Oracle manages as a single, logical unit. An
administrator can define a particular disk group as the default disk group for a
database, and Oracle automatically allocates storage for and creates or deletes the files
associated with the database object. Automatic Storage Management also offers the
                                           23
benefits of storage technologies such as RAID or Logical Volume Managers (LVMs).
Oracle can balance I/O from multiple databases across all of the devices in a disk
group, and it implements striping and mirroring to improve I/O performance and data
reliability. In addition, Oracle can reassign disks from node to node and cluster to
cluster, automatically reconfiguring the group. Because Automatic Storage
Management is written to work exclusively with Oracle, it achieves better
performance than generalized storage virtualization solutions.


Information Provisioning : In addition to the provisioning of work across multiple
nodes and the provisioning of data across multiple disks, another type of provisioning
happens within Oracle Database 10g — the provisioning of information itself.
Depending on the volume of information and the frequency of access, it may be
necessary to move data from where it currently resides or to share data across multiple
databases. Oracle 10g includes various facilities to provide access to information
when and where it’s needed, matching information providers and information
requestors. The most fine-grained and real-time of these facilities is Oracle Streams,
which can migrate data from one database to another while both are online. Bulk data
transfers are more suitable in some circumstances, for which Oracle provides Data
Pump and Transportable Table spaces. In Oracle 10g, all information provisioning
facilities can move data to databases running on different operating systems, which is
particularly useful for migrating databases to a grid environment, for example, blade
server’s running Linux.


Self-Managing Database: The first step toward manageability in a grid environment
is making each individual system require less human attention. Oracle 10g, with the
new self managing database, reduces the maintenance and tuning tasks required by
administrators. Oracle Database 10g includes an intelligent database infrastructure
that takes snapshots of vital statistics and workload data to be analyzed for self-tuning
and for advising administrators. The self-managing database automatically diagnoses
problems such as poor connection management, lock contention, and poorly
performing SQL. Oracle Database 10g fixes certain diagnosed problems and advises
DBAs about simple corrective measure in other cases. Oracle’s self-managing
database enables DBAs to concentrate on more value-added work and dramatically
reduces administration costs of databases.
                                             24
Oracle Application Server 10g:
Oracle Application Server 10g provides a complete infrastructure platform for
developing and deploying enterprise applications, integrating many functions
including a J2EE and Web services runtime environment, an enterprise portal, an
enterprise integration broker, business intelligence, web caching, and identity
management services. Oracle Application Server 10g adds new grid computing
features, building on the success of Oracle9i Application Server, which has hundreds
of customers running production enterprise applications.


Application Server Clusters: Oracle Application Server 10g run-time services can
be pooled and virtualized via application server clusters. Every service within the
Oracle Application Server – HTTP, J2EE, Web cache, Web Services, LDAP, portal
and others – can be distributed across multiple machines in a grid. New features in
Oracle 10g enable performance thresholds to be defined beyond which new
application server instances can automatically be added and started (or relinquished)
to process additional work on new nodes of a grid, delivering capacity on demand.
With Oracle 10g, an administrator can define a set of policies or business rules that
affect how individual work is provisioned across multiple machines. Specifically,
workload allocation can be influenced by resource consumption metrics, such as CPU
or memory usage, or application-specific metrics, such as transaction throughput or
JDBC connections, or workload can be provisioned based on schedules, such as peak
times of day or end of quarter. Oracle Application Server 10g provides out-of-the-box
instrumentation that captures these various metrics and creates advisories based on
historical and real-time information to help administrators make the best policy
choices. Oracle Application Server 10g also provides several availability
enhancements. Because Oracle 10g includes clustering of every service within the
application server, there is no single point of failure. Both planned and unplanned
downtime of an individual instance will simply cause requests to be routed to another
node. Because Application Server 10g includes efficient session replication, any type
of failure (even that of a J2EE application holding state) will remain transparent to the
user. Application Server 10g further improves application reliability through its
interaction with Oracle Real Application Clusters. If an instance in the back-end
database goes down, Application Server 10g is notified to reconnect. Without
notification from a failed instance, an application server would wait for an IP time
                                           25
out, which takes several minutes, but the multi-tier failover notification feature
reduces recovery time in such cases to mere seconds, and both failure and recovery
remain transparent to the user.


Identity Management: Centralized application user administration becomes even
more important in a grid environment. Identity management features within
Application Server 10g simplify and centralize account creation, suspension, and
deletion and privilege modification, all of which lower administration costs and
reduce security vulnerabilities. Oracle provides centralized user provisioning and
single sign-on for users across all applications deployed to the Oracle Application
Server. Access privileges for all applications can be created and revoked through a
single interface. Identities can be managed through Oracle Internet Directory, a
standards-based LDAP directory that benefits from the availability and scalability of
being built on the Oracle Database.


Application Development Framework: Tightly integrated with Oracle Application
Server 10g are the development tools that enable companies to quickly develop
custom internet applications, and then easily deploy those applications to Oracle
Application Server. Applications for scientific grids, such as SETI@home, must be
designed explicitly to run on loosely connected grids. In contrast, enterprise
applications do not need to be re-designed to exploit the availability, scalability, and
performance benefits of enterprise grids. When applications are deployed to an
application server in a grid, those applications benefit immediately from the
transparent workload distribution, load balancing, and scheduling necessary to
efficiently coordinate work across multiple servers. To gain additional benefits from
grid computing, however, enterprise applications can expose their behaviour to other
applications and to management tools through standardized interfaces in a service-
oriented architecture. Oracle Developer Suite 10g, which includes JDeveloper 10g,
enables developers to create dynamic Web sites, J2EE applications, and Web services
and to make these services accessible through enterprise portals and wireless devices.
Applications designed to a service-oriented architecture can leverage a set of
standards-based internet protocols to communicate with other applications and
heterogeneous resources across a grid. Designing to a service-oriented architecture
enables companies to reduce development time and integration costs.
                                          26
Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control
Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control is the complete, integrated, central
management console and underlying framework that automates administrative tasks
across sets of systems in a grid environment. Grid Control helps reduce administration
costs through automation and policy-based standardization. With Oracle Grid Control,
IT professionals can group multiple hardware nodes, databases, application servers,
and other targets into single logical entities. By executing jobs, enforcing standard
policies, monitoring performance and automating many other tasks across a group of
targets instead of on many systems individually, Grid Control enables IT staff to scale
with a growing grid. Because of this feature, the existence of many small computers
in a grid infrastructure does not increase management complexity.


Software Provisioning: Because of the potentially large number of physical nodes,
it’s especially important in a grid environment that installation and configuration of
the software running on those nodes is fast and requires no human intervention.
Manually installing software on hundreds of nodes would be time consuming and
cumbersome. Administrators would certainly find ways to work around a manual
installation, but the workarounds could lead to unsupportable upgrade situations and
lost information about the configuration of the system. With Grid Control, Oracle 10g
automates installation, configuration, and cloning of Application Server 10g and
Database 10g across multiples nodes. Oracle Enterprise Manager provides a common
framework for software provisioning and management, allowing administrators to
create, configure, deploy, and utilize new servers with new instances of the
application server and database as they are needed. This framework is used not only
to provision new systems but also to apply patches and upgrade existing systems. In
Oracle Application Server 10g, applications can be deployed once to a single
application server instance, registered with the central repository, then automatically
deployed to all relevant nodes in the grid. As changes are made to the application and
as new nodes are added to the grid, nodes can be kept in sync.


Application Service Level Monitoring: Oracle Grid Control views the availability
and performance of the grid infrastructure as a unified whole, as a user would
experience it, rather than as isolated storage units, processing boxes, databases, and
application servers. An administrator can trace a performance or availability problem
                                          27
as experienced by a user from end to end – from the user visible Web page, through
external and internal networks, to application code, application server, and database
access. Grid Control then allows an administrator to trace the root cause of the
problem down to the individual Java class, for example, or the individual system
configuration parameter.




                                         28
5. CONFIGURING AND INSTALLING ORACLE
   DATABASE 10g ON STANDARDS- BASED
   COMPONENTS

Oracle Database10g makes it easy for you to run your database on a grid running on
standard low cost modular hardware components-storage, blades and interconnects.
Automatic Storage Management.


It simplifies storage management for Oracle databases. By abstracting the details of
storage management, Oracle improves data access performance through sophisticated
data provisioning, without requiring additional work from DBA’s.Instead of
managing many database files Oracle DBAs manage only a small number of disk
groups. A disk group is a set of disk devices that oracle manages as a single logical
unit. An administrator can define a particular disk group as a default disk group for a
database and oracle automatically allocates storage and creates or deletes the files
associated with the database object. Automatic Storage Management also offers the
benefits of storage technologies such as RAID or LOGICAL VOLUME
MANAGERS (LVM).Oracle can manage I/Os from multiple databases across all of
the devices in a disk group and it implements stripping and mirroring to improve I/O
performance and data reliability. In addition, Oracle can reassign disks from node to
node and cluster to cluster, automatically reconfiguring the group.


Portable Clusterware
Clusterware is the software that provides clustering services for communication
between Servers in a cluster. New integrated clusterware in ORACLE 10g makes
clustering easy by eliminating the need to purchase, install,configure and support
third party clusterware.Servers can be easily added to and dropped from an Oracle
cluster with no downtime. With a single install we can identify the nodes where we
would like to install the portable clusterware and Oracle Universal Installer installs
portable clusterware on all these nodes. Oracle has the only database technology to
include clusterware for all operating systems.


High Speed Infiniband Network Support

                                          29
ORACLE 10g has enhancements to provide better performance and scalability withy
upcoming high speed interconnects such as Infiniband. We can use it for all net5work
communications. It offers many benefits:


1. Infiniband offers a tremendous performance improvement over Gigabit Ethernet
networks. The low latency and high band-width of Infiniband makes it especially
useful as a cluster interconnects.
2. We can use single network infrastructure for our communication between different
servers and between servers and storage. This simplifies the cabling requirement of
our data centre.
3. With simplified network infrastructure we use a single network backplane which
makes network provisioning easier.
4. With Oracle Database 10g we can now use Infiniband for our application server to
database server communication, for server-to-server communication in a clustered
database and for server to storage communication. This provides us with all around
performance improvement and flexibility in our data centre.


Easy Client Install:
The Easy Client Install feature simplifies deployment of applications in a grid. Clients
of the database only need to download or copy a very small subset of Oracle client
files and set an environmental variable. We no longer need to go through the install
process on the database client.


Easy Oracle Database Install:
Oracle Database 10g has simplified the installation of the Oracle Database. We can
install it with a single CD.Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) can also perform multi-
node installs of the clustered Oracle database. During the install we are required to
identify the host names where we would like to install the Oracle Database.OUI then
installs the Oracle Database software on all of the nodes. We can also decide to have
either a single shared image of the software or a separate image on each host machine.




                                           30
6. OPERATIONAL BENEFITS

The dynamic nature of the grid imposes stringent operational requirements on the grid
infrastructure. The grid infrastructure should be self-reliant (it should be able to
tolerate system failures and adapt to changing business needs). Self-reliant database A
truly responsive enterprise requires the grid to self-manage and to learn and adapt to
changing circumstances. It should tolerate the failures of individual components and
provide high availability in all circumstances. High Availability Oracle database 10g
brings the highest levels of reliability and availability to the grid. We get the same
levels of reliability and availability on the standard low cost modular hardware-
servers and storage. Automatic storage management provides reliability and
availability on low cost standard storage.RAC provides the same on low cost standard
servers. Oracle database 10g provides robust features to protect from data errors and
disasters. The new flashback database feature provides the ability to recover a
database to a spec9ific time to recover from human error. The recovery time is
equivalent to the time duration to which it needs to go back. With this flash backup
feature database administrators can now use low cost standard disks for maintaining
their backups. Oracle database 10g also includes tools to minimize planned downtime,
critical for any interactions in a 24x7 environment. The new rolling upgrade feature
enables online applications of patches to the database software. We don’t need to
bring down the entire database to apply a patch. We can apply patches to the clustered
database –one instance at a time-thus keeping the database online while applying the
patch.


Self-managing:
With the new self managing features, Oracle database 10g has taken a giant leap
towards making oracle database self reliant. Oracle database 10g includes an
intelligent database monitor that records data regarding all aspects of database
performance. Using this information, Oracle database Automatic memory
management dynamically allocates memory to different components of the Oracle
database. Automatic health management automatically generates alerts regarding
various aspects of the database that simplify database monitoring for DBAs.



                                          31
Oracle enterprise manager grid control:
Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control is the complete, integrated, central
management console and underlying framework that automates administrative tasks
across sets of systems in a grid environment. Grid Control helps reduce administration
costs through automation and policy-based standardization. With Oracle Grid Control,
IT professionals can group multiple hardware nodes, databases, application servers,
and other targets into single logical entities. By executing jobs, enforcing standard
policies, monitoring performance and automating many other tasks across a group of
targets instead of on many systems individually, Grid Control enables IT staff to scale
with a growing grid. Because of this feature, the existence of many small computers
in a grid infrastructure does not increase management complexity.


Managing security in the grid:
The dynamic nature of the grid makes security extremely important. Enterprises need
to make sure that their data is secure. Exactly the right set of users must have access
to the right set of data. At the same time, they need an easy way to manage security
through their enterprise. Oracle database 10g makes it easy for enterprises to manage
their security needs in the grid.


Enterprise User security:
Enterprise user security centralizes the management of user credentials and privileges
in a directory. This avoids the need to create the same user in multiple databases
across a grid. A directory-based user can      authenticate and access all the databases
that are within an enterprise domain based on the credentials and privileges specified
in the directory.


Virtual private database (VPD)
VPD provides server-enforced, fine grained access control, and a secure application
context that can be used within a grid setting to enable multiple customers ,partners or
departments utilizing the same database to have secure access to mission critical
data.VPD enables per-user and per-customer data access within a single database,
with the assurance of physical data separation.



                                          32
Oracle label security
Oracle label security gives administrators an out-of-the-box row and now column-
level-security solution for controlling access to data based on its sensitivity,
eliminating the need to manually write such policies.




                                          33
7. POSITIONING FOR THE FUTURE

Grid technologies are evolving rapidly. Oracle assures the cost conscious enterprises
that their investments in oracle today will be leveraged for future grid technologies.
Oracle posses the right architecture and has its products directions fully aligned to
deliver future grid computing technologies. Product directions aligned with grid
Oracle product directions are aligned with the grid. Oracle database 10g is the first
database designed for the grid. Oracle already supports more grid computing
technology than any of its competitors.


Grid standards support
Oracle is committed to support industry standards. Oracle is working with the global
grid forum to help define grid standards. Just has oracle has supported in it’s products
,and is helping other standards such as J2EE,Web Services,Xquery,and SQL,Oracle
intends to fully support grid standards.


Oracle Database 10g is the world's most affordable self-managing database,
eliminating many of the traditional manual administration tasks such as performance
tuning, and disk and memory management. Oracle Database 10g Release2 furthers
Oracle’s commitment to reducing the cost of computing in all aspects of database
development and deployment with:


1. Automated database administration enhancements include statistics collection
directly from memory, eliminating the need to execute SQL queries. New
administrative reports include automatic database workload repository comparison to
help understand changes in workloads and possible performance impact.


2. Application development enhancements include X-Query feature for queries and
mapping of XML results inside the database. Oracle HTML DB makes it easier to
develop and deploy web-based database applications. Oracle’s commitment to the
Windows platform continues with support for CLR stored procedures and tight
integration with Visual Studio.



                                           34
3. The cost of business intelligence is reduced with data mining PL/SQL package
support for analytic applications such as Oracle Discoverer. Improved VLDB support
is available with more partitions per table and more efficient partition management
and query optimization. Information cycle time is reduced with enhanced data loading
and query processing improvements.




                                        35
8. CONCLUSION

Many phrases have been coined to describe new computing models created by the IT
industry. Grid computing is the emerging standard, and grid computing is Oracle’s
approach to lowering costs while improving quality. The benefits of grid computing
to businesses are real: increasingly flexible systems that can largely self-manage;
better availability, performance and scalability at lower cost; and the opportunity for
incremental investment and immediate return. Grid computing will not radically
change enterprise data centres, and it does not require throwing out existing
investments and best practices. However, grid computing is also not just a passing
fad. Enterprise grid computing, based on the Oracle 10g infrastructure, will be the
foundation of information technology for the future, resulting in more cost effective
computing for running more nimble, data-driven businesses.


Grid computing is poised to change the economics of computing. Rapid innovations
and new economics in hardware make grid computing possible and sensible at the
hardware layer today. Only oracle database 10g leverages these hardware innovations
and implements the fundamental attributes of grid computing. Only oracle database
10g with its strong security, self-reliance, and manageability offerings addresses the
stringent operational needs of enterprise grids. With oracle database 10g we can
realize grid benefits today and leverage our investments in oracle for future grid
computing technologies.




                                          36
REFERENCES

1. Global Grid Forum, Global Grid Forum Security Working Group,
       www.gridforum.org.
2. Foster I., Kesselman C., the Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure.
3. www.oracle.com\database




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