Sichuan earthquake

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					     Geography Project
    Sichuan Earthquake
 “China should learn from Japan to
minimize earthquakes destruction in
        China in the future”
             Group 2
        Fiona Kam F.4A(19)
        Agatha Ng F.4A(30)
      Vanessa Pang F.4A(31)
        Joanne Li F.4C ( 22 )
 “China should learn from Japan to minimize
earthquakes destruction in China in the future”

1. Which plate movement led to Sichuan
   Earthquake?
2. What were the physical factors that led to
   such disastrous impact?
3. What were the human factors that led to such
   disastrous impact?
4. What has the government done to minimize
   earthquakes destruction in future?
5. What can we learn from developed countries
   to minimize earthquake destruction?
Which plate movement led to
   Sichuan Earthquake?
  Which plate movement led to Sichuan
              Earthquake?
• China is located along the destructive plate
  boundary( circum-pacific belt).
• Because of compression force generated from
  sinking convection current in the asthenosphere,
• The Indo-Australian plate( continental plate)
  collided with the Eurasian Plate( Continental
  plate). When the two plates converge, the denser
  Indo-Australian Plate subducted,
• compression force would create friction and
  stress in the crust.
   Which plate movement led to Sichuan
               Earthquake?
• Cracks are developed
• Faulting occurred due to the cracks.
• Earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan
  fault.
• When the accumulated stress was larger then the
  strength of rock mass,
• energy was then released and sent out at seismic
  waves through the crust causing violent vibration
  in the crust.
• Sichuan Earthquake occurred
   What were the physical factors that led to such
               disastrous impact?
• High magnitude
   -Richter scale: 8
• Shallow focus
  -19km to 20km
• Long duration
• -80s to 120s
• More aftershocks
    -six aftershocks measured 6 or over on the Richter scale
   caused the collapse of weakened structures
   led to further loss of life and property
• Short distance from epicenter (Wenchuan)
  -it is 80km away from Chengdu, the capital centre of Sichuan
• Large affected regions
  -over 100000 sq.km
  What were the physical factors that led to
         such disastrous impact?
• Relief
   -hilly, mountainous
   1) led to landslide
      the landslide materials blocked roads
• the communication links was broken down
• there were damages to hospital and utility works
    caused difficulties in sending relief supplies to
  the affected areas
   make relief work more difficult
  slowed down relief work
 What were the physical factors that led to
        such disastrous impact?
• Time
  -afternoon 2:28
  { lots of indoor activities }
  e.g. children were learning at schools
       adults were working
• Related hazards are caused
  1)landslide
  2) flooding
   -due to the serious landslides in many hill slopes
     that cause by the Sichuan earthquake,
  -The slope materials blocked the rivers, forming dams.
  -These created 34 huge lakes behind these dams could be
  breached at any time.
  and thus flooding occurs.
 What were the human factors that led to
        such disastrous impact?

• High population density
  -population: around 84million
  -area: around 480000km sq.
   population density: 84million/480000
     = 175
Therefore, the population density of Sichuan is
  high.
 What were the human factors that led to
        such disastrous impact?
• Low social awareness
   1) education
• Sichuan had 42 institutions of high learning
  schools
• 5000 specialized, regular and coeducational
  secondary schools with 450 000 students and
• 250 000 teachers
• Normal Schools with 250 000 students and
  20000 teachers
What were the human factors that led to
       such disastrous impact?
 -the proportion student who could receive
 education is low
 - even if they were sent to school, they might
 not be taught about what they should do
 before, during and after a hazard, especially
 about earthquakes.
-regular large-scale earthquake drills for the
 general public were hardly held
   What were the human factors that led to
          such disastrous impact?
• Low government efficiency
   ( but improved compared to 7.28 Tongshan
  Earthquake) it took 4 days and nights to start the
  rescue work for Tongshan Earthquake but it took
  less than an hour for to start the rescue work for
  the Sichuan Earthquake
• No efficient monitoring/ warning system
  - cannot predict the time and place of occurrence
  accurately as well as the scale of possible
  earthquakes.
  Therefore, the government can’t immediately take
  action to warn the people to escape to a safer place
  What has the government done to
 minimize earthquakes destruction in
               future?
• Eliminated the tofu-dregs schoolhouses
as there were corruption on the
 resources allocation on building the
 schools

Implemented laws governing the height
 and structure of buildings
     What has the government done to
    minimize earthquakes destruction in
                  future?
• Increased the number of rescue team
• Planned to hold more earthquake drills
• assigning round-the-clock workers
• ensuring open routes of transportation to the
  areas devastated by the earthquake
• asking people to donate money or material
  supplies
     What can we learn from the MDC to
    minimize the damages of earthquake?
-Improve the transport network as to improve the relief
  work:
• as rescue helicopters had trouble landing into the
  epicenter area in Wenchuan,
we can propose a landing spot online as the first
  touchdown place for the helicopters
• as the soldiers found it very difficult to get help to the
  rural regions of the province,
gov. can build more roads on the rural region in order
  to improve the relief work with an evacuation route
  with adequate road signs should be established at
  urban-planning stage
 What can we learn from the MDC to
minimize the damages of earthquake?
• Provide more education to the people and
  drills to increase the social awareness:
- In Japan, students are taught about what
  they should do before during and after a
  hazard
the teachers in Sichuan and China can
  teach the students how to do when
  earthquake occurred
 What can we learn from the MDC to
minimize the damages of earthquake?
• Education:
• Japan provides schemes for the residents to join
  that provides the information of how to evacuate
  when earthquake occurred
China can also provide schemes
For example:
• <<To Protect Your Family from Injury>>
• <<Discuss Evacuation Plans with Your Family in
  Advance>>
• <<Prepare Items to Take Out in Case of
  Emergency>>
 What can we learn from the MDC to
minimize the damages of earthquake?
• Education:
• The officials should educate the village
  heads in Sichuan how to evacuate when
  earthquake occurred
 the village heads can teach the residents
  (farmers)
 What can we learn from the MDC to
minimize the damages of earthquake?
• Education:
• Put some Big Characters or propaganda with
  how to prepared for the earthquake on the
  notice board of the villages
• Train the rescue team more frequently
• China can learn from Japan that have regular
  large-scale earthquake drills with the
  residents in Sichuan for the evacuation of
  earthquake
 What can we learn from the MDC to
minimize the damages of earthquake?
• Improve land use planning:
  -build/reserve for large open spaces for
   evacuation
For Example:
Build a recreational park
for people to relax and play
in case of emergency (e.g. earthquake
   happen), people can evacuate to the park
 What can we learn from the MDC to
minimize the damages of earthquake?
• Improve land use planning:
  -build earthquake-proof buildings for school
   instead of tofu-dregs schoolhouses
• In order to avoid to build tofu-dregs
   schoolhouses
• Implement laws governing the height and
   structure of buildings should be imposed
• Each building has to pass tests for hazard
   such as earthquakes
  In Japan and USA build earthquake-proof
   buildings for schools, houses and universities
 What can we learn from the MDC to
minimize the damages of earthquake?
• In Japan,
 - Government buy insurance for the residents
  that live in a particular area which always
  happen earthquake
 China can also buy insurance for the
  residents in Sichuan
     Difficulties in implementing the
                 measures
• China is a less
  developed country
  - It has to use a large
  part of capital to
  develop industries
   Government may
  not put capital on
  minimizing the
  damages of
  earthquakes
                Reflection
Through this project, we had learnt more about
 earthquakes, especially the Sichuan earthquake.
 We can know more about why the earthquake
 happened, the physical and human factors that
 caused such serious dangers in the earthquake.
 Besides, we have also thought of some
 measures that Sichuan and the Chinese
 government can take to minimize dangers
 caused by earthquakes. However, Chinese
 government may not be able to carry out all
 these solutions since some of them are costly
 and require a longer time.
  The End

~Thank You~

				
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posted:10/1/2011
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