Assignment Submitted To: MR. NAVEED BAQAR Submitted By: Mian Muhammad Zulqarnain Aamir PROGRAM MBA ID 012521-022 INSTITUTE OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT LAHORE Mobile Computing Q - What is Bluetooth? Ans: Bluetooth is a low bandwidth wireless networking technology designed primarily to replace cables for communication between personal computing/communication devices. It is intended to be used for both voice and data communications. Bluetooth technology eliminates the need for numerous and inconvenient cable attachments for connecting fixed computers, mobile phones, mobile computers, handheld devices, digital cameras and even new breed of digital appliances. It will enable users to connect a wide range of computing and telecommunications devices easily and simply, without the need to buy, carry, or connect cables - quite often proprietary to a specific device. It delivers opportunities for rapid ad hoc connections, and the possibility of automatic, unconscious, connections between devices. It creates the possibility of using mobile data in a variety of applications. Bluetooth makes wireless communication and networking between devices in a small localized area of a room or a small office as easy as switching on the light. In Bluetooth all the connections between devices are instantaneous and invisible and the devices can talk even if they are not in line of sight because Bluetooth utilizes a radio-based link. Your laptop could send information to a printer in the next room, or your microwave could send a message to your mobile phone telling you that your meal is ready. Bluetooth is a global de facto standard for wireless connectivity. Based on a low-cost, short-range radio link, Bluetooth cuts the cords that used to tie up digital devices. When two Bluetooth equipped devices come within 10 meters range of each other, they can establish a connection together. And because Bluetooth utilizes a radio-based link, it doesn't require a line-of-sight connection in order to communicate. Your laptop could send information to a printer in the next room, or your microwave could send a message to your mobile phone telling you that your meal is ready. In the future, Bluetooth is likely to be standard in tens of millions of mobile phones, PCs, laptops and a whole range of other electronic devices. As a result, the market is going to demand new innovative applications, value-added services, end-to-end solutions and much more. The possibilities opened up really are limitless, and because the radio frequency used is globally available, Bluetooth can offer fast and secure access to wireless connectivity all over the world. With potential like that, it's no wonder that Bluetooth is set to become the fastest adopted technology in history. Bluetooth wireless technology is a system solution comprising hardware, software and interoperability requirements. The Bluetooth specifications specify the complete system. The Bluetooth Specification defines a short (around 10 m) or optionally a medium range (around 100 m) radio link capable of voice or data transmission up to a maximum capacity of 720 Kb/s per channel. Radio frequency operation is in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 to 2.48 GHz, using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping, full-duplex signal at up to 1600 hops/sec. The signal hops among 79 frequencies at 1 MHz intervals to give a high degree of interference immunity. RF output is specified as 0 dBm (1 mW) in the 10m-range version and -30 to +20 dBm (100 mW) in the longer range version. When producing the radio specification, high emphasis was put on making a design enabling single-chip implementation in CMOS circuits, thereby reducing cost, power consumption and the chip size required for implementation in mobile devices. The Bluetooth Solution answers the need for short-range wireless connectivity within three areas: Data and Voice access points Cable replacement Ad hoc networking Data and Voice access points Bluetooth wireless technology facilitates real-time voice and data transmissions, which makes it possible to connect any portable and stationary communication device as easily as switching on the lights. You can, for instance, surf the Internet and send e-mails on your portable PC or notebook regardless of whether you are wirelessly connected through a mobile phone or through a wire-bound connection (PSTN, ISDN, LAN, xDSL). Voice Up to three simultaneous synchronous voice channels are used, or a channel which simultaneously supports asynchronous data and synchronous voice. Each voice channel supports a 64 kb/s synchronous (voice) channel in each direction. Data The asynchronous data channel can support maximal 723.2 kb/s asymmetric (and still up to 57.6 kb/s in the return direction), or 433.9 kb/s symmetric. a Master can share an asynchronous channel with up to 7 simultaneously active Slaves in a Piconet. by swapping active and parked slaves out respectively in the piconet, 255 slaves can be virtually connected using the PM_ADDR (a device can participate again within 2 ms). to park even more slaves the BD_ADDR can be used. There is no limitation to the number of slaves that can be parked. Slaves can participate in different piconets and a master of one piconet can be the slave in another, this is known as a scatternet. Up to 10 piconets within range can form a scatternet, with a minimum of collisions. Cable replacement Bluetooth wireless technology eliminates the need for numerous, often proprietary, cable attachments for connection of practically any kind of communication device. Connections are instant and they are maintained even when devices are not within line of sight. The range of each radio is approximately 10 meters, but it can be extended to around 100 meters with an optional amplifier. Ad hoc networking A device equipped with a Bluetooth radio establishes instant connection to another Bluetooth radio as soon as it comes into range. Since each Bluetooth device supports both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections, several piconets can be established and linked together ad hoc. The Bluetooth topology is best described as a multiple piconet structure. Many companies have declared that Bluetooth wireless technology will be incorporated into their products, especially when components becomes cheaper. In a forecast made by Cahners In-Stat Group (July 2000), the product availability during the next couple of years was defined as three waves. The first wave is believed to occur around the turn of the year 2000/2001 and will include products like: Adapters for mobile phones and adapters (dongles) and PC Cards for notebooks and PCs. High-end mobile phones and notebook PCs with integrated Bluetooth communication for the business users. Bluetooth headsets are expected to enter the market by the first half of 2001. Cordless phones, handheld PCs, and PDAs will also be included in this first wave. The first handheld PCs and PDAs are expected to enter the market during 2001. The second wave will in many respects overlap the first. What we will see here is: PCs with Bluetooth circuitry on the motherboard. Printers, fax machines, digital still cameras, and products for industrial/medical and vertical industries will also begin to move in the second wave. Some industrial solutions may become available as soon as the end of 2000 or 1Q2001. In the automotive sector the first Bluetooth options are expected to appear for the 2002 model year (hands-free mobile phone usage with your regular mobile phone). The third wave will include: Low-cost mobile phones and lower-cost portable devices and desktop PCs. Competing Technologies There is no single competitor covering the entire concept of the Bluetooth wireless technology but in certain market segments other technologies exist. For cable replacement the infrared standard IrDA has been around for some years and is quite well known and widespread. IrDA is faster than the Bluetooth wireless technology but is limited to point-to-point connections and above all it requires a clear line-of-sight. In the past IrDA has had problems with incompatible standard implementations, a lesson that the Bluetooth SIG has learnt. Two other short-range radio technologies using frequency hopping technique reside in the 2.4 GHz band: Wireless LANs based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. The technology is used to replace a wired LAN throughout a building. The transmission capacity is high and so is the number of simultaneous users. On the other hand, compared to Bluetooth wireless technology, it is more expensive and power consuming, and the hardware requires more space. It is therefore not suitable for small mobile devices. The other 2.4 GHz radio is Home RF, which has many similarities to the Bluetooth wireless technology. Home RF can operate ad hoc networks (data only) or be under the control of a connection point coordinating the system and providing a gateway to the telephone network (data & voice). The hop frequency is 8 Hz while a Bluetooth link hops at 1600 Hz. Ultra-Wideband Radio (UWB) is a new radio technology still under development. Short pulses are transmitted in a broad frequency range. The capacity appears to be high while power consumption is expected to be low. Q 2- How is the technology is called Bluetooth? Ans: Harald I Bluetooth (Danish Harald Blåtand) was the King of Denmark between 940 and 985 AD. The name "Blåtand" was probably taken from two old Danish words, 'blå' meaning dark skinned and 'tan' meaning great man. He was born in 910 as the son of King Grom The Old (King of Jutland, the main peninsula of Denmark) and his wife Thyre Danebold (daughter of King Ethelred of England). Like many Vikings, Harald considered it honorable to fight for treasure in foreign lands. When Harald's sister Gunhild was widowed after the death of the violent Norwegian king Erik Blood Axe, she came to Denmark to seek Harald's help in securing control of Norway. Harald took the opportunity to seize control himself. By 960 he was at the height of his powers, ruling over both Denmark and Norway. He was baptized by a priest named Poppo, sent by the German emperor. He then created a monument that read: "King Harald raised this monument to the memory of Grom his father and Thyre his mother. Harald conquered all of Denmark and Norway and made the Danes Christian". These words were also carved in stone called rune stones. Harald was killed in a battle in 985. Harald completed the country's unification begun by his father, converted the Danes to Christianity, and conquered Norway. The expansion begun by Harald in Norway was continued by his son Sweyn I, who conquered England in 1013. Under Sweyn's son Canute there grew up a great Anglo- Scandinavian kingdom that included parts of Sweden. Old Harald Bluetooth united Denmark and Norway, Bluetooth of today will unite the worlds of computers and telecom (hopefully longer than the few years Harald's Viking kingdom survived). In 1994 Ericsson Mobile Communications initiated a study to investigate the feasibility of a low-power low-cost radio interface between mobile phones and their accessories. In Feb 1998, five companies Ericsson, Nokia, IBM, Toshiba and Intel formed a Special Interest Group (SIG). The group contained the necessary business sector members - two market leaders in mobile telephony, two market leaders in laptop computing and a market leader in digital signal processing technology. It is estimated that before year 2002, Bluetooth will be a built-in feature for more than 100 million mobile phones and several million communication devices ranging from handsets and portable PCs to desktop computers and notebooks. Q - How is Bluetooth is used? Ans: BluetoothTM wireless technology revolutionizes the personal connectivity market by providing freedom from wired connections - enabling links between mobile computers, mobile phones, portable handheld devices, and connectivity to the Internet. Interface, synchronize, exchange? All of the above, and more. Bluetooth technology redefines the very way we experience connectivity. It works everywhere. Hardware that complies with the Bluetooth wireless specification ensures communication compatibility worldwide. As a low-cost, low-power solution with industry-wide support, Bluetooth wireless technology allows you to bring connectivity with you. You define the boundaries of your productivity - in Europe, in Asia, in America, in whatever place your business may take you. Establishing a standard means integrating well-tested technology with the power-efficiency and low-cost of a compliant radio system (about the Specification. Establishing a standard also means a group of industry leading promoter companies who drive the specification forward. Bluetooth technology works because it has been developed as a cross industry solution that marries a vision of engineering innovation with an understanding of business and consumer expectations. Bluetooth wireless technology is supported by product and application development in a wide range of market segments, including software developers, silicon vendors, peripheral and camera manufacturers, mobile PC manufacturers and handheld device developers, consumer electronics manufacturers, car manufacturers, and test and measurement equipment manufacturers. Q - How secure is a Bluetooth network? Ans: Bluetooth employs frequency hopping (1600 hops/sec); which adds some protection against eavesdropping, and there is also built-in security at the physical layer. The built-in security features allow one-way, two-way, or no authentication. The key management and security setup will be done by the software layers; which will allow the user set the security requirements as needed. This way, it will be possible to define different trust relationships between Bluetooth nodes and networks; i.e. you will be able to allow a co-worker's PDA access your business card scanner; but prevent him from synchronizing with your PC. When Bluetooth is used for networking, it is always possible to use stronger forms of encryption like SSH over the transport layer. Q - What is the frequency hoping spread spectrum? Ans: Frequency hopping is one of two basic modulation techniques used in spread spectrum signal transmission. It is the repeated switching of frequencies during radio transmission, often to minimize the effectiveness of "electronic warfare" - that is, the unauthorized interception or jamming of telecommunications. It also is known as frequency- hopping code division multiple access (FH-CDMA). Spread spectrum modulation techniques have become more common in recent years. Spread spectrum enables a signal to be transmitted across a frequency band that is much wider than the minimum bandwidth required by the information signal. The transmitter "spreads" the energy, originally concentrated in narrowband, across a number of frequency band channels on a wider electromagnetic spectrum. Benefits include improved privacy, decreased narrowband interference, and increased signal capacity. In an FH-CDMA system, a transmitter "hops" between available frequencies according to a specified algorithm, which can be either random or preplanned. The transmitter operates in synchronization with a receiver, which remains tuned to the same center frequency as the transmitter. A short burst of data is transmitted on a narrowband. Then, the transmitter tunes to another frequency and transmits again. The receiver thus is capable of hopping its frequency over a given bandwidth several times a second, transmitting on one frequency for a certain period of time, then hopping to another frequency and transmitting again. Frequency hopping requires a much wider bandwidth than is needed to transmit the same information using only one carrier frequency. The spread spectrum approach that is an alternative to FH- CDMA is direct sequence code division multiple access (DS- CDMA), which chops the data into small pieces and spreads them across the frequency domain. FH-CDMA devices use less power and are generally cheaper, but the performance of DS- CDMA systems is usually better and more reliable. The biggest advantage of frequency hopping lies in the coexistence of several access points in the same area, something not possible with direct sequence. Certain rules govern how frequency-hopping devices are used. In North America, the Industrial, Scientific, and Medial (ISM) waveband is divided into 75 hopping channels, with power transmission not to exceed 1 watt on each channel. These restrictions ensure that a single device does not consume too much bandwidth or linger too long on a single frequency. The Federal Communications Commission (Fcc) has amended rules to allow frequency hopping spread spectrum systems in the unregulated 2.4 GHz band. The rule change is designed to allow wider bandwidths, thus enabling Internet devices to operate at higher speeds and fostering development of wireless LANs and wireless cable modems. Movie star Hedy Lamarr is generally credited as co-originator of the idea of spread spectrum transmission. She and her pianist were issued a patent for the technique during World War II. They discovered the technique using a player piano to control the frequency hops, and envisioned it as a way to provide secure communications during wartime. The pair never made any money off the invention and their patent eventually expired. Sylvania introduced a similar concept in the 1950s and coined the term "spread spectrum." Q - Will other RF (radio frequency) devices interfere with Bluetooth devices? Ans: Bluetooth is a technology to connect devices without wires. The intended use is to provide short-range connections between mobile devices and to the Internet via bridging devices to different networks (wired and wireless) that provide Internet capability. HomeRF SWAP is a wireless technology optimized for the home environment. Its primary use is to provide data networking and dial tones between devices such as PC's, cordless phones, Web Tablets, and a broadband cable or DSL modem. Both technologies share the same frequency spectrum but do not interfere when operating in the same space. Q - What is the data throughput speed of a Bluetooth connection? Ans: Bluetooth supports both voice and data. The voice channels support 64Kb/s. An asymmetric data rate (one way) of 721Kb/s (while permitting 57.6Kb/s in the return direction); and symmetric rate of 432.6Kb/s is possible according to Bluetooth spec. There are preparations for newer versions of the Bluetooth specifications, and these versions will most likely allow higher data rates. Q - What is the range of Bluetooth transmitters/receivers? Ans: Bluetooth is designed for very low power use, and the transmission range will only be 10m, about 30ft. High-powered Bluetooth devices will enable ranges up to 100m (300ft). Considering the design philosophy behind Bluetooth, even the 10m range is adequate for the purposes Bluetooth is intended for. Later versions of the Bluetooth spec may allow longer ranges. Q - What kind of encryption will be used for Bluetooth security? Ans: The Bluetooth specification 1.0 describes the link encryption algorithm as a stream cipher using 4 LFSR(linear feedback shift registers). The sum of the width of the LFSRs is 128, and the spec says the effective key length is selectable between 8 and 128 bits.This arrangement allows Bluetooth to be used in countries with regulations limiting encryption strength, and "facilitate a future upgrade path for the security without the need for a costly redesign of the algorithms and encryption hardware" according to the Bluetooth specification. Key generation and authentication seems to be using the 8-round SAFER+ encryption algorithm. The information available suggests that Bluetooth security will be adequate for most purposes; but users with higher security requirements will need to employ stronger algorithms to ensure the security of their data. Q - Is Bluetooth practical for use with mobile devices? Ans: Bluetooth will be used for personal area networks: very small range networks between cell phones, PDAs, MP3 players, etc. and computers. The built-in voice channels will allow cordless telephony and headset applications. PDA-computer synchronization, wireless home networking, connection of keyboards, modems, cameras etc. are all possible. Q - What is a personal area network (PAN) Ans: A personal area network is a technology that could enable wearable computer devices to communicate with other nearby computers and exchange digital information using the electrical conductivity of the human body as a data network. For example, two people each wearing business card-size transmitters and receivers conceivably could exchange information by shaking hands. The transference of data through intra-body contact, such as handshakes, is known as linkup. The human body's natural salinity makes it a good conductor of electricity. An electric field passes tiny currents, known as Pico amps, through the body when the two people shake hands. The handshake completes an electric circuit and each person's data, such as e-mail addresses and phone numbers, are transferred to the other person's laptop computer or a similar device. A person's clothing also could act as a mechanism for transferring this data. The concept of a PAN first was developed by Thomas Zimmerman and other researchers at M.I.T.'s Media Lab and later supported by IBM's Almaden research lab. In a research paper, Zimmerman explains why the concept might be useful: As electronic devices become smaller, lower in power requirements, and less expensive, we have begun to adorn our bodies with personal information and communication appliances. Such devices include cellular phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), pocket video games, and pagers. Currently there is no method for these devices to share data. Networking these devices can reduce functional I/O redundancies and allow new conveniences and services. Q - What is Home RF? Ans: In simple terms, HomeRF is wireless home networking - a way to connect PCs, peripherals, cordless phones, and many other consumer electronic devices so they can "talk" with each other, sharing resources and access to the Internet. Wireless home networking makes this possible without the expense and complexity associated with running wires. In more technical terms, HomeRF is an open industry specification that defines how these devices share and communicate voice, data and streaming media in and around the home. HomeRF-compliant products operate in the license- free 2.4 GHz frequency band and utilize frequency-hopping spread spectrum RF technology for secure and robust wireless communications. HomeRF blends technologies from several worldwide standards since none of them alone could meet the market requirements. Data networking technologies based on CSMA/CA protocols (essentially wireless Ethernet) were derived from the OpenAir and IEEE 802.11 standards, and cordless phone technologies based on TDMA are adapted from DECT.
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