Rich Talk about Text P. David Pearson Graduate School of Education University of California, Berkeley www.scienceandliteracy.org Reminders from Scott • Close Reading – What do you think? – What makes you think so? • Teachers, like readers, develop both a text base and a situation model for the PD we offer to them. – Hence the variability in uptake and implementation. – Stay the course, just in time feedback… • Teaching for Cognitive Engagement www.scienceandliteracy.org • Look for presentations by me • Also a site to learn more about the work I am doing on science and literacy with primary grade kids. Some assumptions • You have in place a program of comprehension instruction for skills and strategies – Reciprocal Teaching – Transactional Strategies Instruction • You have taken a position on what sort of assessments you are you going to use to assess students’ growth in reading – I like performance assessments--open ended, but… This is a goal • For every child • In every classroom • In every grade • Being satisfied with good decoding and word recognition is not enough • Being satisfied with great fluency is not enough • It is comprehension, understanding, enjoyment, and insight for every child. Talk about Text • An environment rich in high-quality talk about text. – teacher-to-student – student-to-student talk. • Many levels – Text base: clarifying and connecting – Situation model: relating, interpreting – Critique and evaluation We have pretty good models and research on this score •Instructional Conversations •Questioning the Author •Junior Great Books Efferent •Book Club •Literature Circle Aesthetic-Expressive •Grand Conversations •Collaborative Reasoning •Paidea Seminar Critical Analytic •Philosophy for Children Murphy et al Meta-analysis • What’s the underlying theory of all of these interventions? Change talk: Change Change focus and understanding comprehension distribution of text at hand repertoire Summary findings • Pre-post effects • Most things work are more to a degree impressive than • Kids get better comparative with help…and effects. maybe without it Summary findings • Effects are more • Transfer is hard impressive on • or researcher • Standardized tests designed than are insensitive. distal measures. Summary findings • Stronger effects • Changes in on talk than participation are a comprehension. necessary but not a sufficient condition for comp Summary findings • Some evidence of • Probably means you you get what you gotta do it all… pay for, especially • Literal for critical • Inferential thinking. • Critical Summary findings • Seems to be more • Ironically, most of us important for spend more average and low discussion time with the high achievers achievers • Beware self-delusion Summary findings • Time matters: • Stay the course longer is better • Ironically, we tend to discard things rapidly Research failing • Some don’t • Insist on measures of measure talk and comprehension comprehension. • Measure many kinds • Don’t measure of comprehension, many types of including stuff not comprehension directly taught. A great example from New Standards Toughest Problem: Promoting higher level talk about text • In our CIERA work, the good news is that when we see it, it improves learning and achievement, but… • The bad news is that we don’t see it very much Supporting talk about text Conversational Move Definition Exa mple (Student talk) Scaffolds (Teacher talk) Restating Repeating a previous contribution Linda said that the fish was sad, Can someone say that in a different way? because he was lonely. Inviting Inviting a participant to contribute d IÕ like to hear what George thinks. Do you want to invite anyone else to add to what you said? Acknowledging or Recognizing a response without I can see why you said that. Do you get what Juan is trying to say here? validating agreeing or disagreeing re I get what youÕ saying. t I hadnÕ thought of that. Focusing/refocusing Making a metacomment about the We were talking about the reasons that I think IÕ lost track of the question we were trying to ve course of the conversation Frank ran away from home. answer. Can anyone help me here? Agreeing I agree, becauseÉ Does anyone agree with Juan? (agreeing) Yeah. ThatÕs irght, becauseÉ Disagreeing re I see what youÕ saying, butÉ Does anyone want to disagree? But what aboutÉ? Does anyone see it another way? I disagree, becauseÉ Do you all see this the same way as Juan? Elaborating Extending oneÕsown or anotherÕs I agree with Juan that the fish was Does anyone want to say something more about that? assertion lonely, and I think that he... Who can think of another solution or another reason? AlsoÉ Requesting clarif ication What do you mean? Can you say more Does anyone want to raise any questions about the point or elaboration about that? What makes you think that? that Juan is trying to make? Anyone find anything confusing in this part of the story? Providing an example Providing an example from inside For exampleÉ Can you give an example of É from the story? of the text or outside to support ItÕslike whenÉ Has anything like this ever happened to you or someone oneÕs o n or anotherÕsassertion. w you know? Examples can be explanatory or Can you think of an example from another story by this evidentiary author? Signaling a change Changing the direction of the I want to talk ab out the mother. Does anyone want to change the subject? conversation Are you ready to move on? Does anyone want to ask a different question? Providing evidence s Supporting oneÕ own or I agree with Julie that the fis h was sad. Why do you think that? anotherÕsassertions with evidence You can see his sad face in the picture Anything in the story to support that idea? on page 3. Can you point to something in the text that makes you think that? Posing a question to the Does anyone thinkÉ ? Do you have a question for the group? group www.scienceandliteracy.org Same teacher--more scaffolding Different Teacher--More Novice Kids: Even more scaffolding The nature and amount of scaffolding is a matter of being responsive… Individuals Groups Texts and Tasks Context Gradual Release of Responsibility 100 With any luck, we move this way (----->) over time. Gradual Release of Responsibility 0 0 Student Responsibility 100 Changing Teacher Roles High Teacher Low Teacher Low Student High Student Explicit Instruction Modeling Scaffolding Facilitating Au and Raphael Participating From Duke & Pearson The Rand Sociocultural A variant of Kintsch’s model Model Reader Text Activity Context Questions for Stories • Read the text for the big ideas • Generate some probes to get at them – Go from general to specific • So what is important about this story? • So is this story more about the plot or the characters? • So what does this story tell us about how human beings look out for one another? – Go for Response before Comprehension – Go for comprehension to support response or claims: facts in the service of claims about the world—Accountable Talk – Work for a unified understanding of plot, character, feelings, motives. • Somewhere Somebody Wanted a Problem Solved… Generating Questions for Expository Pieces • Read the text • Record what you think are the big ideas • Read it again, looking for connections among the big ideas* • Generate a set of questions that will get you the big ideas and the connections between them. *When you can’t find big ideas and relations among them, question whether to use the text! Talk, Skills and Strategies • Conversations about stories and informational texts can be a context in which a lot of good strategy instruction CAN occur, if we are willing to seize teachable moments (just in time teaching) to show kids how to use strategies to solve problems and make text sensible. • That’s the genius of Instructional Conversations • That’s what happens in good RT conversations. Contextualizing what I have said • A good model • Solid instruction • Thoughtful assessment • Supportive instructional environment What that supportive context can do... Daniella using all the cues This is a Formula for a Renaissance (maybe a revival?) www.scienceandliteracy.org Opportunity • A great deal of time spent actually reading: The nature of texts • The texts are interesting and comprehensible and sufficiently varied so that all students can find texts to relate to (interest and motivation). • Daily, students read texts that are personally interesting and easy to read. Why? So that students can consolidate their learning of skills and strategies. • Also on a daily basis, students read, with teacher support, more challenging texts. Why? In order to stretch their knowledge and skill repertoire. Establish tomorrow’s prior knowledge. The nature of texts in effective programs 1. While common sense suggests that some of these texts should allow students to apply the decoding and comprehension skills they are learning, there is precious little evidence to support the creation and use of special instructional texts for this purpose. 2. The current corpus of children’s books contains numerous texts that provide many of the opportunities students need. Opportunity • The big ruckus from the National Reading Panel • Should we promote independent reading? What people think NRP says • Don’t provide time for independent reading. What NRP really says • The evidence is too sketchy to draw any conclusion one way or another… – About school-based programs to promote independent reading • DEAR • SSSR My own view • The lack of credible evidence one way or another is no basis for getting rid of programs that have other virtues • Is reading the only phenomenon in human experience that doesn’t get better with practice • If you do it, do it right and do it well – Make sure kids have things to read – Make sure kids DO read – Provide incentives and support Comprehension Activities in K and early 1 • In the context of teacher read alouds • Why? – Texts that merit the sort of engagement and depth of thinking we want to promote. – Finesse the decoding issue • Warning: You can’t stay there forever. Must get to texts kids read themselves Authenticity • Experience reading real texts for real reasons. Beware the textoid problem • When we select texts that have been especially written to permit some sort of skill activity • We run the risk of reifying these texts • Making real something that isn’t • They only exist on tests and workbook materials designed to get you ready to take the tests. Sue’s grandmother lives on a farm. Ellen’s grandmother lives in the city. Sue’s grandmother, who just turned 55, phones Sue every month. Ellen’s grandmother, who is also 55, sends Ellen e-mails several times a week. Both grandmothers love their granddaughters. • How are Sue and Ellen’s grandmothers alike? – They both love their granddaughters – They both use e-mail – They both live on a farm • How are they different? – They live in different places – They have different color hair – They are different ages Range • Experience reading at least the range of text genres that we wish students to comprehend. – Substantial experience reading and writing it. – No automatic transfer across genres A special note on the narrative centrism in primary instruction • Why shouldn’t we just focus on stories? • We surely want to include instruction and activities in response to stories, but… • We don’t want to limit our instruction and activities to stories – The range issue – The power of information – Individual differences in preference and interest Vocabulary/Concept Development • It really matters • Later today Enabling skills: Decoding, Fluency, and Monitoring • Substantial facility in the accurate and automatic decoding of words. • Necessary but not sufficient for comprehension When rules get in the way… Writing • Lots of time spent writing texts for others to comprehend. Again, students should experience writing the range of genres we wish them to be able to comprehend. Their instruction should emphasize connections between reading and writing, developing students’ abilities to write like a reader and read like a writer. Why Writing Helps Reading • You can’t write without reading: the writer’s first reader. • When you write, you often seek information through reading • Writing makes the metaphor “constructing a model of meaning” completely explicit. • Writing helps us decide what we really “think” about a topic (stares back at you). • Writing makes metacognition transparent (makes monitoring visible) Why Writing Helps Reading • Writing reinforces some reading processes – An authentic context for phonemic awareness (listen to the word in parts, match a letter to each part) – Examining claim and support is like unearthing the relationship between MI and Details • By the way, reading helps writing too--by providing good models of well-crafted prose, spelling, and punctuation.