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The Rise of Mussolini in Italy (PowerPoint)

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					The Rise of Mussolini in Italy




         Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
    What Problems did Italy have
           after WWI?
• 460,000 soldiers killed
• Heavy debt
• Coalition Governments
• Rising unemployment,
  decline of lira, rising
  bread prices, shortages
  of coal led to unrest in
  cities
• Peasants seized land
  from wealthy
• Workers strike in cities
• Chaos
    How did The Treaty of
 Versailles contribute to Italy’s
            problems?
• Italy had not been
  given the land
  promised at the       Stupid TOV

  Secret Treaty of
  London.
• Italy’s foreign       NO Land
  Minister Orlando
  left before the
  conference ended,
  feeling humiliated.
How does Mussolini gain power?
• Promises, Promises
    Wealthy - Protect
     Private Property
    Worker - Full
     employment, workers
     benefits
    Nationalists - rebuild
     Italy and recreate
     the Roman Empire

• “Blackshirts” – attacked
  and intimidated political
  opponents
 What was the 1922 March on
           Rome?
• Purpose: establish
  Mussolini and the
  Fascist Party as the
  most important party in
  Italy
• Mussolini said this at a
  party conference:

      "Either the
  government will be
   given to us or will
    shall seize it by
  marching on Rome."
      How did Mussolini Become
              Il Duce?
•Result of the March on Rome –
Legislature wanted to establish
marshal law

•Instead, Mussolini was
appointed Prime Minister by
King Victor Emmanuel to prevent
a Communist Revolution in Italy

•Ends democratic rule and
names himself Il Duce – “The
       What type of government
       existed under Mussolini ?
Fascist - still allows
  individual ownership of
  land, factories,
  business…but..
Totalitarianism
Dictatorship
Elimination of opposition
Propaganda…etc. etc.
        What is a Corporate State?
•Representation by
syndicates - groups of
workers and corporations
in the same industry

•Each syndicate sent
representatives to
legislature in Rome that
set policies on wages &
production
                           •“Fascism should rightly be called
•Only fascist political    •Corporatism as it is a merge of state
party exists.              • and corporate power.”~ Benito Mussolini
  What did Mussolini do to
      improve Italy?
• Solved
  unemployment
  problem
• Restored patriotism
  and nationalism and
  recaptured Italy’s
  greatness
• Made the trains run
  on time
• Many Italians
  supported him until….
                Formative
What the people wanted      What Mussolini had to
                                   offer




Who were the blackshirts?

How did Mussolini get into power?
 Mussolini and Hitler

                       Hitler and Mussolini
                       had a close
                       relationship. In
                       October 1936 they
                       signed a non-
                       military alliance.
                       Mussolini signed a
                       full defensive
                       alliance with Nazi
                       Germany in the Pact
                       of Steel.
Mussolini and Hitler
        Italy during WWII

Mussolini intended to
annex Malta, Corsica, and
Tunis. He wanted to create
a “New Roman Empire.” He
annexed Albania, straining
the military. His troops
were unprepared for the
German invasion of Poland.
Italy remained neutral.

                             Mussolini during WWII
Italy during WWII cont’d
  Italy soon declared
war on Britain and
France but troops were
unprepared. It was
defeated by Greece
and lost the world’s
first carrier strike.
Italy was defeated on
all fronts of the
Anglo-American
landing.

                         Mussolini
Quote from Mussolini’s speech in
   Rome February 23, 1941
• “We are not like the
  English. We boast that we
  are not like them. We
  haven't elevated lying into
  a government art nor into a
  narcotic for the people the
  way the London government
  has done…when the enemy
  wins a battle it is useless
  and ridiculous to seek, as
  the English do in their
  incomparable hypocrisy, to
  deny or diminish it.”
Propaganda postcard of
Mussolini
Mussolini’s Execution
Mussolini was taken
prisoner by the partisans
and was joined by his
mistress, Clara Petacci. A
few days later they were
shot to death. In April of
1945, their bodies were
hung at an Esso gas
station along with the
bodies of other fascist
leaders.
                             Mussolini and his mistress
            Questions
1) What were some of the problems that
   Italy faces after WWI?
2)Why did Italians feel betrayed by the
  Treaty of Versailles?
3)What is fascism, and how did Mussolini
  gain control of the Italian government?
4)How did Italy fare during WWII?
5)What happened to Mussolini?
                            Credits
•   http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini This is a detailed biography of
    Mussolini. It was a good source because it explains fascism and Italy
    during WWII. accessed 5/29/03
•   http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/modern/fascism/fascihtm.htm We
    found this site to be the most helpful. We got some fascism and the
    Treaty of Versailles information from this site. accessed 5/29/03.
•   http://members.aol.com/Custermen85/ILDUCE/Mussolini.htm This site
    explained the execution of Mussolini in great detail. We took the
    picture from his execution from this site. accessed 5/29/03.
•   http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/gallery/pg18/pg7/pg18787.html This site
    shows the history of Mussolini in pictures. We got a lot of our pictures
    from this site. accessed 5/30/03.
•   http://gi.grolier.com/wwii/wwii_mussolini.htm This site explains Italy
    during WWII and has many good details. We got the majority of the
    information about WWII from this site. accessed 5/29/03.
•   http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/classroom/alevel/musso1.htm This
    site had the diagram of fascism under Mussolini. accessed 5/30/03.
•   http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWmussolini.htm This site
    explains Mussolini’s rise to power and Italy’s involvement in WWII as
    well as the outcome of the Treaty of Versailles. accessed 5/30/03.
                Credits cont’d
• http://images.google.com/images This site was helpful when we
  were searching for pictures and maps.
• http://quotes.telemanage.ca/quotes.nsf/QuotesByCatPerson!Rea
  dForm&RestrictToCategory=Benito+Mussolini This site has
  quotes from Mussolini about fascism.
• http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1941/410223a.html This site
  had an entire speech that Mussolini gave in Rome in 1941. We
  took a quote from this speech.
• http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/march_on_rome.htm This
  site explained the March on Rome. This is where we got all of
  the information about the March on Rome.
• http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/core/pics/0255/img
  0023.jpg This is where we got the picture from the March on
  Rome.
• http://www.geocities.com/schutze_games/MarchCov.gif This is
  where we got the map of the March on Rome.

				
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