Nebosh Certificate Week 7

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					                  Nebosh Certificate
                      Week 7




                         771




Issue Sept 2010
                   COST OF ACCIDENTS




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                   Costs of Accidents

 • 1995/6 1 million injuries at work
 • Based on HSE accident figures, cost to
   British economy of accidents at work
   was between £9.9 & £14.1billion.
 • This averages out to between £300 &
   £400 of income tax bill per person in
   employment


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         Personal Costs of Accidents

    –   Mental strain           –   Possible loss of life
                                –   Incapacity for some work
    –   Suffering               –   Loss of leisure activities
    –   Loss of earnings        –   Effects on family
    –   Extra expenditures
    –   Possibility of
        continuing disability

    This amounted to over £7 billion in 1995/6
    Only £432 million was recovered
    in civil actions

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     Costs to Companies
     of Accidents
 •   Plant equipment damage
 •   Loss of a skilled worker
 •   Loss of production
 •   Loss of profit
 •   Expense of re-training or replacement
 •   Time lost by effect on other workers
 •   Increased insurance premiums
 •   £3.5 - £7 billion

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   Costs to Companies
   of Accidents
   • Legal implications (criminal & civil) both in
     cost & reputation
   • Exploitation by competitors
   • Bad publicity
   • Loss of share value
   • Costs of investigations
   • Overtime costs


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                   Costs of Accidents
• Company insurance's
   – Employers liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act
     1969 - minimum £5 million
   – Product liability
   – Public liability
   – Professional indemnity
   – Contractors all-risk
   – Design liability
   – Buildings & contents



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                   Costs of Accidents

   • Accident iceberg
      – Statistics show for every £1 that is
        insured, between £8 & £36 are not




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             ACCIDENT CAUSATION




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               What is an Accident?
  • Definition
      – An unplanned, uncontrolled or
        unintentional act that may result in
        injury, damage or loss




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   BIRD’S Triangle



  Serious or
Disabling Injury      1
                           Minor
                          Injuries
                     10

Property
Damage               30
                   What Happens Next?

  A brick falls from a scaffold, hits an employee
  on the head & kills him

  A brick falls from a scaffold, hits an
  employee on the shoulder causing severe
  bruising
  A brick falls from scaffold to the ground,
  nobody noticed it.



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BIRD’S Triangle Modified




                              Major
                             Injuries
                           Minor
                           Injuries

                      Near Misses


                 “ At Risk ” Behaviour
                   Accident Causation
• Examples of unsafe acts
   –   Working without authority
   –   Failure to warn others of danger
   –   Leaving equipment in dangerous condition
   –   Using equipment at wrong speed
   –   Disconnecting safety devices
   –   Using defective equipment
   –   Using wrong equipment for wrong task
   –   Failure to use or wear PPE
   –   Horseplay/skylarking


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                   Accident Causation

   • Examples of unsafe conditions
      –   Inadequate or missing guards
      –   Inadequate fire warning systems
      –   Fire hazards
      –   Poor housekeeping
      –   Excessive noise
      –   Poor illumination or ventilation
      –   Inadequate supervision
      –   Untrained workforce


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                   Accident Causation

• Immediate (primary/direct) causes of an
  accident
    Usually a combination of: -
       Unsafe Acts (fault of person)
       Unsafe Conditions (poor working
      environment)




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                   Accident Causation
Root (secondary/indirect) causes of an accident
Starts the accident chain
Management pressures
•   Lack of finance
•   Lack of policy
•   Lack of commitment
•   Poor standards
•   Lack of knowledge or qualification


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                   Accident Causation

Root (secondary/indirect) causes of an accident


   Social pressures
   – Group pressures
   – Trade customs
   – Tradition
   – “Acceptable” behavior


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    Theories of Accident Causation -
                           Tree Diagram
Sub cause          Cause               Accident   Injury


                               Unsafe Act




                              Unsafe condition




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   Example of Accident Causation -
                   Tree Diagram
Example
  Late for an appointment, Mr Smith slips on a
  patch of oil. The accident report form would
  typically be completed as follows:-
      “Oil cleaned up with granules,
      Mr Smith should take more
      care in future”

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       Example of Accident Causation -
               Tree Diagram
Root cause - Lack of management control

       • If management get things right in the
         beginning, you can eliminate or reduce
         the Root causes that
         lead to the immediate
         causes


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               Benefits of Good
         Health & Safety Management
 •   Reduces accidents
 •   Less ill-health
 •   Less absenteeism
 •   Less early retirement
 •   Better morale
 •   Reduced costs
 •   No lost production
 •   No loss of key personnel



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               Benefits of Good
         Health & Safety Management
 • No investigation costs - time, effort, money No
   staff replacement
 • Lower insurance premiums
 • No equipment damage or replacement
 • No legal costs or fines
 • Better product quality
 • Better resource allocation
 • Better employee & public relations



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          ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION &
                 REPORTING




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          Accident/Incident Reporting

   All accidents/incidents should be reported -
     Why?
      – Enables performance to be monitored
      – It’s the starting point of an investigation
      – Provides information for a civil claim
      – Prompts a need to review risk assessments
      – A RIDDOR requirement



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     Immediate Action in the Event of an
                 Accident
 •   Deal with immediate risks - first aid, fire etc
 •   Do not move anything other than casualty
 •   Fence off area
 •   Inform head office if off company premises
 •   Inform HSE/EHO by quickest means
 •   Inform next of kin



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     Immediate Action in the Event of an
                 Accident
 •   Take photos/videos if possible
 •   Take names & statements of witnesses
 •   Record accident in accident book
 •   Complete company accident form
 •   Complete & dispatch statutory reporting
     requirements (RIDDOR)



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               Accident Investigation



   Purpose - to establish true causes (immediate
     & root) of an accident in order to prevent a
     re-occurrence. To establish economic
     losses & extent of legal compliance




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     Who Might Want to Investigate?

 •   Employer
 •   Trade Union Safety Representative
 •   Enforcing authority HSE/EHO
 •   Insurance company
 •   Police




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              Accident Investigation

   • Four main points: -
      – Personal factors - disability, illness, state of
        mind
      – Environmental factors - lighting, temperature
      – Dangerous conditions - machinery
        maintenance, work pressures
      – Safe system of work - did one exist & was it
        used?


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   Long term Actions in the Event of an
                Accident
   • Investigate to prevent re-occurrence
   • Determine immediate & root causes
   • Revise safe system of work if necessary
   • Consider extra training, information, instruction &
     supervision
   • Revise health & safety policy


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      Accident Investigation Procedure

  •   Collect evidence, photos etc
  •   Interview witnesses
  •   Details of injuries, damage, loss
  •   What happened, where & why?
  •   What was immediate cause?
  •   Were standards, procedures, guards in place?
  •   Were they adequate/followed?


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     Accident Investigation Procedure -
                 continued
 • Were people competent, trained &
   supervised?
 • Would inspection have picked up the problem
   earlier?
 • Had it happened before?
 • What was the root cause?


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             ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

                                                                           Canteen

             Directional travel
                                   Jack Jones’
                                   Tow Truck           Loaded trailer
                                                                              Debbie Phelps
      5.5m
                                   1.7m          Shrink wrap rolls 1, 2 & 3
                                                                                     Barbara Stone
             Directional travel
                                     Peter Barnes’
                                                       Pallet 1     22 3
                                     Fork Truck                                  Anne Morgan
       Yellow tape                                                               (Victim)


        Shipping Office Door
                                                                                 Warehouse Admin
                                                                                 Office

                           North




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                   Accident Report
   Should state: -
      – Date & time of accident
      – Personal details
      – Type of accident & injury
      – Circumstance surrounding the accident
      – Immediate causes




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           Accident Report Continued
 Should state: -
    – Root causes
    – Witness details
    – Recommended corrective action
    – Costings
    – Review of policy




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      Re-active Accident Prevention

Definition - assessing past failures to control risks
   – Accident investigation
   – Incident investigation
   – Accident & ill-health records
   – Records of civil claims
   – Records of enforcement actions



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            Monitoring Performance -
                 Accident Data
   Common statistical formulae:
      – Accident Incident rate =
                     No. of injuries x 1,000
           Average no. employed during the period
      – Accident Frequency rate =
                   No. of injuries x 100,000
                  Total no. of hours worked

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            Monitoring Performance -
                 Accident Data
   Common statistical formulae
      – Severity rate =
                 Total no. of days lost x 1,000
                  Total no. of hours worked




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   Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and
 Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 95
               (RIDDOR)




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    Reporting of Injuries, Diseases &
   Dangerous Occurrences Regulations
            1995 (RIDDOR)
 Objectives: -
     – To provide enforcing authorities with
       information on specific injuries, diseases &
       dangerous occurrences arising from work
     – To bring the most serious injuries to the
       attention of the authorities quickly


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 RIDDOR - Immediate Reporting Requirements
Report to enforcing authority by quickest possible means
  (Telephone, fax, e-mail)
   – Fatal accidents & followed within 10 days by F2508
   – Major injuries & followed within 10 days by F2508
   – Dangerous occurrences & followed within 10 days by F2508
   – Diseases (upon diagnosis) & followed within 10 days by
     F2508A
   – The Reporting Centre may now complete the F2508 and
     send it to the reporting person for checking.



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 RIDDOR - Other Reporting Requirements
   • Minor injuries resulting in being unfit for work for more
     than 3 days, to enforcing authority on F2508 within 10
     days
   • Where victim is member of public & is taken to hospital,
     occupier reports
   • Where employee suffering injury or condition, died
     within one year as a result
   • All accidents must be recorded in the accident book
   • Keep records for 3 years after date of last entry



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              RIDDOR - Major Injuries
   • Fracture of skull, pelvis, arm, leg, hand, foot but not toes
     or fingers
   • Amputation
   • Loss of sight in an eye/penetrating injury
   • Loss of consciousness due to electric shock
   • Loss of consciousness due to lack of oxygen
   • Decompression sickness
   • Any other injury resulting in victim being admitted to
     hospital for more than 24 hours



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  RIDDOR - Dangerous Occurrences
  • Collapse, overturning, failure of lifts, cranes, hoists etc
  • Explosion, collapse or bursting of any closed vessel
  • Electrical short circuit or overload causing fire or
    explosion
  • Explosion or fire causing work to cease for more than 24
    hours
  • Uncontrolled release of 1 tonne or more of HFL
  • Complete/partial collapse of any scaffold over 5 metres
    high
  • Collapse of building or structure under construction


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                   RIDDOR - Diseases
   • Certain poisonings
   • Skin diseases e.g. skin cancer, chrome ulcer, oil
     folliculitis/acne
   • Lung diseases e.g. occupational asthma, extrinsic
     alveolitis, pneumoconiosis, mesothelioma
   • Biological infections e.g. leptospirosis, hepatitis, T.B,
     anthrax,
   • Other conditions e.g. Occupational cancer, cataracts,
     decompression sickness, VWF



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         RIDDOR - Diseases continued

 Determining if a disease is reportable: -
     – Linked to work activities
     – Send worker to doctor/specialist for confirmation
     – Upon confirmation, that the disease is defined
       under Schedule 2 of the regulations




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             Monitoring Performance




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 PROACTIVE MONITORING

•Monitoring of performance standards.

•Systematic inspection of plant/premises.
          Monitoring Performance -
                Safety Audit
   • A critical investigation of a company’s
     health & safety systems & the way they
     function, e.g. policy, SSW, training,
     monitoring procedures, emergency
     procedures, reporting procedures
   • Regular internal or external event,
     compares actual activities against stated
     aims
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          Monitoring Performance -
               Safety Survey
 • Detailed inspection of a specific field of
   activity or an in depth study of the whole
   health & safety operation of a premises e.g.
   management, administration, occupational
   health & hygiene provision, accident
   prevention, training, control of contractors,
   emergency procedures
 • Safety practitioner
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          Monitoring Performance -
                Safety Tours
 • Can take place in specific workplace areas &
   involve Managers, Supervisors & Safety
   Representatives
 • Senior Management




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          Monitoring Performance -
              Safety Sampling
   • An organised system of regular random
     sampling which aims to obtain a measure
     of safety attitudes & possible sources of
     accidents
   • Health & safety advisers visit


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          Monitoring Performance -
             Safety Inspection
   • General inspection of workplace/work
     process looking at the physical conditions
   • Identifies areas where improvements are
     needed
   • Manager, supervisor, safety representative


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          Monitoring Performance -
             Safety Inspection
   • Types of Inspection:
      – Statutory - lifting equipment, pressure systems
      – External - insurers, enforcement officers
      – Internal - Managers, safety representatives
      – Introductory - new equipment or processes
        (these may be statutory under PUWER)


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           Monitoring Performance
             Safety Inspection
 • Suggestions for an inspection:
     – Know who is inspecting
     – Know why inspection is needed
     – Know where to inspect
     – Know when inspection is needed
     – Know what to inspect
     – What are the standards - BSI, ISO, CEN etc
     – What are statutory requirements - Regulations?

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          Monitoring Performance -
             Safety Inspection
   • Suggestions for an inspection - continued
      – Use a check-list
      – Write everything down
      – Read previous reports?!?
      – Ask questions, particularly workers
      – Follow up any problems found to prevent
        inertia

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          Monitoring Performance -
             Safety Inspection
   • Inspection Check-List
      – Housekeeping
      – Electrical safety
      – Provision & use of PPE
      – Storage & use of hazardous substances
      – Manual handling
      – Environmental conditions

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          Monitoring Performance -
             Safety Inspection
   • Inspection Check-List - continued
      – Condition of traffic routes
      – Machinery
      – Internal transport
      – Safety signs
      – Emergency facilities
      – Welfare facilities

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