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					                 23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria
                 23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                                EAM Master Programs in
The Final Conference




                                                                     Malaysia:
                                                                      An overview

                                                                                                                             By:
                                                                                                            Dr. M. Rafee Majid
                                                                                                              Senior Lecturer &
                                                                                                                Deputy Director
                                                                               Centre for Innovative Planning and Development

                                                                                     Department of Urban & Regional Planning
                                                                                                Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
                                                                                                       81310 JOHOR BAHRU
                                                                                                              Johor, Malaysia
                                               Outline
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                               o Important Malaysian environmental regulations
                                               o Malaysian environmental education policies
                                               o Higher education in Malaysia
                                               o EAM related HE in Malaysia
                                               o Issues & Opportunities/Conclusions
                                                 Laws related to EAM
The Environmental Quality Act (EQA) of 1974…THE
Legislation.
  23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




 Prior to EQA of 1974
   o Many sectoral acts …..for early management response to environmental problems.
   o Not designed to address environmental problems but to promote sound practices in
      sectors.


 The EQA of 1974
   o Aim - the prevention, abatement, control of pollution and enhancement of the
     environment.
   o Most comprehensive legislation concerning environment in Malaysia (Sham, 1997).
   o BUT control oriented rather than geared towards prevention …vis-à-vis license
     mechanism (Heng, 2002).
                                                   Laws related to EAPM

                                               Brief Overview of Environmental Law in Malaysia
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                EQA Amendment of 1985
                                                  o EIA made a requirement for prescribed projects.
                                                  o Shifting of approach from CONTROL to PLANNING.

                                                EQA Amendment of 1996
                                                  o Introduction of Research Cess Fund & Environmental Auditing
                                                  o Emphasis more on Environmental Management and Monitoring.
                                               Laws related to EAPM
                 Impact Assessment (EIA, TIA, SIA, SEA) in Malaysia
                  E & T & S IA carried out separately.
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                  EIA voluntarily partially practiced in government projects beginning early
                   1980’s. Becomes mandatory in 1988.
                  Activities subject to EIA are prescribed under Environmental Quality
                   (Prescribed Activities)(EIA) Order, 1987. Currently 19 Prescribed Activities.
                  SIA and TIA are still an administrative requirement to be decided case by
                   case basis by DOE & relevant technical depts.
                  SEA is still emerging. Only Dept of Town & Country Planning is beginning to
                   look into its possible implementation.
                                                          Env Education & Malaysia’s Plans
                                                The strategic thrust in Eighth Malaysia Plan (2000-2005) includes:
                                                      – Reducing energy, materials, pollution and waste intensity of urban-
                                                         industrial activity to address air pollution, mitigate deterioration in water
                                                         quality and waste disposal.
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                      – Increase fiscal policy and promote market-based instruments and self-
                                                         regulatory among industries.
                                                      – Promote environmental performance measure and database.
                                                      – Empowering local authorities and engaging local communities.
                                                      – Enhancing land use planning, intensify biodiversity conservation and
                                                         sustainable forest management and maritime affairs.

                                                Aims of the National Environmental Policy of 2002:
                                                  o Integrate environmental consideration into development activities and in all
                                                    related decision making processes.
                                                  o Sets out the principles and strategies necessary to ensure that the environment
                                                    remains productive both ecologically and economically.


                                                One of the key areas outlined in the policy - Education and Awareness
                                                  Higher Education in Malaysia
                                               Brief Overview

                                                Public Universities (IPTA)
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                 – 20 Universities

                                                Private Universities (IPTS)
                                                 – 21 Universities
                                                 – 22 College Universities
                                                 – 5 Branch campuses of foreign universities


                                               Focus of presentation is on public universities
                                               Higher Education in Malaysia

                                                TOTAL ENROLMENT AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
                                                                YEAR 2002 - 2007
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria
                                               Higher Education in Malaysia
                                                    TOTAL MASTERS ENROLMENT AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
                                                                        YEAR 2002 - 2007
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria
                                               Higher Education in Malaysia
                                                    TOTAL PhD ENROLMENT AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
                                                                      YEAR 2002 - 2007
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria
                                                   ~ 19,000 students
    23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




~ 21,000 students




~ 22,500 students
                                                   ~ 29,000 students




~ 24,000 students                                  ~ 21,500 students
                                                           EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                           Universities
                                               •    At what level are EAM-related subjects taught?
                                               A.    Undergraduate
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                    • Introductory level classes concerning EIA and Env Planning & Mgmt for engineering
                                                       & planning students.
                                                    • More extensive coverage in Env Science or Env Studies curricula (such as at UPM,
                                                       UM & UKM).

                                               B.    Graduate
                                                    • Offered by coursework masters programmes.
                                                    • Extensive coverage by environmentally-focused masters programmes (Env Mgmt,
                                                       Env Planning, Env Studies)
                                                    • Electives for environmental-related masters programmes (engineering, planning)
                                                    • Electives for PhD in some programmes.
                                                    • More than 500 students currently enrolled nation-wide.
                                                        EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                        Universities
                                               • Ms. Programmes requiring EAM-related subjects
                                                          University                            Masters Programme
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                              UTM                 M. Engineering (Env)
                                                (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)   MSc (Safety, Health & Environment)
                                                                                  MSc (Planning – Env. & Resource Mgmt)
                                                                                  Master of Urban Planning
                                                            UKM                   M.Eng (Environmental)
                                                   (Universiti Kebangsaan         M.Eng (Civil)
                                                         Malaysia)                M.Eng (Chemical)
                                                                                  MSc (Conservation Biology)
                                                                                  MSc (Plant Genetic Resource Mgmt)
                                                                                  MSc (Engineering Geology)
                                                                                  MSc (Env. Assessment & Monitoring)
                                                                                  MSc (Marine Science)
                                                                                  MSc (Engineering and Env. Geophysics)
                                                                                  MSc (Industrial Minerals)
                                                             UPM                  Master of Environment
                                                  (Universiti Putra Malaysia
                                                        EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                        Universities
                                               • Ms. Programmes requiring EAPM-related subjects
                                                         University                                  Graduate
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                            UM                   MSc (Science & Env. Mgmt)
                                                   (University of Malaya)        MSc’s offered by Inst. of Postgraduate Studies
                                                             USM                 MSc (Housing)
                                                 (Universiti Sains Malaysia)     MSc (Landscape Architecture)
                                                                                 MSc (Chemical Engineering)
                                                                                 MSc (Environmental Engineering)
                                                                                 MSc (Sust. River Mgmt)

                                                               UIA               Master of Urban and Regional Planning
                                               (Universiti Islam Antarabangsa)
                                                                  EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                                  Universities
                                                                                                               Where are they offered?
                                                         Faculties/schools:
                                                               • Engineering (Civil/Chemical/Environmental)
                                                               • Urban Planning/Studies
                                                               • Environmental Sciences/Studies
      23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                     University                Engineering Faculties/Schools   Non-engineering Faculties/Schools
              UTM                                                              Civil Engineering               Urban & Regional Planning
(Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)                                                Chemical Engineering
             UKM                                                               Civil Engineering               Environmental Science and Natural
    (Universiti Kebangsaan                                                                                     Resources
          Malaysia)
             UM                                                                Civil Engineering               Urban Studies
    (University of Malaya)                                                     Chemical Engineering            Biological Sciences
                                                                               Environmental Engineering       Economics
                                                                                                               Law
              USM                                                              Civil Engineering               Urban Planning
  (Universiti Sains Malaysia)                                                  Chemical Engineering            Landscape Architecture
             UPM                                                               Civil Engineering               Environmental Sciences and
  (Universiti Putra Malaysia                                                                                   Management
                UIA                                                                                            Urban Planning
(Universiti Islam Antarabangsa)
                                                      EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                      Universities
                                                                                How are they taught?

• Subjects with various names & contents.
• Can be classified into:
    o Engineering-biased remedial
       23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




      based/approach.                                                          Non-engineering Faculties/Schools
    o Systemic planning and management                                   Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
      based/approach.                                                    Environmental Planning & Management
    o Economic based/approach.                                           Environmental Management Systems
    o Institutional (acts & laws) based/approach.                        Environmental Health and Safety
                                                                         Environment and Sustainable Development
                                                                         Urbanization and Environment
        Engineering Faculties/Schools                                    Environmental Economics
 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)                                  Environmental Law
 Solid Waste Management & EIA                                           Ethics and Environmental Conservation
 Environmental Engineering and Management                               Environmental Ethics
 Safety Engineering and Environmental                                   Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
  Management                                                              Plan
 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment                                Environmental Policy and Governance
  Technologies                                                           Land Use and Environmental Planning
 Management of Environmental Risk                                       Environmental Sustainability and Management
 Safety, Health and Environmental                                       Project Impact Assessment
  Management                                                             Disaster Management and Planning
                                                        EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                        Universities
                                                                                                              ..Some Subject Lists
                                               Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)
  Subject                                                                      Subject                               Credit    Course/Program
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




  Matter                                                                                                             Hours
Management •                                             Environmental Management                                   3 credits
           •                                             Solid and Hazardous Waste Management                       3 credits    M.Eng (Env)
           •                                             Water Quality Management                                   3 credits
           •                                             Sludge Management                                          3 credits
           •                                             Safety, Health and Environmental Management                3 credits MSc (Safety, Health
           •                                             Crisis Management & Legal Aspects in SHE                   3 credits  & Environment)
           •                                             Occupational Health and Disease Management                 3 credits
           •                                             Urban & Regional management Finance                        3 credits   MSc (URP), FAB
 Planning/  •                                            Planning of Wastewater Treatment System                    3 credits
  Design    •                                            Wastewater Treatment Plant Design                          3 credits    M.Eng (Env)
            •                                            Sewerage System: Design, Construction, Commissioning and   3 credits
                                                         Operation
                                                    •    Environmental Resource Planning                            3 credits     MSc (URP)
                                                    EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                    Universities
                                                                                                          ..Some Subject Lists
                                               Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)
  Subject                                                                     Subject                        Credit    Course/Program
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




  Matter                                                                                                     Hours
Assessment    •                                       Environmental Monitoring and Sampling                 3 credits
              •                                       Environmental Quality Analysis                        3 credits    M.Eng (Env)
              •                                       Environmental Modelling                               3 credits
              •                                       Environmental Assessment, Risk and Sustainability     3 credits
Engineering/ •                                        Environmental Control Technology                      3 credits
Technology/ •                                         Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Reuse             3 credits
  Science    •                                        Cleaner Technology                                    3 credits
             •                                        Principles of Environmental Engineering               3 credits    M.Eng (Env)
             •                                        River Rehabilitation                                  3 credits
             •                                        Non-Point Source Pollution                            3 credits
             •                                        Industrial Hygiene                                    3 credits MSc (Safety, Health
             •                                        Resources Engineering                                 3 credits  & Environment)
             •                                        Pollution Control                                     3 credits
                                                       EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                       Universities
                                                 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) ..Some Subject Lists
  Subject                                                                  Subject                        Credit        Course/Program
  Matter                                                                                                  Hours
Management                                          •   Environmental Management: Ecology, Audit &       3 credits        M.Eng (Env)
                                                        Environmental Impacts                            3 credits
                                                    •   Waste Audit, Minimization and Management         3 credits
  23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                    •   Municipal Solid Waste Management                 3 credits
                                                    •   Environmental Risk Management
                                                    •   Environmental Management &                       3 credits        M.Eng (Civil)
                                                        Energy Ecology, Environmental Audit and Impact
                                                        Assessment
                                                    •   Waste Minimisation & Management                  3 credits       M.Eng (Chem)
                                                    •   Environmental Management System                  3 credits    All Courses in FS&T
                                                    •   Environmental and Natural Resources Economics    3 credits MSc (Conservation Biology);
                                                                                                                    MSc (Env. Assessment &
                                                                                                                          Monitoring)
                                                    •   Environmental Ethics                             2 credits  MSc (Env. Assessment &
                                                                                                                          Monitoring),
                                                                                                                    MSc (Industrial Minerals)
 Planning/                                          •   Design of Wastewater Treatment Plant             3 credits        M.Eng (Env)
  Design                                            •   Pollution Control Equipment Design               3 credits
                                                    •   Sustainable Urban Design                         3 credits        M.Eng (Civil)
Assessment                                             Environmental and Risk Impact Assessment         3 credits        M.Eng (Civil)
                                                       Geohazards Inspection                            3 credits    MSc (Geology Eng.)
                                                       Environmental Impact Analysis Technique and                 MSc (Env. Assessment &
                                                        Procedures                                       3 credits        Monitoring);
                                                    EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                    Universities
                                                                                                             ..Some Subject Lists
                                               Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  Subject                                                                 Subject                           Credit       Course/Program
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




  Matter                                                                                                    Hours
Management                                             Environmental Law                                  3 credits
                                                       Impact Assessment and Environmental                3 credits
                                                        Management Plan
                                                       Trade, Finance, and Sustainable Development        3 credits
                                                       Industrial Environmental Management                3 credits
                                                       Solid and Toxic Waste Management                   3 credits
             Planning/                                                          -                              -
              Design                                                                                                   Master of Environment
            Assessment                                 Research Design and Methodology for                3 credits          (M.Env)
                                                        Environmental Sciences
                                                       Environmental Impact Assessment Techniques         3 credits
                                                       Environmental Research Project                     6 credits
    Engineering/                                       Man and Ecosystem                                  3 credits
    Technology/                                        Environmental Pollution and Treatment Technology   3 credits
      Science                                          Urban Climate and Air Pollution                    3 credits
                                                       Water Pollution Control Technology                 3 credits
                                                     EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                     Universities
                                                                                                            ..Some Subject Lists
                                                Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  Subject                                                                Subject                        Credit            Course
  Matter                                                                                                Hours
 23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




Management •                                           Solid and Hazardous Waste Management            4 credits  MSc (Env. Engineering)
           •                                           River Management                                4 credits      MSc (Sust. River
           •                                           Urban Drainage Management                       4 credits       Management)
           •                                           Safety Engineering and Environmental Management 4 credits MSc (Chemical Engineering)
           •                                           Planning Law and Administration                 3 credits       MSc (Planning)
           •                                           Urban and Regional Economics
 Planning/ •                                           Theory and Philosophy of Landscape Design       3 credits      MSc (Landscape
  Design   •                                           Principles and Theories of Design                               Architecture)
                                                       EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                       Universities
                                                                                                 ..Some Subject Lists
                                                Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  Subject                                                                 Subject            Credit             Course
  Matter                                                                                     Hours
 23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




Assessment                                            Environmental Impact Assessment      4 credits   MSc (Env. Engineering);
                                                                                                           MSc (Housing);
                                                                                                           MSc (Planning)
                                                                                                          MSc (Landscape
                                                                                                            Architecture)
                                                      Hydroinformatics                     4 credits   MSc (Env. Engineering)
                                                      GIS for Landscape Design             3 credits     MSc (Landscape
                                                                                                            Architecture)
                                                      Methods of Planning Analysis         3 credits      MSc (Planning)
Engineering/                                          Water Supply Engineering             4 credits
Technology/                                           Waste Water Engineering                          MSc (Env. Engineering)
  Science                                             Sustainable Drainage System
                                                      Air and Noise Pollution Control
                                                      River Ecosystems                     4 credits      MSc (Sust. River
                                                      Hydraulic Stsructure                                Management)
                                                      Hydrology and Watershed Management
                                                      Landscape Resource Management        3 credits      MSc (Landscape
                                                                                                            Architecture)
                                                      Infrastructure Technology            3 credits      MSc (Planning)
                                                     EAM Master Programmes at Public
                                                     Universities
                                                                                                 ..Some Subject Lists
                                                Universiti Islam Antarabangsa (UIA)
  Subject                                                                Subject              Credit         Course
  Matter                                                                                      Hours
 23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




Management                                            Values, Ethics and Built Environment
                                                      Planning Practice and Management        n/a
                                                      Planning and Sustainability
                                                      Environmental Law and Policy
 Planning/                                            Environmental and Resource Planning
   Design                                             Tourism Planning and Development        n/a
                                                      Park and Recreational Planning
Assessment                                            Planning Models and Techniques                  Master of Urban and
                                                      Planning and Decision Support System    n/a      Regional Planning
                                                      Modeling and Spatial Analysis                         (MURP)
Engineering/                                          Traffic Engineering                     n/a
Technology/
  Science
                                                          EAM in neighbouring countries
                                                                                                             A Brief Look
                                                  University         Faculties/Schools              Course/Program
  23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




          NTU                                                    School of Civil and         MSc (Civil Eng.)
  (Nanyang Technological                                         Environmental Engineering   MSc (Env. Eng.)
University,                                         Singapore)                               MSc (Env. Science & Eng.)

             NUS                                                 Multi-faculty               MSc (Environmental
    (National University of                                                                  Management)
                                                 Singapore)      School of Design and        MSc (Building Performance and
                                                                 Environment                 Sustainability)
                                                                                             MA (Urban Design)
                                                                                             Master of Landscape
                                                                                             Architecture (MLA)
                                                                                             MSc (Integrated Sustainable
                                                                                             Design)
                                                                 Faculty of Engineering      MSc (Civil Eng.)
                                                                                             MSc (Env. Eng.)
                                                                                             MSc (Safety, Health & Env. Tech.)
                                                       EAM in neighbouring countries

                                               University        Faculties/Schools              Course/Program
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                Mahidol University,                          Faculty of Environment and   MSc (Natural Resource
                                                             Resource Studies             Management)
                                               Thailand                                   MSc (Technology of
                                                                                          Environmental Management)
                                                                                          MSc (Information Management
                                                                                          on Environments and Resources)
                                                                                          MSc (Industrial Ecology and
                                                                                          Environment)
                                                                                          MSc (Sustainable Environment
                                                                                          Planning)
                                                                                          MSc (Technology of
                                                                                          Environmental Management)
                                                                                          MSc (Appropriate Technology for
                                                                                          Resources and Environmental
                                                                                          Development)
                                                        EAM in neighbouring countries

                                                University       Faculties/Schools              Course/Program
 23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




Universitas Gadjah Mada,                                        Faculty of Engineering   MSc (Geological Eng.)
                                    Indonesia                                            MSc (Civil Eng.)
                                                                                         MSc (Natural Disaster
                                                                                         Management)
                                                                                         MSc (Waster Resource
                                                                                         Management)
                                                                                         MSc (Urban & Regional Planning)
                                                                                         MSc (Transportation Engineering
                                                                                         and System)
                                                                 Faculty of Forestry     MSc (Forestry)
                                                                Faculty of Geography     MSc (Environmental Science)
                                                                                         MSc (Geography)
                                                         Conclusions

                                               1. Issues
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                  i.     EAM subjects contents are biased according to the
                                                         faculties/schools offering them.

                                                  ii.    Little evidence of interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of
                                                         EAM at university level.

                                                  iii.   Overall, more emphasis on EIA but limited coverage of SIA and
                                                         SEA.

                                                  iv.    Lacking in informal forms of EAM education/training.
                                                          Conclusions

                                               2. Challenges & opportunities
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                                                   i.     How to make EAM education/subjects more multidisciplinary?

                                                   ii.    There are more to EAM than EIA. What about SIA, SEA and other
                                                          approaches?

                                                   iii.   How to increase informal EAM education/training to
                                                          empower/engage local communities?

                                                   iv.    How to cater for increasing number of international students?
23-24 Sept 2010, University of Graz, Austria




                         Tq

				
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