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Ancient Egypt _ the Nile Valley

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									Ancient Egypt & the Nile Valley

        Chapter 3 Notes
         A River Valley & Its People
   One of the world’s first
    civilizations developed along
    the banks of the Nile
       In northeastern Africa
       Nile = world’s longest river
   People of the Nile relied on the
    river’s yearly floods to bring
    them water
   Green Nile Valley = stark
    contrast to deserts
    surrounding it on either side
A River Valley & Its People
            Rich black soil in Valley =
             good for farming
            5000 BCE = farmers began to
             settle down in the Valley
                Grew cereal crops (wheat,
                 barley)
                Hunted ducks & geese; fished
            Early Egyptians harvested
             papyrus
                Used for rope, sandals, baskets,
                 and paper
       A River Valley & Its People
   Early farming villages
    prospered --> WHY??
    Because they were
    protected from foreign
    invasions by deserts and
    cataracts (waterfalls) in the
    Nile
   Strong leaders united the
    farming villages into
    kingdoms or monarchies
    ruled by a king
A River Valley & Its People
          By 4000 BCE, Egypt had 2
           large kingdoms
              Lower Egypt (in the north)
              Upper Egypt (in the south)
              3000 BCE = Narmer (king of
               Upper Egypt) attacked Lower
               Egypt and united the 2
                Capital = Memphis
                1st of the Egyptian dynasties

                Egyptian dynasties divided into 3
                 periods: Old, Middle, New
             The Old Kingdom
          (2700 BCE to 2200 BCE)
   People saw their kings as gods
       Called a theocracy = same person
        is the political AND religious leader
       King gave many responsibilities to
        a bureaucracy = groups of
        government officials
       King controlled trade & taxes
       King supervised building of canals,
        dams, grain storehouses
   The Old Kingdom
(2700 BCE to 2200 BCE)
               Egyptians built
                pyramids as burial
                places for their
                kings
                   Great Pyramids in
                    Giza
                   King’s bodies were
                    mummified for
                    preservation
Pyramids as Tombs
Mummification
        The Middle Kingdom
      (2050 BCE to 1800 BCE)
   Old Kingdom ended with violence & a new
    dynasty reunited Egypt
   Capital moved to Thebes
   Theben kings = seized new territory &
    added thousands of acres to their
    civilization
   Built canals and irrigation systems
             The Middle Kingdom
           (2050 BCE to 1800 BCE)
   Local leaders began to
    challenge the kings’ power,
    which threatened peace
       At same time = 1st real threat
        to Egypt = invasion by Hyksos
        (people from western Asia)
       Hyksos swept through with
        new tools for war --> bronze
        weapons & horse-drawn
        chariots
       Easily conquered the
        Egyptians & set up a new
        dynasty (for about 110 years)
The New Kingdom
         Egyptian prince named
          Ahmose raised an army
          & drove the Hyksos out
         Ahmose & those that
          came after him used
          the title pharaoh
             Rebuilt Egypt &
              conquered more land
                 The New Kingdom
   1480 BCE = Queen Hatshepsut
    came to power in Egypt = 1st
    female pharaoh
       After her death, her stepson
        Thutmose III took over
       Thutmose III created an army,
        conquered neighboring Syria, and
        expanded the Egyptian empire
       Empire = many territories under
        one ruler
       Egyptian empire grew rich &
        benefited from cultural diffusion
The New Kingdom
       1370 BCE = ruler named
        Amenhotep = created new
        religion with just 1 god
           Changed his named to
            Akhenaton = “spirit of Aton”
           Aton = sun-disk god = only
            1 to be worshipped
           Controversial, so after his
            death the priests went back
            to old religion
           King Tut took over for him
King Tut’s Tomb
                The New Kingdom
   1200s BCE =
    Ramses II (Ramses
    the Great)
       Built large statues of
        himself, temples, and
        tombs
       After his death, Egypt
        weakened under
        attacks from invaders
        & was taken over by
        foreigners
             Life in Ancient Egypt
                  Social Order
   Upper class =
    kings, nobles,
    priests
   Middle class =
    artisans, scribes,
    merchants
   Lower class
    (majority of
    Egyptians) =
    farmers, poor
   Lowest of the low =
    slaves
Life in Ancient Egypt
       Families
             In cities & upper
              class = husband,
              wife, children
             Outside the city &
              poor families = also
              included
              grandparents &
              other relatives
           Life in Ancient Egypt
                   Women
   In the beginning =
    property of their
    husbands
   By the time of the
    Egyptian Empire =
    they could own
    property and divorce
    their husbands; had
    more rights
       Life in Ancient Egypt
              Religion
                    Very important to early
                     Egyptians
                    Polytheistic = believed
                     in more than one god
                    Gods were often half
                     human, half animal
                    Believed in an afterlife –
 The ankh =          burial rituals reflect this
symbol of life
              Some Egyptian Gods

              Ra = Sun
                God                     Osiris = God
                                        of the Dead
              King of the
                 Gods
 Horus =
Son of Iris                  Anubis =                  Iris = Queen
 & Osiris                     God of                        of the
                            Embalming                   Goddesses
                Life in Ancient Egypt
                        Writing
   Used hieroglyphics (picture
    symbols) for writing
   Few people could read or
    write
   Language remained a
    mystery until discovery of the
    Rosetta Stone in 1799
       (Greek writing matched the
        hieroglyphs on the Stone)
           Life in Ancient Egypt
                  Science
   Developed a number
    system
   Used geometry to calculate
    volume and area
   Created a 365-day
    calendar
   Developed medical
    expertise  used splints,
    bandages, etc.

								
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