Aim: What were the
causes of the Cold War?
Student will be able to identify the events
leading up to the Cold War.
Student will be able to describe the steps
taken by the United States to stop the
spread of communism.
2. The Cold War in the West
The Allied Powers of World War 2 helped
to defeat the Nazis in Europe, but sadly,
the same powers found cooperation to be
difficult following the war.
England, France and the United States
feared the spread of Soviet communism in
Europe-this fear helped to cause the Cold
A Cold War is a war without any fighting
but in which side uses means short of
military influence to expand its influence.
The first area of the Cold War was
Western Europe in the years following
World War 2.
Map of the Cold War
The Cold War began two years after World War 2 ended. A Cold War is a war
where there is no fighting.
The Cold War brought the US and its allies against the Soviet Union and their
What is the definition of a cold war?
2.1 Promises and Problems
Some of the problems between the Soviet Union
and the West grew out of the failure of the Soviet
Union to live up to its promises made during
The Soviet Union promised both the US and
England that as they freed Eastern Europe they
would hold elections after liberation.
Well…the Soviet Union, with their fingers
crossed agreed with the West, then they
established Communist governments in the
Division of Europe After WW2
Winston Churchill grew concerned that
Eastern Europe was slowly becoming
influenced by the Soviet Union.
Churchill warned that an “iron curtain” was
being putting up by the Soviet Union to
keep their hold on Eastern Europe while
preventing England and the United States
from influencing the area.
Eastern Europe After 1945
What led to the cold war?
In the late 1940s, Greece and Turkey
became the first battleground during the
Following the war, two sides in Greece,
Communists and Nationalists began
fighting one another. The Nationalists
turned to the United Nations in 1947 to
stop Soviet influence.
Turkey was desired by the Soviets
because of its access to the
The Soviets wanted the Dardanelles, a
small waterway that would connect the
Soviet Union to the Mediterranean Sea.
Turkey turned to the United States for
Where was the first battleground of the
2.2 Spread of Communism
One of the goals the Soviets had during the Cold
War was to spread communism in all directions.
To do this, the nations of Eastern Europe
conquered by the Soviets became known as
satellite nations. The Soviet Union controlled
those nations every move.
To stop the spread of communism, the United
States adopted a policy of containment. Under it,
the United States promised to contain and limit
the spread of communism
The US policy of containment was written
in the Truman Doctrine of 1947.
President Truman stated that the United
States would lend money to nations that
were being threatened by Communist
Congress allowed Truman to lend $400
million dollars to both Greece and Turkey.
To help restore the European economy, Secretary of
State George Marshall drafted the Marshall Plan.
Under the Marshall Plan, Europe would receive some
$17,000,000,000 in American economic aid.
The Marshall Plan went into effect in 1948. Every nation
in Europe would be helped.
However, the Soviet Union and their satellite nations
would receive no aid because the Soviets refused any
assistance from the US.
The Soviet Union vowed to help their nations with
economic aid. However, the Soviet Union economy was
heavily damaged by the war, so money was tight.
What was the Truman Doctrine?
What was the Marshall Plan?
What was the policy of containment?
2.3 Berlin Blockade (1948)
The chief struggle between the Allies and the
Soviet Union came in the nation of Germany.
The Western nations of England, France and the
US all felt that Germany should be a self-
governing, economically strong nation.
The Soviet Union did not favor this idea-they still
wished to control their occupied area after World
Things came to a head on June 7, 1948.
On June 7, 1948, the Western powers
stated that they were going to create a
government in West Germany.
The Soviet Union stated that this was a
violation of the 1945 Potsdam Agreement,
so on June 24, 1948, they began a tight
blockade of all land and water routes into
the city of Berlin.
Why did the Soviets blockade Berlin?
How did the Western powers counteract
the Berlin blockade?
Berlin was located in the Soviet occupied
zone and was also divided into four zones
The Soviets also believed that through a
blockade the western nations would leave
the city of Berlin.
To get around the blockade, the Western
powers organized an airlift to get supplies
American and British pilots made over
272,000 flights into Berlin delivering
2,300,000 tons of supplies.
In May of 1949, the Soviet Union lifted the
Soon after, two separate governments
were set up in Germany-West Germany
and East Germany.
What was the purpose of the Berlin Airlift?
2.4 NATO Alliance
The Berlin blockade alarmed leaders of the west.
Truman and many other leaders believed that the Truman Doctrine
and the Marshall Plan would be an adequate defense against the
In April 1949, the leaders of Western Europe and the United States
formed an alliance called NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
The original members of NATO include the United States, Canada,
England, France, Belgium, Italy, Norway, Iceland, Greece, Turkey,
Portugal, Luxemborg and the Netherlands. West Germany would
join in 1952.
The members of NATO supported the United States and agreed to
settle disputes through peaceful means. They also agreed that an
attack on one nation is an attack on all the nations.
What were the purposes of NATO?