Aim What were the causes of the Cold War

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					  Aim: What were the
causes of the Cold War?
 Student will be able to identify the events
  leading up to the Cold War.
 Student will be able to describe the steps
  taken by the United States to stop the
  spread of communism.
  2. The Cold War in the West
 The Allied Powers of World War 2 helped
  to defeat the Nazis in Europe, but sadly,
  the same powers found cooperation to be
  difficult following the war.
 England, France and the United States
  feared the spread of Soviet communism in
  Europe-this fear helped to cause the Cold
 A Cold War is a war without any fighting
  but in which side uses means short of
  military influence to expand its influence.
 The first area of the Cold War was
  Western Europe in the years following
  World War 2.
              Map of the Cold War

The Cold War began two years after World War 2 ended. A Cold War is a war
where there is no fighting.
The Cold War brought the US and its allies against the Soviet Union and their
               Question 1
 What is the definition of a cold war?
   2.1 Promises and Problems
 Some of the problems between the Soviet Union
  and the West grew out of the failure of the Soviet
  Union to live up to its promises made during
 The Soviet Union promised both the US and
  England that as they freed Eastern Europe they
  would hold elections after liberation.
 Well…the Soviet Union, with their fingers
  crossed agreed with the West, then they
  established Communist governments in the
Division of Europe After WW2
 Winston Churchill grew concerned that
  Eastern Europe was slowly becoming
  influenced by the Soviet Union.
 Churchill warned that an “iron curtain” was
  being putting up by the Soviet Union to
  keep their hold on Eastern Europe while
  preventing England and the United States
  from influencing the area.
Eastern Europe After 1945
              Question 2
 What led to the cold war?
 In the late 1940s, Greece and Turkey
  became the first battleground during the
  Cold War.
 Following the war, two sides in Greece,
  Communists and Nationalists began
  fighting one another. The Nationalists
  turned to the United Nations in 1947 to
  stop Soviet influence.
 Turkey was desired by the Soviets
  because of its access to the
  Mediterranean Sea.
 The Soviets wanted the Dardanelles, a
  small waterway that would connect the
  Soviet Union to the Mediterranean Sea.
 Turkey turned to the United States for
Greece/Civil War
              Question 2
 Where was the first battleground of the
 Cold War?
    2.2 Spread of Communism
 One of the goals the Soviets had during the Cold
  War was to spread communism in all directions.
 To do this, the nations of Eastern Europe
  conquered by the Soviets became known as
  satellite nations. The Soviet Union controlled
  those nations every move.
 To stop the spread of communism, the United
  States adopted a policy of containment. Under it,
  the United States promised to contain and limit
  the spread of communism
 The US policy of containment was written
  in the Truman Doctrine of 1947.
 President Truman stated that the United
  States would lend money to nations that
  were being threatened by Communist
 Congress allowed Truman to lend $400
  million dollars to both Greece and Turkey.
 To help restore the European economy, Secretary of
    State George Marshall drafted the Marshall Plan.
   Under the Marshall Plan, Europe would receive some
    $17,000,000,000 in American economic aid.
   The Marshall Plan went into effect in 1948. Every nation
    in Europe would be helped.
   However, the Soviet Union and their satellite nations
    would receive no aid because the Soviets refused any
    assistance from the US.
   The Soviet Union vowed to help their nations with
    economic aid. However, the Soviet Union economy was
    heavily damaged by the war, so money was tight.
             Question 3
 What was the Truman Doctrine?
             Question 4
 What was the Marshall Plan?
              Question 5
 What was the policy of containment?
    2.3 Berlin Blockade (1948)
 The chief struggle between the Allies and the
  Soviet Union came in the nation of Germany.
 The Western nations of England, France and the
  US all felt that Germany should be a self-
  governing, economically strong nation.
 The Soviet Union did not favor this idea-they still
  wished to control their occupied area after World
  War 2.
 Things came to a head on June 7, 1948.
 On June 7, 1948, the Western powers
  stated that they were going to create a
  government in West Germany.
 The Soviet Union stated that this was a
  violation of the 1945 Potsdam Agreement,
  so on June 24, 1948, they began a tight
  blockade of all land and water routes into
  the city of Berlin.
              Question 6
 Why did the Soviets blockade Berlin?
             Question 7
 How did the Western powers counteract
 the Berlin blockade?
 Berlin was located in the Soviet occupied
  zone and was also divided into four zones
  of occupation.
 The Soviets also believed that through a
  blockade the western nations would leave
  the city of Berlin.
 To get around the blockade, the Western
  powers organized an airlift to get supplies
  into Berlin.
 American and British pilots made over
  272,000 flights into Berlin delivering
  2,300,000 tons of supplies.
 In May of 1949, the Soviet Union lifted the
 Soon after, two separate governments
  were set up in Germany-West Germany
  and East Germany.
               Question 8
 What was the purpose of the Berlin Airlift?
              2.4 NATO Alliance
 The Berlin blockade alarmed leaders of the west.
 Truman and many other leaders believed that the Truman Doctrine
  and the Marshall Plan would be an adequate defense against the
 In April 1949, the leaders of Western Europe and the United States
  formed an alliance called NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
 The original members of NATO include the United States, Canada,
  England, France, Belgium, Italy, Norway, Iceland, Greece, Turkey,
  Portugal, Luxemborg and the Netherlands. West Germany would
  join in 1952.
 The members of NATO supported the United States and agreed to
  settle disputes through peaceful means. They also agreed that an
  attack on one nation is an attack on all the nations.
             Question 9
 What were the purposes of NATO?

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