Strategies

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					TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN AND
   CHILDREN FOR SEXUAL
       EXPLOITATION


 Presented by: Bethany Horstman, Erin Kao, Katie Kilcline,
                Wei Chern Ng, Fang Zhao
      Development Practice in International Settings
Overview

 Background and Trends
 Definition
 Prevention
 Intervention
 Case Studies
 Recommendations
Human Trafficking
Industry
 The United Nations estimates nearly
  2.5 million people from 127 different
  countries are being trafficked around
  the world.
 Human trafficking is the fastest-
  growing criminal industry in the world,
  between $5 billion and $9 billion.
 Global annual market of about $42.5
  billion.
Human Trafficking
Defined
    The TVPA defines “severe forms of
     trafficking” as:
    a.   Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act
         is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in
         which the person induced to perform such an
         act has not attained 18 years of age; or
    b.   the recruitment, harboring, transportation,
         provision, or obtaining of a person for labor
         or service, through the use of force, fraud, or
         coercion for the purpose of subjection to
         involuntary servitude, peonage, debt
         bondage, or slavery.
The Purposes of human
trafficking

 Prostitution
 Forced labor
 Involuntary servitude
 Adoption – sale of babies
What is Trafficking?
The “3 P” in anti-
trafficking
Protection: The Trafficking Victims Protection Act,
  2000(TVPA)
Trafficking in Persons report, 2009.

 Punishment: Punishing trafficking offenders.

 Protection: Legally prescribed penalties;
  protecting victims adequately.

 Prevention: Imposed penalties; spotlights on
  addressing demand.
 PREVENTION & INTERVENTION–
 ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS
International / Regional Organisations




      International organisations
 Non-governmental organisations/
 Foundations / Corporate organisations
 Local governments
 Local organisations



Ho Chi Minh City Child Welfare Federation
 Faith-based organisations




 Coalitions
 Prevention and the Role of
 NGOs
 Methods are directed at a particular site:
   Origin, transit, borders, destination
 4 Categories of Intervention:
   Individuals, communities, private businesses, and
    local and national government officials
 3 Types of Intervention:
   Awareness/Education, Community networking,
    and Empowerment
 Target Populations

 Target on the Supply Side:
   children and women, between 5 and 25, rural,
    poor, with little education
   also urban, educated women targeted through
    the entertainment and marriage-broker industries


 Target on the Demand Side:
   individual male clients, male tourists,
    businessmen
Raising Awareness
Prevention on the Supply side:

 -radio soap opera
 -Television PSAs
 -Toll-free hotline with info on travel abroad,
  migration, legal jobs, and the dangers of
  trafficking
 -school outreach programs
 -feature-length films
 -Public rallies in markets
Raising Awareness
Prevention on the Demand side:
 -“Infomercial” with the message that “real men
  don’t buy women”
 -A film aimed at clients and recruiters that
  graphically depicts the devastation done to a
  woman
 -A campaign for traffickers, tourists, and the
  public that warns that the public will not
  tolerate child exploitation
 Community Networking
 Strategies:
   Elicit community level monitoring
   Start new NGOs
   Build capacity organizations
 Examples:
   vigilante groups of mothers in high-risk areas to
    protect daughters
   networking among street vendors in bus stations to
    watch travelers and empower them to protect women
   training, networking, conferences for professionals
    and NGOs
 Empowerment

 Target: at-risk women –girls with limited access to
  jobs, those about to graduate, those that are victims
  of violence, and orphans or rural girls
 Strategies:
   vocational training, educational training, and income-
      generating projects
     legal education, community centers, prevention homes,
      micro-credit, raise self-esteem
     creating job opportunities
     intercepted, rescued and repatriated girls to identify
      traffickers and trafficked women at borders
     loans etc. to support families to prevent them from selling
      children
 Effectiveness and
 Sustainability
 NGOs work well on a grassroots level, with local people in
  a local context
 Few NGOs are able to run sustainable, long-term
  programs, lack of funding
 Difficult to analyze outcomes of prevention
 Conflicting ideologies on prostitution
Intervention Strategies
 Support after returning
   Counseling (individual & family)
   Non-formal education
   Transitional shelter
   Seed money for return home (business)
   Skills training: crafts, child care, animal
    husbandry
   Medical care
 Residential care for those who cannot go
  home
   Long-term residential care
   Job placement (self-organization)
   Arranged marriages
 Intervention Strategies
 (cont.)
 Care & support of those with HIV
   Medical treatment
   AIDS hospice
   Community/ family advocacy
 Brothel-based rescue
 Legal assistance for trafficked women
  and girls
 Advocacy, public education, networking
 Enforcement and prosecution
        Participatory Research on
        Effectiveness of
        intervention
 Methods that don’t work:
   Welfare approach (vs. empowered)
   No distinction between trafficking, sex work and
    migration
   Assuming that reintegrating with family is the best
    option
 Methods that do work:
   Community development
   Safe migration strategies
   Women’s empowerment: building self-esteem,
    fostering independent living, counseling, variety of
    future options (including non-traditional)
Participatory
Empowerment in Nepal:
Shakti Samuha
 Shakti Samuha “An Empowered Group”
 Founded 1996 by women rescued from an Indian brothel
 Highest value is empowerment
   Voice to women who are in danger of being rejected by
     home communities
 Help other returning trafficking survivors
   Provide shelter, legal aid, vocational training,
     counseling
    Prevention
   Adolescent Girls Groups: poorest communities to spread
     message about trafficking. Forum for girls to speak out
     against gender discrimination
   Outreach to rural districts where trafficking is prevalent
   Street performances: women make a united stand
     against the traffickers
 Focus on prevention since “know that only a small
  percentage of girls are rescued from trafficking”
   PRA in Cambodia
International Labor Organization's The Mekong Sub-regional Project to
    Combat Trafficking in Children and Women (ILO-TICW)
 Training key community members as community organizers to raise
   awareness
 Skills training for improved livelihood
 Non formal education, basic literacy skills, animal raising, vegetable
   growing, tailoring, small business management
 Village development committees learnt how to use PRA techniques as a
   method to carry out training and assess needs of villagers at risk.
Child safe tourism
 Outreach to child beach vendors- education on risks and dangers
 Outcome: children reported changing personal behavior for their own
   protection, such as alerting a friend when they go to a remote part of the
   beach, and refusing to accompany strangers to their hotels, moving around
   in groups.
Participation in Schools:
South Africa
Recommendations-Micro
 Participatory monitoring and evaluation of
  local programs
 Available micro-credit loans, educational
  scholarships, infrastructure support
 Build networks and coalitions to pool
  resources
 More efforts on curbing demand of
  trafficked women and girls
 Need a stronger emphasis on local,
  grassroots, and participatory approaches,
  than on national campaigns
Recommendations - Macro
 Focus advocacy on promoting safe
    migration.
   Develop appropriate monitoring &
    evaluation for NGOs.
   Gov’t commitment to ending sexual
    exploitation.
   Laws to protect women’s rights
   Coordinate global, national, and regional
    initiatives.
   Understand social, economic, and
    cultural factors affecting the supply and
    demand of human beings.
Recommendations-
Theoretical
 Clarity of terms “trafficking”,
  “vulnerability”, “prostitution”,
  “migration”
 Analyze the interplay of gender with
  human rights, female empowerment, and
  development
 Paradigm shift from “rehabilitation” to
  support & sustainable income
  (empowerment)
Activities
   What to do when you
   suspect sex trafficking
   here
 Look out for the following:
   Evidence of being controlled
   Evidence of inability to move or leave hob
   Bruises or other signs of physical abuse
   Fear or depression
   Not speaking on own behalf and/or non English
    speaking
   No passport or other forms of identification or
    documentation
    What to do when you
    suspect sex trafficking
    here
 Key Questions to Ask:
   What type of work do you do? Are you being paid?
   Can you leave your job if you want to?
   Can you come and go as you please?
   Have you or your family been threatened?
   What are your working and living conditions like?
   Has your identification or documentation been
    taken from you?
     What to do when you
     suspect sex trafficking
     here
 National Hotline 1-888-3737-888
 Spanish Hotline 1-888-80-AYUDA (1-888-
  80-29832)
 Korean Hotline 1-888-976-5274
 Call 911 if there is immediate danger
 What to do when you
 suspect sex trafficking
 here
 St Louis Restore and Rescue Coalition
   Headed by International Institute
   Contact : 314-772 9090, 314-369-2305 (after
    office hrs)

 Other resources
   Interpreters: LAMP Agency 866-948-7133
   Shelters : St Martha’s Hall 314-533-1313
               Lydia’s House 314-771-4411
   Legal Services: Legal Services of Eastern
   Missouri 314-534-4200

				
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posted:10/1/2011
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