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 Presented by: Bethany Horstman, Erin Kao, Katie Kilcline,
                Wei Chern Ng, Fang Zhao
      Development Practice in International Settings

 Background and Trends
 Definition
 Prevention
 Intervention
 Case Studies
 Recommendations
Human Trafficking
 The United Nations estimates nearly
  2.5 million people from 127 different
  countries are being trafficked around
  the world.
 Human trafficking is the fastest-
  growing criminal industry in the world,
  between $5 billion and $9 billion.
 Global annual market of about $42.5
Human Trafficking
    The TVPA defines “severe forms of
     trafficking” as:
    a.   Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act
         is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in
         which the person induced to perform such an
         act has not attained 18 years of age; or
    b.   the recruitment, harboring, transportation,
         provision, or obtaining of a person for labor
         or service, through the use of force, fraud, or
         coercion for the purpose of subjection to
         involuntary servitude, peonage, debt
         bondage, or slavery.
The Purposes of human

 Prostitution
 Forced labor
 Involuntary servitude
 Adoption – sale of babies
What is Trafficking?
The “3 P” in anti-
Protection: The Trafficking Victims Protection Act,
Trafficking in Persons report, 2009.

 Punishment: Punishing trafficking offenders.

 Protection: Legally prescribed penalties;
  protecting victims adequately.

 Prevention: Imposed penalties; spotlights on
  addressing demand.
International / Regional Organisations

      International organisations
 Non-governmental organisations/
 Foundations / Corporate organisations
 Local governments
 Local organisations

Ho Chi Minh City Child Welfare Federation
 Faith-based organisations

 Coalitions
 Prevention and the Role of
 Methods are directed at a particular site:
   Origin, transit, borders, destination
 4 Categories of Intervention:
   Individuals, communities, private businesses, and
    local and national government officials
 3 Types of Intervention:
   Awareness/Education, Community networking,
    and Empowerment
 Target Populations

 Target on the Supply Side:
   children and women, between 5 and 25, rural,
    poor, with little education
   also urban, educated women targeted through
    the entertainment and marriage-broker industries

 Target on the Demand Side:
   individual male clients, male tourists,
Raising Awareness
Prevention on the Supply side:

 -radio soap opera
 -Television PSAs
 -Toll-free hotline with info on travel abroad,
  migration, legal jobs, and the dangers of
 -school outreach programs
 -feature-length films
 -Public rallies in markets
Raising Awareness
Prevention on the Demand side:
 -“Infomercial” with the message that “real men
  don’t buy women”
 -A film aimed at clients and recruiters that
  graphically depicts the devastation done to a
 -A campaign for traffickers, tourists, and the
  public that warns that the public will not
  tolerate child exploitation
 Community Networking
 Strategies:
   Elicit community level monitoring
   Start new NGOs
   Build capacity organizations
 Examples:
   vigilante groups of mothers in high-risk areas to
    protect daughters
   networking among street vendors in bus stations to
    watch travelers and empower them to protect women
   training, networking, conferences for professionals
    and NGOs

 Target: at-risk women –girls with limited access to
  jobs, those about to graduate, those that are victims
  of violence, and orphans or rural girls
 Strategies:
   vocational training, educational training, and income-
      generating projects
     legal education, community centers, prevention homes,
      micro-credit, raise self-esteem
     creating job opportunities
     intercepted, rescued and repatriated girls to identify
      traffickers and trafficked women at borders
     loans etc. to support families to prevent them from selling
 Effectiveness and
 NGOs work well on a grassroots level, with local people in
  a local context
 Few NGOs are able to run sustainable, long-term
  programs, lack of funding
 Difficult to analyze outcomes of prevention
 Conflicting ideologies on prostitution
Intervention Strategies
 Support after returning
   Counseling (individual & family)
   Non-formal education
   Transitional shelter
   Seed money for return home (business)
   Skills training: crafts, child care, animal
   Medical care
 Residential care for those who cannot go
   Long-term residential care
   Job placement (self-organization)
   Arranged marriages
 Intervention Strategies
 Care & support of those with HIV
   Medical treatment
   AIDS hospice
   Community/ family advocacy
 Brothel-based rescue
 Legal assistance for trafficked women
  and girls
 Advocacy, public education, networking
 Enforcement and prosecution
        Participatory Research on
        Effectiveness of
 Methods that don’t work:
   Welfare approach (vs. empowered)
   No distinction between trafficking, sex work and
   Assuming that reintegrating with family is the best
 Methods that do work:
   Community development
   Safe migration strategies
   Women’s empowerment: building self-esteem,
    fostering independent living, counseling, variety of
    future options (including non-traditional)
Empowerment in Nepal:
Shakti Samuha
 Shakti Samuha “An Empowered Group”
 Founded 1996 by women rescued from an Indian brothel
 Highest value is empowerment
   Voice to women who are in danger of being rejected by
     home communities
 Help other returning trafficking survivors
   Provide shelter, legal aid, vocational training,
   Adolescent Girls Groups: poorest communities to spread
     message about trafficking. Forum for girls to speak out
     against gender discrimination
   Outreach to rural districts where trafficking is prevalent
   Street performances: women make a united stand
     against the traffickers
 Focus on prevention since “know that only a small
  percentage of girls are rescued from trafficking”
   PRA in Cambodia
International Labor Organization's The Mekong Sub-regional Project to
    Combat Trafficking in Children and Women (ILO-TICW)
 Training key community members as community organizers to raise
 Skills training for improved livelihood
 Non formal education, basic literacy skills, animal raising, vegetable
   growing, tailoring, small business management
 Village development committees learnt how to use PRA techniques as a
   method to carry out training and assess needs of villagers at risk.
Child safe tourism
 Outreach to child beach vendors- education on risks and dangers
 Outcome: children reported changing personal behavior for their own
   protection, such as alerting a friend when they go to a remote part of the
   beach, and refusing to accompany strangers to their hotels, moving around
   in groups.
Participation in Schools:
South Africa
 Participatory monitoring and evaluation of
  local programs
 Available micro-credit loans, educational
  scholarships, infrastructure support
 Build networks and coalitions to pool
 More efforts on curbing demand of
  trafficked women and girls
 Need a stronger emphasis on local,
  grassroots, and participatory approaches,
  than on national campaigns
Recommendations - Macro
 Focus advocacy on promoting safe
   Develop appropriate monitoring &
    evaluation for NGOs.
   Gov’t commitment to ending sexual
   Laws to protect women’s rights
   Coordinate global, national, and regional
   Understand social, economic, and
    cultural factors affecting the supply and
    demand of human beings.
 Clarity of terms “trafficking”,
  “vulnerability”, “prostitution”,
 Analyze the interplay of gender with
  human rights, female empowerment, and
 Paradigm shift from “rehabilitation” to
  support & sustainable income
   What to do when you
   suspect sex trafficking
 Look out for the following:
   Evidence of being controlled
   Evidence of inability to move or leave hob
   Bruises or other signs of physical abuse
   Fear or depression
   Not speaking on own behalf and/or non English
   No passport or other forms of identification or
    What to do when you
    suspect sex trafficking
 Key Questions to Ask:
   What type of work do you do? Are you being paid?
   Can you leave your job if you want to?
   Can you come and go as you please?
   Have you or your family been threatened?
   What are your working and living conditions like?
   Has your identification or documentation been
    taken from you?
     What to do when you
     suspect sex trafficking
 National Hotline 1-888-3737-888
 Spanish Hotline 1-888-80-AYUDA (1-888-
 Korean Hotline 1-888-976-5274
 Call 911 if there is immediate danger
 What to do when you
 suspect sex trafficking
 St Louis Restore and Rescue Coalition
   Headed by International Institute
   Contact : 314-772 9090, 314-369-2305 (after
    office hrs)

 Other resources
   Interpreters: LAMP Agency 866-948-7133
   Shelters : St Martha’s Hall 314-533-1313
               Lydia’s House 314-771-4411
   Legal Services: Legal Services of Eastern
   Missouri 314-534-4200

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