The Union in Peril (PowerPoint)

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					The Union in Peril
            North vs South
• The North and South had developed into two
  different cultural and economic regions.
  – South- the South was dependant on slavery because
    of its plantation economy.
  – North- Very industrial; the Northern opposition to
    slavery grew more intense.
• It worsened as new territories and states were
  admitted to the Union.
  – Supporters saw it as an opportunity to create more
    slave states
  – North remained equally determined that slavery
    should not continue.
Issues of Slavery in Territories

• California: California had grown fast
  because of the gold rush. They applied for
  statehood in Dec 1849. Their constitution
  forbade slavery… this angered many
• Problem: Most of California lay south of
  the Missouri Compromise of 36,30 parallel,
  which meant that it was open to slaves.
      Compromise of 1850
• For the North, the compromise provided that
  California would be admitted to the Union as a
  free state.
• For the South, the compromise proposed a new
  and more effective fugitive slave law.
• For both sides, a provision allowed for popular
  sovereignty, the right to vote for or against
  slavery, for residents of the New Mexico and
  Utah territories.
• 1st the senate rejected the proposed
  compromise in July.
• 8 months after the initial effort, the Compromise
  of 1850 became law.
     Underground Railroad
• Traveling to escape was terrible:
  – Traveling on foot every night, most times without food for days,
    meant going through rivers and forest with no guidance or light.
• Begin to develop a secret network of people who
  would hide fugitive slaves. The system they had
  was called the Underground Railroad.
  “Conductors” on the routes would hide fugitives
  in secret tunnels and false cupboards, provided
  them with food and clothing, and then escorted
  them to the next station.
• Most stayed in the North and some went all the
  way to Canada.
    Underground Railroad
• One of the most famous
  conductors was Harriet
  Tubman. She escaped
  to Philadelphia. She
  became a conductor
  after the Fugitive Slave
  Act was passed. She
  made 19 trips back to
  the south and helped
  300 slaves to freedom…
  including her parents
   Underground railroad Code
• Abolitionist = a person who demanded immediate
  emancipation of slaves
• Agent = coordinator, plotting course of escape, making
• Drinking gourd = Big Dipper and the North star
• Freedom train or Gospel train = code name for the
  Underground Railroad
• Heaven or Promised land = Canada
• Preachers = leaders, speakers underground railroad
• Shepherds = people escorting slaves
• Station = place of safety and temporary refuge, safe-
• Station Master = keeper of safe-house
• Stockholder = donor of money, clothing, or food to the
  Underground Railroad
  Underground Railroad Code
• “The wind blows from the south today”= warning
  of slave bounty hunters nearby
• “A friend with friends” = A password used to
  signal arrival of fugitives with Underground
  Railroad conductor
• “The friend of a friend sent me” = a password
  used by fugitives traveling alone to indicate they
  were sent by the underground railroad network
• Load of Potatoes, Parcel, or Bundles of Wood =
  fugitives to be expected
Underground Railroad Houses
      Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Kansas and Nebraska were above the 36 30
  parallel, which meant that it was closed to
  slavery. Stephen Douglass introduced a bill in
  Congress that would divide the area into two
  territories: Nebraska in the North and Kansas in
  the South. However, if it passed it would repeal
  the Missouri Compromise and establish popular
  sovereignty for both territories.
   – Northerners saw it as a plot to turn the state
     into slave states.
   – Southerners strongly defended the proposed
     legislation. It became law in 1854.
          Republican Party
• Opponents of slavery in the territories formed a
  new political party, the Republican Party.
• They were united in opposing the Kansas-
  Nebraska Act and in keeping slavery out of the
• It took in all the other parties, mostly from the
• They hoped to resurrect the Missouri
        Abraham Lincoln
• Lincoln believed that slavery was immoral
• However, Lincoln also
  believed that slavery
  should not be abolished
  unless an amendment
  was passed. He said
  that popular sovereignty
  was an empty phrase.
         Abraham Lincoln
• 1860 election-
• Lincoln pledged to halt the further spread of
  slavery and also tried to reassure Southerners
  that a Republican administration would not
  interfere with their slaves or with them about
  their slaves.
• Southerners viewed him as an enemy.
• Lincoln won with less than half of the popular
  vote and no electoral votes from the south
       Southern Secession
• Lincoln’s victory convinced Southerners
  that they had lost their political voice in the
  national government. South Carolina led
  the way, seceding from the union on Dec
  20, 1860. Mississippi followed, as did
  Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and
• Feb 1861- delegates from the
  secessionist states met in Montgomery,
  Alabama where they formed the
  Confederate States of America (the
• They also drew up their own
  constitution that “protected and
  recognized” slavery in the new
  territories. The Confederacy elected
  Jefferson Davis of Mississippi as