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“As first responders, we play a critical role in uncovering human trafficking which often presents as domestic violence, labor disputes, or prostitution. We have the opportunity to identify and arrest the traffickers and provide justice for the victims.” Chief Mary Ann Viverette Gaithersburg Police Department, Maryland This project was supported by Grant No. 97-WT-VX-K003 awarded by the Office on Violence Against Women, U.S. Department of Justice. The opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed in this publication/program/exhibition are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. Introduction Human trafficking, commonly Human trafficking can happen any- referred to as “modern day slavery” where. As a law enforcement officer, is a global phenomenon that involves you should be prepared for the obtaining or maintaining the labor potential of human trafficking or services of another through the in your community. Trafficking use of force, fraud, or coercion in networks are not limited to urban violation of an individual’s human localities, as traffickers also seek the rights. Generating billions of dollars seclusion of rural and remote areas to in profit each year, human traffick- operate undetected. As first respon- ing is one of the world’s fastest ders, you are key to identifying and growing criminal activities, operat- apprehending these criminals. This ing on the same scale as the illegal guidebook is intended to offer trade of guns and drugsi. Fueled by you the knowledge and tools to global economic conditions and investigate human trafficking increased international mobility, the safely and effectively. market for and trade of human This guidebook includes: beings continues to expand rapidly. • Definitions of human trafficking Unlike the trade in drugs and and the various forms of exploitation weapons, those who traffic in • Distinctions between trafficking humans can sell and resell their and smuggling “commodity” forcing each victim to suffer repeatedly. Although actual • Dynamics of human trafficking figures are difficult to determine due and the traumatic effects upon to the underground nature of the victims trade, the U.S. State Department’s • Strategies for victim identification 2006 Trafficking in Persons Report and assistance estimates that up to 900,000 people • Methods for effective response and are trafficked per year international- investigation ly, with 17,000 of these victims traf- • Avenues for legal assistance and ficked into the United Statesii. These visa provisions under federal law figures do not include those U.S. citi- • A pocket card for quick reference zens who are trafficked within our borders. It is estimated that 80% of those who are trafficked are women and childreniii. 1 Defining Human Trafficking In 2000, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act [18 U.S.C. Sections 1589-1594] was passed to address the problem of trafficking in persons through protection and assistance for victims, prosecution of offenders, and prevention efforts internationally. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) strengthened federal criminal laws that prohibit human trafficking, created immigration relief for victims, and authorized benefits for those who qualify. The TVPA defines human trafficking or “severe forms of trafficking in persons” as: • The recruitment, harboring, trans- • Sex trafficking, meaning the portation, provision, or obtaining recruitment, harboring, trans- of a person for labor or services portation, provision, or obtaining through the use of force, fraud, of a person for the purpose of a or coercion for the purpose of commercial sex act in which a involuntary servitude, peonage, commercial sex act is induced by debt bondage, or slavery. This force, fraud, or coercion, or in occurs in situations of forced labor which the person induced to such as domestic servitude, factory perform such act is under 18 or agricultural work; or years of age. 2 Trafficking vs. Smuggling Definitions There are key differences between the where their freedom is taken away, crimes of trafficking and smuggling. they are then a victim of human Smuggling occurs when someone is trafficking. Central to the distinction paid to assist another in the illegal is the denial of the victim’s liberty. crossing of borders. This relationship An individual’s willingness to be typically ends after the border has been smuggled into another country crossed and the individual has paid the does not minimize the victimiza- smuggler a fee for assistance. If the tion he or she may experience at smuggler sells or “brokers” the smug- the hands of a trafficker. In some gled individual into a condition of cases, traffickers may forcibly kidnap servitude, or if the smuggled individ- their victims; however, in most ual cannot pay the smuggler and is instances, the global conditions of then forced to work that debt off, the extreme poverty and political tur- crime has now turned from smug- moil leave people who are seeking to gling into human trafficking. The key improve their lives vulnerable to the distinction between trafficking and false promises and manipulation of smuggling lies in the individual’s traffickers. Slavery and involuntary freedom of choice. A person may servitude are illegal practices in the choose and arrange to be smuggled Unites States regardless of original into a country, but when a person is consent. forced into a situation of exploitation Three Elements of Trafficking PROCESS MEANS END Recruiting By Force For Involuntary OR OR Servitude Harboring Fraud OR OR OR Debt Bondage Moving Coercion OR OR Slavery Obtaining OR OR Sex Trade Maintaining A Person Source: Adapted from the Freedom Network Institute on Human Trafficking 3 Definitions Myths and Misconceptions of Human Trafficking • The victim knew what they were getting into • The victim committed unlawful acts • The victim was paid for services • The victim had freedom of movement • There were opportunities to escape but the victim didn’t • Trafficking involves the crossing of borders • U.S. citizens can’t be trafficked • The trafficker’s actions are culturally appropriate • It can’t be trafficking when the trafficker and victim are related or married Under U.S. law, once a person has been held in servitude, a person’s status as a trafficking victim supersedes all other smuggling or immigration questions and affords them legal protections and social services. Trafficking Smuggling • Is not voluntary; one cannot • Is voluntary; an individual typically consent to being trafficked contracts to be taken across a border or enslaved • Ends after the border crossing • Entails forced exploitation of a • Fees are usually paid in advance or person for labor or services upon arrival • Need not entail the physical movement of a person • Is always international in nature • Can occur domestically, where • Is a crime against the nation’s citizens are held captive in their sovereignty own country • Is a crime against the right of each person to be free from involuntary servitude 4 Strategies for Identifying Human Trafficking Due to the covert nature of the crime, Look for possible indicators of human trafficking will likely come human trafficking where you to your attention indirectly. Some may not expect it: examples of state and federal Businesses within your community violations that may lead you to • Could any serve as fronts for uncover elements of human trafficking trafficking? include: domestic violence crimes, Building security labor disputes, prostitution and • Is it used to keep people out or pimping offenses, shoplifting, and to keep people in? cases of assault. Working conditions Identification It is critical to note that any individual • Do the workers have freedom can be trafficked; victims of trafficking of movement? are not always undocumented immi- grants. They may be immigrants here • Do they live and work in the legally, on work or student visas for same place? instance, or they may be U.S. citizens. • Do the workers owe a debt to U.S. citizens who are recruited their employers? and enslaved within the United • Do the employers have control States are considered trafficking over their workers’ immigra- victims. They can also be taken tion documents? from the United States and traf- Appearance and mannerism of ficked to other countries, which the workers may be a factor to be considered when • Are there signs of trauma, investigating missing persons cases. fatigue, injuries, or other In situations of possible human traf- evidence of poor care? ficking, victim identification can be one • Are the individuals withdrawn, of the most challenging tasks for law afraid to talk, or is their com- enforcement. As a law enforcement munication censored? professional, you may have to rely on your instincts to pick up on “red flags” indicating that someone might be a victim or perpetrator of trafficking. 5 Forms of Human Trafficking Traffickers exploit humans for labor or services in a wide variety of forms and locations including: Sexual Exploitation Brothels Massage Parlors Pornography Production Street Prostitution Labor Exploitation Identification Agricultural/Farm Work Cleaning Services Construction Domestic Servitude Exotic Dancing Factory/Manufacturing Restaurant Work While any one of these signs might Servile Marriage not constitute a situation of traffick- (also known as “mail order brides”) ing, they can serve as indicators to alert you to the possibility of this While the practice of arranging crime. When you encounter cir- to marry someone from another cumstances that raise suspicion, country is not necessarily trafficking, some traffickers remain vigilant for the possibility hide their operations by of human trafficking. Ask detailed posing as international questions for greater assessment of marriage brokerage services. The determining factors for the situation. trafficking are the circumstances Due to the fear that traffickers instill the “bride” faces once in the United States; is she being in their victims, it may be necessary held in a condition of servi- to ask questions creatively, looking tude through the use of force, for signs that indicate a lack of free- fraud, or coercion for the purposes of forced labor or dom. Instead of immediately trying commercial sexual exploitation? to determine whether someone is in Situations of servile marriage this country legally, ask how they create inherent vulnerabilities, so you should ask additional arrived in the U.S., whether they questions regarding every- have control over their documents, one’s welfare and freedom. and if their movement is restricted. 6 Dynamics of Human Trafficking Methods of Control • Threaten victims with arrest or deportation Trafficking operations are organ- ized on a variety of levels and • Threaten to harm or kill family scales. They can operate on a in the victim’s homeland small, local scale with one traf- • Use debt and other fines in order ficker and one victim where there to create an insurmountable is little or no connection with “peonage” situation in which the other traffickers to a large-scale victim must work off a debt or international business with many face punishment. Debts commonly different players involved in the include the initial smuggling fee; Identification trafficking. Larger operations may charges for food, housing, cloth- be a part of a loosely associated ing, medical expenses; or fines for trafficking network, or they may failing to meet daily quotas be part of organized crime. The • Move victims from location to commonality among these traf- location or trading them from ficking operations is that they one establishment to another exploit and enslave human beings resulting in a situation where for profit through the use of victims may not know which physical and psychological meth- town or state they are in and ods of power and control. are less able to locate assistance Through the use of physical violence • Create a dependency using tactics and psychological tactics, traffickers of psychological and emotional create an overwhelming sense of fear abuse in much the same way a in their victims, not unlike the meth- batterer behaves toward their ods used by perpetrators of domestic intimate partner in a dynamic violence. Remember that an of domestic violence individual need not be beaten • Dictate or restrict movement or restrained physically to be a • Isolate victims who do not speak victim; the use of force, fraud, or English, as they rely on the traf- coercion fulfills the elements of a ficker as a translator and their human trafficking crime. only source of information In order to coerce and control victims, traffickers will often: The Victim’s Experience • Confiscate papers and legal There are a variety of reasons why documents victims of trafficking may not seek help and may even resist interven- • Misrepresent U.S. laws and tion from law enforcement. The consequences for entering the methods of control used by the country illegally traffickers and daily realities for the 7 victims may make it especially • May not perceive themselves as challenging for you to establish victims because they do not trust and get honest answers. It know their rights may be hard to comprehend the • Feel shame about the type of actions, reactions, and decisions of work they were made to do those subjected to trafficking. In addition to the fear and dependency • Feel ashamed to admit instilled by the traffickers, victims victimization may be reluctant to try to • Believe that any debts are their escape because they: obligation to repay (some may • Fear law enforcement because of have even signed a contract) their illegal status or because of • View their situation as tempo- Identification the criminal acts they have been rary, surviving on the hope that forced into* once their debt is paid off or a • Mistrust law enforcement certain amount of time has because officers in their home passed they will be free country may be corrupt and even directly involved in the * The TVPA [18 U.S.C. Sections trafficking trade 1589-1594] allows for victims of • Choose to remain in the situation trafficking who participated in illegal rather than reporting the crime activity such as prostitution or to keep family safe from immigration fraud to be protected retribution rather than punished. “I didn’t believe in police. I really believed what my trafficker said. My trafficker said they will put you in jail; they will send you back… She said in this country, dogs have more rights. And I believe. I believe everything she said because she’s been living here for a long time, she knows, she speaks English, she has money, everything, and I didn’t have anything.” “Esperanza”, trafficking survivor, IACP 2006 video, The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide. 8 Action Agenda Checklist ✔ Conduct department-wide training on human trafficking, including dispatch ✔ Educate your community about the crime of human trafficking ✔ Develop foreign language resources for your department ✔ Identify non-profit agencies that provide victim assistance ✔ Develop collaborative relationships before a human trafficking case occurs ✔ Assess locations that may serve as fronts for illegal activity Identification ✔ Identify industrial/service-based businesses that employ low paid workers and learn how they are recruited and treated ✔ Assess the local sex industry in your community and the forms it takes (e.g. street prostitution, massage parlors, strip clubs) ✔ Identify escort agencies in your community that advertise foreign or “exotic” women ✔ Ensure officers responding to prostitution offenses address and document possible indicators of human trafficking ✔ Locate neighborhoods or communities where domestic servants are typically employed 9 Trauma and Trafficking Many victims of trafficking have them to talk about their experience endured multiple violations, includ- in an organized, linear way, rather ing sexual abuse, and are likely to be their stories will likely be shared in experiencing trauma. Trauma will be pieces. Once out of the trafficking expressed differently by each person situation, victims may be extremely ranging from intense expressions of stressed or traumatized and will feelings such as anger or fear to a likely need counseling. While some lack of emotion or flat effect. individuals may find it helpful to Victims of trafficking may adopt talk about what happened to them, self-protective reactions as part of others may find it traumatic, as Identification their efforts to cope with the trauma though they are reliving the and create safety for themselves. experience. Coping or survival mechanisms may Therefore, victim interviews alone result in the victim feeling loyalty, may not be determinative; successful gratitude, or dependence upon an trafficking investigations take the individual related to the trafficking entire situation into consideration. operation or the establishment of an Building trust by showing patience intimate relationship with someone and a non-judgmental attitude when involved in the trafficking network. interviewing potential victims will At the same time, victims may feel a aid the investigation and enable the deep sense of shame and may be victims to feel comfortable revealing afraid their families and communi- details about their experiences. ties will reject or punish them if they It is also important for you to find out. understand that physical removal In initial contacts with law enforce- from the situation—or even a suc- ment, a victim of trafficking may cessful prosecution of the traffickers repeat cover stories that the traffick- in custody—does not mean victims er has coached them on. They may or their families are free from not tell the truth, especially at first, reprisals from the traffickers. Their because they are unfamiliar with our fears and their safety should be of legal system, they have been told the ongoing concern (See Victim Safety, police will not help them, or they page 14). For these reasons, having fear punishment for any illegal positive working relationships with activity they may have been forced victim service agencies who can to engage in by the traffickers. address these issues and help stabilize Due to the trauma victims may have the victim is critical. experienced, you should not expect 10 An Effective Response to Human Trafficking Building a Case federal level. Coordination with federal authorities is critical for A collaborative relationship with fed- determining the best strategy for eral authorities is needed to make prosecution. If your department investigation and prosecution deci- does not already have a relationship sions and build strong cases against with a federal partner, speak with a traffickers. Federal law enforcement supervisor about potential collabora- partners can assist with conducting tion with your local U.S. Attorney interviews of trafficking victims, Law Enforcement Community identifying appropriate interpreters, Coordinator (See Technical Assistance and determining best strategies for Resources, page 17). prosecution, whether at the state or Protocol for Successful Interviews ❒ Be aware that traffickers might not be easy to distinguish from victims and understand that some victims may have had to “col- laborate” in order to survive ❒ Educate yourself on trauma, its impact and effects or collaborate with a trauma specialist to assist with interviews ❒ Adopt a compassionate and non-judgmental manner ❒ Conduct interviews with victims/witnesses while in plain clothes, if possible Investigation ❒ Conduct interviews individually and in private, remembering that the victim may need a counselor or attorney present for support ❒ When an interpreter is needed, select a skilled interpreter who you are confident is in no way connected to the traffickers ❒ Do not begin your interview with documentation or legal status as this may frighten or confuse the victim and interfere with building trust ❒ Do not ask “Are you a slave?”; “Are you a trafficking victim?” ❒ Allow interviewees to describe what happened to their counter- parts before focusing on the victims’ own suffering; it is often easier for them to talk about what happened to other people initially ❒ Provide victims the opportunity to tell their story; it may help them to do so 11 Successful response to human traf- working relationships with federal ficking crimes requires community law enforcement agencies, victim collaboration. You will need to build service providers, and prosecutors partnerships with a variety of victim will enable you to put mutually service providers, local ethnic com- agreed upon procedures and partner- munity leaders, medical and mental ships in place in advance of a case. health providers, and legal advocates For example, specific protocols and in order to address the host of needs preparatory measures to address that the victims have. You may be minors who are victims of traffick- able to build upon previously estab- ing should be developed. lished relationships, such as with drug or gang task forces or with Proactive and Reactive domestic violence and sexual assault Approaches coordinating councils, to help investi- Identifying and investigating human gate and provide services for victims trafficking crimes may be done both of trafficking. proactively and reactively. To be While human trafficking crimes proactive, you can look into situations may be rare in your community, or businesses in your community establishing positive, coordinated where you suspect human Investigation Task Forces: A Collaborative Approach The Trafficking Victims Protection Act and subsequent legislation provides grant assistance for the creation of victim services and anti-trafficking task forces. These groups coordinate anti-trafficking efforts by bringing together federal, state, and local criminal justice professionals and victim service providers. One such task force, Houston’s Human Trafficking Rescue Alliance, has been heralded for its effective anti-trafficking collaboration. For example, a deputy from the Harris County Sheriff’s Office is assigned to the FBI as an investigator and law enforcement liaison. As a result of efforts such as this, Houston area law enforcement have effectively increased identification of this crime, provided comprehensive assistance to victims, and successfully prosecuted several human trafficking cases. 12 “Be careful not to let the traffickers know you are on to them. You may have to release them with no charges if you don’t have a strong case against them, and they will easily change their MO and place of operation. If they don’t suspect you know what they are doing, you can start your covert investigation in order to gather the evidence needed to build a case.” Investigator Edwin Chapuseaux Harris County Sheriff’s Office, Texas trafficking may be taking place. potential witnesses who are central to Should you find indicators or building a case against the trafficker. evidence of a situation of human To fully address the crime of traffick- trafficking, you may begin to build ing in your community, it is also a case against the traffickers in a important to remember that not only covert manner to support the the traffickers, but those who seek to trafficking allegations. It is impor- purchase the services of trafficking tant to inform federal authorities victims must be held accountable. For (ideally those with whom you have example, arresting “johns” who solicit already made contact) about your for prostitution sends a strong evidence and investigation in order message to your community that to learn whether there is already a Investigation these crimes will not be ignored and federal investigation underway or if that all parties will be held responsi- your case is connected to a larger ble. They also might be a source of trafficking network. intelligence; cases have been success- In a reactive response, you may fully developed as a result of women uncover trafficking while addressing confiding in brothel customers or other crimes or calls for assistance. strip club patrons. Depending upon exigent circum- When the time comes to interview stances, you will need to first handle possible victims/witnesses, if an inter- the immediate component crime and preter is needed, be careful to select a respond to victim needs. You may skilled interpreter who is in no way arrest, if possible, for crimes such as connected to the traffickers. If your fraud, kidnapping, physical or sexual agency does not have an investigator assault, and forced labor. However, it is experienced in interviewing traffick- important to remember that even ing victims, consider contacting feder- though individuals may have been al authorities for assistance. forced to engage in criminal activity, they should be regarded as victims and 13 Victim Safety Victims will need to feel safe before Pimp Convicted on being able to assist in the investiga- Human Trafficking tion and prosecution of offenders. Charges Victims may be in danger as a result of a variety of factors, including the On November 7, 2002, extent of the trafficking operation, Officer Randy Shedd of the trafficker’s perception of how the Washington, D.C. damaging a victim’s testimony may Metropolitan Police identi- be, and the trafficker’s propensity to fied a 17-year-old runaway use violence. You will need to work child engaged in prostitu- with victims to address and plan for tion. While speaking with their safety. In instances where the the girl, Officer Shedd victim’s safety or health is at risk, it noticed a man, whom he may be best to remove them from the believed to be the girl’s situation immediately. If arrests are pimp, drive by in a blue made, take care not to re-traumatize Lincoln with New Jersey the victim. If no arrests are made, tags. Placing a lookout on work to build a relationship so the the vehicle, D.C. police victim will trust you or another stopped the driver, Carlos officer in the future. Curtis, 27, within several hours. Curtis was with a 26-year-old woman and a 12-year-old runaway child, both of whom had been Investigation recruited for prostitution. Curtis brought them from New York to D.C., promis- ing to provide shelter, food, and clothing. Pornographic photos of the woman and girls were found in the vehicle. Curtis was found guilty of federal crimes of sex trafficking of children, transportation of a minor for prostitution, transporta- tion of a person for prosti- tution, and possession of child pornography. He was sentenced to life in prison. 14 Assistance for Victims Social Services & Assistance: Long-Term Immigration Issues: Certification T & U Visas To qualify for publicly funded and The T visa is available for victims who refugee-type services such as hous- self-petition to stay in the U.S. for up ing, food stamps, and health care, a to four years if they can show they: victim must be certified by Health 1. Have been a victim of a severe and Human Services (HHS). form of trafficking (see page 2); Certification occurs when a victim 2. Have complied with reasonable has either 1) been granted continued requests to assist in the investiga- presence and is willing to assist law tion or prosecution of their case enforcement or 2) filed for a T visa (or are not yet 18 years of age); that has met qualifying specifications (see below). 3. Are physically present in the U.S. on account of trafficking; and Social Services & Assistance: 4. Would suffer severe hardship if Continued Presence repatriated The most effective way to obtain Those whose T visa applications have immigration relief for trafficking met the specific qualifications can victims and stabilize them so they can receive benefits through the HHS help in your investigation is to work certification process even before their with your federal partners, who can visa petition has been finalized. It apply for “continued presence”, a should be noted, however, that form of temporary immigration relief processing for the T visa takes time, that enables a victim lacking legal and there is no guarantee the victim status to remain in the U.S. to assist will be approved. with prosecution. Continued presence Under the law, local, state, and feder- also enables the victim opportunities al law enforcement officers can assist for legal employment and refugee- victims with their application for a T type benefits. Continued presence is visa by completing the I-914B form usually granted for one year and may as part of the victim’s application to be renewed as long as there is an the Department of Homeland ongoing federal investigation or Security. The form requests that you prosecution. Victims may decide to indicate the following: apply for additional immigration 1. Whether the individual is a victim relief, either the T or U visa, during of a severe form of trafficking Resources the course of the investigation. 2. Whether the victim complied with a reasonable request to assist in the investigation or prosecution 15 Form I-914B can be sent at any point unlawful criminal restraint; false during the investigation. It does not imprisonment; blackmail; murder; create a sponsorship relationship, nor extortion; manslaughter; felonious are you responsible for future acts of assault; witness tampering; perjury; the individual. The form is reviewed or attempt, conspiracy, or by federal authorities, along with the solicitation to commit any of victim’s application, in determining the above crimes; whether to issue or deny the visa. 2. Have suffered severe physical or The form can be downloaded at mental abuse as a result, and http://www.uscis.gov/graphics/ 3. Have been helpful, are being help- formsfee/forms/files/i914.pdf. ful, or are likely to be helpful in The U visa is valid for up to four the investigation or prosecution of years. It is not specific to trafficking the criminal activity. cases, but is available to victims of a While victims with a U visa can number of crimes, including traffick- receive a work permit, they are not ing. It is available to immigrants who: eligible for publicly-funded programs 1. Are victims of a violation of feder- for which T visa recipients are eligi- al, state, or local criminal laws ble. You may submit a letter on against rape; torture; trafficking; behalf of the victim that describes the incest; domestic violence; sexual criteria above, along with a copy of assault; abusive sexual contact; the police report, to assist the victim prostitution; sexual exploitation; in filing for this specific visa. female genital mutilation; being Both T and U visa recipients may held hostage; peonage; involuntary eventually adjust to lawful perma- servitude; slave trade; kidnapping; nent resident status and citizenship if obstruction of justice; abduction; they qualify. Resources 16 Technical Assistance Resources Below are a few of the many • U.S. Immigration and organizations and resources that Customs Enforcement (ICE) provide information and direction Victim-Witness Coordinator: for law enforcement regarding There are over 300 ICE Victim- human trafficking. Witness Coordinators throughout the U.S. who assist with victim State and Federal Partners needs and services. They are • Federal Bureau of trained on the crime of human Investigation (FBI) Victim- trafficking. For a referral to your W i t n e s s C o o r d i n a t o r : Each FBI local victim witness coordinator, field office has a victim-witness call the ICE toll free number coordinator who specializes in vic- 866-872-4973 during regular tim assistance at the investigative business hours. stage. They can be reached through the headquarters victim- witness staff at 202-324-6360 during regular business hours. • U.S. Attorney Law Enforcement Community C o o r d i n a t o r ( L E C C ) : In each state, this individual can address the particular needs of your department and find the appropri- National Hotlines ate agents, offices, and resources • National Trafficking in within the federal government. Persons and Worker The liaison is accessible through Exploitation Task Force the local U.S. Attorney’s office. C o m p l a i n t L i n e : This line can • U.S. Attorney Victim-Witness provide immediate translation serv- C o o r d i n a t o r : The victim-witness ices in over 150 languages. Law coordinator in your area is respon- enforcement officers can also call sible for organizing victim and this number for assistance in deter- witness services with federal and mining if a case may be trafficking. local law enforcement officials. By providing information gathered They can obtain victim services in through victim interviews, the call multiple jurisdictions and can be taker will complete an assessment Resources helpful for providing services in or intake and connect you with rural and remote areas. The coor- federal law enforcement partners. dinator is accessible through the The hotline is open during normal local U.S. Attorney’s office. 17 business hours. If all lines are busy, • Coalition of Immokalee leave a message and your call will W o r k e r s : This Florida-based be returned within 24 hours. Call organization focuses on labor rights. 888-428-7581 or visit www.usdoj. They have experience with victims gov/crt/crim/tpwetf.htm. of several large labor trafficking • Trafficking Information and cases. Call 239-657-8311 for R e f e r r a l H o t l i n e : Operated by more information. the U.S. Department of Health and • F r e e t h e S l a v e s : Headquartered Human Services (HHS), this hotline in Washington, D.C., this agency can help you determine whether has offices and partnerships you may have a case of human around the world. Their mission is trafficking and can identify local to research the global phenomenon resources to assist victims. A dis- of trafficking and advocate against patcher will be there to answer slavery worldwide. To contact, your call 24/7. HHS has created call 202-638-1865 or visit a tool kit for police on human www.freetheslaves.net. trafficking. This tool kit includes • T h e F r e e d o m N e t w o r k : This awareness posters, a brochure for member-based organization links victims, and tips for identifying groups providing services in every and interviewing potential victims. region of the U.S. to trafficking It can be ordered by phone or victims. To contact, email downloaded off their website. Call freedomnetworkupdates@ 888-373-7888 or visit yahoogroups.com or visit www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking. www.freedomnetworkusa.org. Nonprofit Organizations • P o l a r i s P r o j e c t : Based in Washington, D.C., Polaris offers • Coalition to Abolish Slavery victim support services such as a n d T r a f f i c k i n g ( C A S T ) : Based shelter, legal advocacy, case man- in Los Angeles, CAST provides a agement, and interpretation. They variety of services for victims also provide training and technical including shelter, legal advocacy, assistance. Polaris compiles medical care, translation, and monthly action alerts on current counseling, as well as programs and pending state legislation and trainings for community which can be accessed by visiting members and law enforcement. www.polarisproject.org/polaris Call 213-365-1906 or visit project/programs_p3/State_p3.htm. www.castla.org for more Call 202-745-1001 for more Resources information. information. 18 • S a f e H o r i z o n : Based in New • International Association of York, this agency supports victims C h i e f s o f P o l i c e : This site pro- of all forms of violence by provid- vides a link to the IACP Human ing a range of important services. Trafficking roll-call training video Call 800-621-4673 for more and order forms for a hardcopy of information or visit this guidebook and video. The www.safehorizon.org/ guidebook, in its entirety, is also page.php?page=trafficking available on the website in PDF &nav=se_trafficking. form for downloading. Guidelines and model policies on several Information crimes of violence against women • Bureau of Justice Assistance are also available for law enforce- T a s k F o r c e G r a n t s : This grant ment. Call 1-800-The-IACP or visit program, designed especially to www.theiacp.org/research/VAW support local law enforcement and PoliceResponse.html. foster collaboration, made funds • L a n g u a g e L i n e : This service pro- available to law enforcement agen- vides 24/7 interpretation services cies to start human trafficking in over 260 languages and dialects. task force in their communities. If Please note this service is available a BJA task force has not already per department at a cost; however, been established in your area, call there are emergency service dis- 800-616-6500 to determine when counts available. Call 800-528-5888 additional opportunities for task for more information or visit force funding will be announced. www.languageline.com. Visit www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA. “When I started cooperating with law enforcement, everything they promised me was true. I felt comfortable; I believe in them; I trust them. So I decided to go, to cooperate, to speak out, to help others who are not able to speak out because of fear.” “Esperanza”, trafficking survivor, IACP 2006 video, The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide. Resources 19 • Office for Victims of Crime • Office on Violence Against ( O V C ) : While this office provides W o m e n ( O V W ) : This office information and direction to vic- provides grants and technical tims of all forms of crime, they assistance for state and local law primarily fund state level agencies enforcement to develop effective and programs designed to assist criminal justice responses to crime victims including those who violent crimes committed against have been trafficked. For more women, including human traffick- information, visit www.ojp. ing. For more information, visit usdoj.gov/ovc/help/tip.htm. www.usdoj.gov/ovw/ index.html. i Newman, G. (2006). The Exploitation of Trafficked Women. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. p. 5. ii U.S. Department of State (2006). Trafficking in Persons Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State. p. 6. iii Ibid. Resources 20 To order To order additional copies free of charge, please email the IACP at email@example.com. The guidebook, as well as the accompanying roll-call training video, may also be accessed through the IACP website (www.theiacp.org/research/VAWPoliceResponse.html). This IACP guidebook may be freely reproduced. International Association of Chiefs of Police 515 North Washington Street Alexandria, VA 22314-2357 "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, December 6, 1865
"The Crime of Human Trafficking Law Enforcement"