Elements of literature signify the things that are
used to make up a work of literature.
To complete a piece of literature, a writer,
dramatist or a novelist need to use certain elements
like plot, character, theme, etc. However, elements
of fiction and elements of drama differ from
elements of poetry.
Based on the structure, there are two types of
elements in Literature:
(the literary elements which can be found inside the
(the literary elements which can be found outside the
literary works but it is indirectly influence the structure
of the literary works )
Now, Try to classify the following
World view Style
Psychology Social value
Point of view Metaphor
The elements above are used differently based on the
type of the literary works.
Here are the intrinsic elements;
Point of view Rhythm
Character plays a pivotal role in a drama, novel,
short story and all kinds of narratives.
Character reflects the personality of the protagonist
and other related characters.
The method of conveying information about
characters in art is called characterization.
Characters can be fictional or based on real,
historical entities. It can be human, supernatural,
mythical, divine, animal or personifications of an
Some terms of characterization
Protagonist – the lead character
Antagonist – the character who operates in opposition to
the lead character (Either or both of these can be human,
animal, or a force of nature)
Tritagonist - In ancient Greek drama, the third actor, whose
part is usually that of the evil genius or as a promoter of the
sufferings of the protagonist.
Round/Complex character – interesting character, can’t
be “second guessed”
Dynamic character – evolves as the story progresses
Static character – stays the same throughout the story
What kind of person is the character being analyzed? This is
an inference you make based on the following criteria :
? What the person says (what he or she says need not be
taken at face value
? What the person does
? What others (including the narrator of the story) say about
? What others do (their actions may help to indicate what the
person could do but does not do)
? What the person looks like - face, body, clothes
(these may help to convey the personality, or they
may in some measure help to disguise it)
? Determine the character's appearance, personality,
and ethical qualities.
? Use descriptions of other characters sparingly
(comparison/contrast) to make your point about the
main character(s). Sometimes the environment (setting)
even functions as a character.
Now, try to determine the characterization
….Della wriggled off the table and went for him.
"Jim, darling," she cried, "don't look at me that way. I had my hair
cut off and sold it because I couldn't have lived through
Christmas without giving you a present. It'll grow out again--you
won't mind, will you? I just had to do it. My hair grows awfully fast.
Say 'Merry Christmas!' Jim, and let's be happy. You don't know
what a nice-what a beautiful, nice gift I've got for you."
(The gift of the Magi)