STRUCTURED TEACHING (PowerPoint download)

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Outline:

      Putting the Pieces Together
             Awareness Module for Autism
Part 1: Autism Spectrum Disorders
           Definition
           Observable Characteristics
           Underlying Characteristics
                     Sensory
                     Theory of Mind
                     Executive Functioning
                     Learning Styles
Part 2: Strategies
           Communication - Expressive and Receptive
           Visual
           Social Stories
           Structured environment
           ABA
           Sensory                                    2
  Strategies are most
effective when used in
  a proactive manner
       and not a
   reactive manner.


    Think prevention !
   Only you can prevent
       meltdowns.



                          3
4
Students with ASD will display a
range of communication
delays/difficulties. Some students
may:
     Be nonverbal
     Have little or limited
     expressive language skills
     Have difficulty with receptive
     language and comprehension
     Use language but not
     comprehend word meaning
     Use language literally

                                     5
Receptive language skills -
    involve the ability to
    understand verbal
    and nonverbal
    communication.
Expressive language skills -
    involve the ability to
    express thoughts,
    feelings, and ideas
    through verbal or
    nonverbal
    communication.
                               6
  Behavior is a
     means of
 communication
for ASD students.
 If they can’t “talk it
out”, they will “act it
         out”.
“Bad” behavior is
  communication!
                          7
There are many types of
communication systems
 that can be used in the
       classroom.


 The speech therapist,
teacher, and parent will
work together to provide
   the student with a
  functional means of
    communicating.
                           8
Communication strategies may be
  needed to address deficits in
  receptive and/or expressive
        language skills.
These may be called “augmentative”
or alternative communication - AAC.
Some types of ACC are:
   Communication Boards -
         using objects, photos, pictures,
         symbols, words etc.

   PECS - Picture Exchange
       Communication System
   Voice Output Devices
   Sign Language                           9
Sample Communication Systems:




                 Communication Board




                                       10
  Communication Note Book
Voice Output Devices




                       11
Some communication systems
 may use sign language or a
combination of signs/pictures
      to communicate.




                            12
Limit Verbal Instructions

Students with ASD have difficulty
    with auditory processing,
comprehending and remembering
auditory information, and filtering
out what information is important.
  They may have a delay when
  processing oral information.
  They tend to be very literal and
 concrete and have difficulty with
  sarcasm, innuendoes, jokes and
    double or hidden meanings.
                                     13
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People with autism are able
to process information easier
when it is visual and spatial.
 Spoken language tends to be
abstract, transient and temporal.
Written language can be abstract
      but is less transient.


        I hear and I forget.
       I see and I remember.
       I do and I understand.
            Chinese Proverb
                                19
Visual strategies help students:
   learn more quickly
   reduce aggressive or
    self-injurious behavior
   decrease frustration and anxiety
   learn to adjust to changes
   complete tasks by themselves
   gain independence


    Visual strategies can benefit all
    students by enhancing student
            understanding.
                                    20
VISUAL STRUCTURE -
   is the key element of
   visual strategies.
Visual structure refers to how
   information is visually
   presented and organized.
Visual structures may also be
   known as graphic organizers.




                             21
The best solution …...




         Keep it Short
           & Simple
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Visual Strategies/Supports
        Schedules
    Written Information
        Checklists
      Task Organizers
         Outlines
      Choice Boards
          Menus
Classroom Management Tools
         Helpers
   Numbered Directions       25
SCHEDULES ...
 Visually tell the student,
 in a way that he can easily
 understand, what activities
 will occur and in what sequence.


        Types of Schedules
 Word             All Day
 Icon             Half Day
 Picture          Part of Day
 Object           Activity


                                26
The type of schedule used will
depend upon the student’s
functioning level. Schedules
may use:




                                 27
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An activity schedule --




  1.



  2.



  3.


  4.                      29
Daily Schedule for a
    preschool student:




                         30
Daily Schedule for a high school student:


Senior Class Schedule: Zachary Owen


Period     Subject         Teacher    Room

 1       Government      A. Lincoln    D402
 2       English 12      W. Shakespeare C 221
 3       Foods           D. Zert       A207
 4       World History C. Columbus     B301
 5       Computers       B. Gates       B103
 6       Study Hall      Noah Sleeping Cafe
 7       Advanced P.E.   B. Ball        Gym


Lunch - 1st lunch 11:00 - 11:25
Locker - C Hall # 1531
                                              31
  Visual supports are a
  necessary part of life.


   Types of visuals may
change based on skill level
        and age.


We never outgrow the need
       for visuals.
                            32
Visual support for an
elementary student.




                        33
Visual supports for
  older students.




              34
   Use of an
  assignment
 notebook or
sheet is a good
visual support
     for all
   students.
                  35
Colored-coded books and folders
to help organize a middle school
     or high school student. 36
              P.E.




                                             Luke’s
                                             school

                     Science




                      LA
       Math




                                              Locker
                                              # 231

                           Science book & folder
                               Math book, folder,
                               calculator
Band                       Language Arts book &
                           folder
                               P.E. -gym shoes37
                           Band -drum sticks, folder
 We are all dependent
upon visual supports...




 … shopping lists, day planners, address
 books, phone books, appointment cards,
 sports schedules, menus, maps, recipes,
 directions on how to program the VCR,
 etc.                                  38
    Remember -
the most important
  intervention is -




                      39
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Social Stories …..
Are tools designed to improve
   the student’s social
   understanding and social
   skills.
Provide the student with rules
    explaining/defining social
    interactions and social
    settings.
A means of acknowledging
   achievement and positive
   traits of an individual with
   ASD.
                                  41
Social stories are written for
  a specific student and a
     specific situation.

 Situations that are difficult for
   the student.

 Situations where the student
         “misreads” the setting
or       the interaction.

 To prepare or preteach skills.

 To acknowledge positives.

                                  42
Social stories have three types of
sentences:

 Descriptive sentences - define
     where the situation occurs,
     who is involved, what they are
     doing, and why they are doing
     it.

 Perspective sentences-
     describes the internal status-
thoughts, feelings, and/or moods.

 Directive sentences - positively
  stated, individualized
  statements of desired responses.
  What the student should do. 43
 The student’s perspective
determines the focus of the
          story.

Social Stories are written
    from a first person
       perspective,
 as though the student is
  describing the event.

   Social Stories act as
   cognitive rehearsals.
                             44
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   High School Social Story
                                  46
written by Janet Upchurch, RISE
Social Stories can also be
 written as comic strips.
   The characters in the
  comic strips can show
ideas, thoughts, feelings,
       and actions.




                             47
Social Story Comic Strips
                      I want to work on
                        the computer,
                            NOW!




                No, I have to finish my math
                and ask the teacher before I
                can work on the computer.




                 Mrs. Smith, my math is
                 done. Can I work on the
                 computer now?


                                               48

    Comic Strip Social Story by Glenda Pate
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  Typically developing
 children learn from their
       environment.
 Children with autism have
  difficulty learning from
their environment and need
 a structured setting where
   they can “learn how to
           learn”.


                             50
   Information regarding
structured teaching is based
 on the Division TEACCH
program from the University
of North Carolina at Chapel
            Hill.


   Treatment and Education of
Autistic and related Communication
       handicapped Children




                                     51
Structured Environments include:
       Physical Structure
       Schedules
       Individualized Tasks
When the 3 components are utilized,
     students are better able to:
       Understand their educational
          environment
       Understand teacher expectations
       Have success in daily tasks
       Minimize behavioral disturbances
       Maximize independence
                                       52
Structure …
1. Uses visual skills to help focus on
     relevant and meaningful
     information in the environment.
2. Adapts the environment to make it
     more orderly and predictable.
3. Incorporates routine and makes things
      more familiar.
4. Emphasizes when a task is finished.
5. Focuses on the development of
      independent skills. Provides a
      prosthetic device that assists the
      student with transferring skills to
      other environments.

                                            53
PHYSICAL STRUCTURE                       ...
Refers to the way that classrooms are
set up and organized, and where
      materials and furniture are
placed.
      Clear Physical and Visual Boundaries
      Minimized Visual and Auditory
         Distractions
      Develop Basic Teaching Areas
         1. Snack Area
         2. Play Area
         3. Transition Area
         4. Work Area -
           Individual, Group, & Independent

         5. Quiet Area                        54

         6. Waiting Area
Structured Layout - Preschool Classroom




                                          55
Many ASD children have difficulty
with organization and directionality--
not knowing where to go or how to
get there by the most direct route.
 They may also be easily and highly
distracted by things in their
environment.
With language difficulties, they may
have difficulty asking for help and
comprehending and remembering
directions and rules.
Structuring their environment will
give them visual cues to help them
understand their environment.
.                                 56
Some ways to structure the school
environment:
     1. Provide preferential seating.
           Away from window/door.
           On the end of the row, where they
           won’t be bumped or jostled by
           other students.
           Near the front to avoid
           distractions from other students.

     2. Have a work area facing the wall.

     3. Provide a place for student’s
           belongings - pencil, paper, books
     4. Provide a place for finished work
           so that it doesn’t get misplaced.
     5. Use an assignment notebook.
     6. Organize lockers so they know
                                       57
          what they need for each class.
7. Area marked to show where
      student’s work area is - tape on
      floor and must keep chair and
      desk inside taped off area.
8. Room dividers or study carrel to
     reduce distractions.
9. Class schedule posted for easy
      and ready access - on desk,
      inside locker, on assignment
      notebook, etc.
10. Map with shortest route between
     classes.
11. Shortest route to bathroom
      marked.
12. Safe place to go when feeling
      stressed and overwhelmed.          58
INDIVIDUALIZED WORK
  Structured Work Task
   Students need to know:
       1. What Work?
       2. How Much Work?
       3. When Is It Finished?
       4. What Happens Next?

      Schedules can give that
  information and will help with
transitioning from one activity to
             another.
                                     59
  Work Tasks- show what needs to
  be done and when it is finished.




File folder games with matching activities.




                                        60
  Students are given a picture of the
finished task so they will know what
   the task looks like when they are
               finished.




                                        61
Middle school work task. Student reads
  paragraph and answers questions.
 They know what they have to do, how
much they have to do and when they are
              finished.




                                     62
Vocational Work Task




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Vocational Work Task




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 Many children with ASD
  have difficulty with
       transitions.
  They may have difficulty
 transitioning from one task
or activity to another. Some
 students may display signs
  of “perseveration”, where
   they are unable to stop a
task or activity until they are
          “finished”.
                             65
  ASD students can handle
transitions better when they
   are forewarned of the
          changes.
    They may need to be
 forewarned when it is time
to change from one activity
 to another or when there is
going to be a change in the
       daily schedule.
                           66
 Visuals work best with ASD
students. A timer clock can be
used to help with transitioning
and to forewarn about changes
 from one activity to another.
                             67
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    What is ABA ?
   Applied Behavior
  Analysis refers to a
style of teaching which
uses a series of trials to
    shape a desired
 behavior or response.



                         69
ABA is a step-by-step
   approach which
  teaches language,
social, fine and gross
   motor, self help,
academic and/or play
         skills.



                         70
Each trial functions like
 a building block, and
 together the building
  blocks provide the
foundation of learning.




                        71
  The terms “Intensive
 Behavioral Therapy”,
“Discrete Trial Training”
 and “Lovaas Therapy”
are treatment techniques
      based on ABA
behavioral intervention.




                        72
  ABA begins at the
developmental level of
      the child.
Initial focus may be on
 gaining attention and
reinforcing any attempt
     of compliance.




                          73
ABA involves:
    1.) Breaking a skill into
           smaller parts
    2.) Teaching one sub-skill at a
           time
    3.) Allowing repeated practice
          in a concentrated period of
          time.
    4.) Providing prompting and
           prompt fading, as
           necessary.
    5.) Using reinforcement
          procedures.


                                      74
Example of Task Analysis - Hand Washing


Steps: 1. Turns on hot water.
        2. Turns on cold water.
        3. Gets both hands wet.
        4. Gets soap.
        5. Rubs soap between hands.
        6. Puts soap down.
        7. Rubs front of hands together.
        8. Rubs back of right hand and back of left hand.
        9. Places hands under water.
        10. Rubs front of hands together.
        11. Rubs back of right hand and back of left hand.
        12. Turns off hot water.
        13. Turns off cold water.


                                                       75
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Two Basic Functions
 of Sensory System


 • Protection or survival

 • Enables us to interact
   and learn from our
   environment

                            77
Sensory means...

  • All 5 senses:
    –   sight
    –   smell
    –   taste
    –   touch/ tactile
    –   hearing



                         78
   Plus + the
“Hidden Senses”


  Vestibular System

Proprioceptive System


                        79
Vestibular System
   body awareness
   postural tone
   balance / equilibrium
   stabilization of eyes
while moving head




                            80
     Proprioception
 Refers to the brain’s ability to
 know where extremities are,
 based on muscles and joints
 without visual confirmation

Proprioceptive System -
    motor planning
    muscle tone
    influences balance



                                81
  Signs of Poor Proprioception

• Stiff and poor      • Difficulty with
  coordination          dressing
• Clumsy              • Difficulty getting
                        seated
• Frequent falls
                      • Pencil pressure
• Runs into
                        causes broken
  furniture, walls,
                        lead
  people, etc.
                      • Difficulty with
• Has to visually
                        stairs
  attend all tasks
                      • Foot slap when
• Easily frustrated
                        walking
• Easily fatigued
                      • Appears       82
                        unmotivated
      Sensory Issues
Many students with Autism and
 Aspergers Syndrome have
       sensory issues.
                              Hypersensitive

Hypersensitive --
     Extremely sensitive


Hyposensitive --                         Average




     Weak or Non-existent


                                    83
                            Hyposensitive
       Hypersensitive

   Overly sensitive to being touched
       by people or objects.

   Purposely bumps or strikes out
       because he cannot stand
       close proximity.

   Doesn’t tolerate sitting in chair:
       squirms, sits on edge with
       bent legs.

   Difficulty standing in line.




                                         84
Hypersensitive
     • Choosy about
       fabrics in clothing.

     • May not like long
       sleeves, turtlenecks,
       or jackets.

     • May not like to have
       skin exposed.

     • Dislikes certain
       foods because of the
       texture.

     • Dislikes bathing,
       having hair washed
       or cut.
                          85
    Hyposensitive

• May get hurt and not
  realize it.

• May know he was touched
  but not know exactly where.

• May not realize he dropped
  an item.

• Can’t discriminate objects by
  feeling them

• May have poor body awareness
  with vision occluded

                                  86
   “RED FLAGS”
    for sensory
   defensiveness

• Exaggerated avoidance of
  specific sensation

• Unpredictable episodes of
  dramatic behavior
                          87
 Whenever sensory differences are
suspected, an occupational therapy
   evaluation may be helpful in
    determining sensory needs.


Many inappropriate behaviors are
 tied to sensory issues. To change
the behaviors, sensory needs must
            be addressed.


 The Occupational Therapist will
determine the appropriate sensory
         interventions.

                                 88
Some sensory strategies
that may be suggested by
the OT:
• Use of therapy balls, bean bag
  chair
• Getting in and out of body socks
• Ball pits
• Shaving cream, finger paints,
 putty, pudding, gels, clay, etc.
• Weighted vests
• Mini-trampolines
• “Fidgits”
• Seat cushions                     89
Sensory strategies (cont.)

• Alternative or natural lighting
• Gross motor activity breaks
• Relaxation strategies
• Alternative work postures
• Breaks/break area for sensory
     stress management
• Headphones, earphones, earplugs
• Colored overlays


                                    90
It is not always easy to teach or
   live with a child with Sensory
   Processing Dysfunction.

  – Sensory defensiveness may cause
    the child to be excessively
    demanding in an attempt to control
    his environment.

  – Child may be unreasonable and
    explosive.

  – Picky about food, clothing, etc.




                                       91
These children need a great
deal of help and support to:

  • Prevent frustration and
    unpleasant experiences

  • Insure they do not give
    up trying to learn

  • Develop a healthy self-
    esteem


                               92
 Putting the Pieces Together
            Part 2

Presentation By:
       Donna Bennett and Donna Hudson
                   West Central Joint Services

                   Ellen Mahan
         Blue River Special Education Coop

        Glenda Pate, Shelly Starbuck
                   & Lucy Wieland
        Old National Trail Special Ed. Coop

    Janet Upchurch & Nancy Zimmerman
                     RISE Special Services



                                                 93
References:


A Work in Progress by Ron Leaf

Asperger Syndrome: A Practical Guide for
Teachers by Cumine, Leach & Stevenson.

Autism Handle with Care: Understanding and
Managing the Behavior of Children and Adults
with Autism by Gail Gillingham


Social Stories by Carol Gray


Indiana Resource Center for Autism,
       Bloomington, IN
       (812)-855-6508
       www.iidc.indiana.edu/~irca/
       materials, videos, and training opportunities

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