From MFG to MSG by wanghonghx

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									               METEOSAT SECOND
                 GENERATION
                    (MSG)
               FROM FIRST TO SECOND
               GENERATION METEOSAT
                 (from MFG to MSG)
        Author:                 Volker Gärtner (EUMETSAT)
                                (gaertner@eumetsat.de)
        Contributors: M. König (EUMETSAT), J. Kerkmann (EUMETSAT)
                      D. Rosenfeld (HUJ), V. Zwatz-Meise (ZAMG),
                      H.-P. Roesli (MeteoSwiss)

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                Slide 1
                  METEOSAT-1 to 7
            Meteosat First Generation (MFG)


                                Vis & IR Imager
                                3 Spectral Channels
                                Images every 30 Minutes
                                5 km horizontal ‘Sampling Distance’
                                VIS-Channel 2.5 km




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                  Slide 2
   Channels of First Generation METEOSAT




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004          Slide 3
                             VIS, IR & WV channels
                          of Meteosat First Generation




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                            Slide 4
      Comparison: MSG - Present Meteosat




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004              Slide 5
       Comparison: Time Stamping of MFG
             and MSG Image Data
   Unlike MFG, the MSG system allows for full flexibility in the start and end
    time of the scanning period
   One other important difference to note is that the start of data dissemination
    to end users commences before the completion of the full repeat cycle
   The time given in the header of each MSG image file is always the start of
    the repeat cycle (e.g. data given the time 12.00 UTC corresponds to the
    data acquired during the repeat cycle of 12.00 UTC to 12.15 UTC)
   The time given in the header of each MFG image file is always the end of
    the repeat cycle (e.g. data given the time 12.00 UTC corresponds to the
    data acquired during the repeat cycle of 11.30 UTC to 12.00 UTC)
   However, to maintain continuity in the meteorological data archive, the
    MFG and MSG archive data (data older than 24-hours) is ordered using the
    time period corresponding to the end of the data acquisition period


Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                                  Slide 6
       Comparison: Time Stamping of MFG
             and MSG Image Data




              Differences in the time stamping between first and
                   second generation Meteosat satellite data

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                      Slide 7
                                   MSG-1
                                LAUNCH ON
                                28-AUG-2002




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004             Slide 8
         Meteosat Second Generation (MSG)



                                 Spinning Enhanced Vis & IR Imager
                                 12 Spectral Channels
                                 Images every 15 Minutes
                                 3 km horizontal ‘sampling distance’
                                 at Sub-Satellite Point (SSP)
                                 Hi-Res VIS-Channel 1 km sampling
                                 distance (SSP)

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                     Slide 9
         MSG SEVIRI CHANNELS
                          Basic + Airmass + Hi Res Vis Missions

Window                      Band (µm)        Absorption           Band (µm)
VIS 0.6                     0.56 - 0.71      H2O 6.2              5.35 - 7.15
VIS 0.8                     0.74 - 0.88      H2O 7.3              6.85 - 7.85
IR 1.6                      1.50 - 1.78      O3 9.7               9.38 - 9.94
IR 3.9                      3.48 - 4.36      CO2 13.4             12.40 - 14.40
IR 8.7                      8.30 - 9.10
IR 10.8                     9.80 - 11.80     High Res VIS         1km Sampling
IR 12.0                     11.00 - 13.00    HRV                  0.4 - 1.1




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                                 Slide 10
                                SEVIRI IR Channels




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                        Slide 11
                                Contribution Functions




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                            Slide 12
                   MSG: IMPROVED SPATIAL SAMPLING
                  (Example: 13 October 2003, 12:15 UTC)




        MFG IR Channel 5 km            MSG IR10.8 Channel 3 km



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                    Slide 13
         MFG IR Channel ~ 5 km      MFG VIS Channel ~ 2.5 km




                                  MSG: IMPROVED SPATIAL
                                         SAMPLING
                                 (Example: 4 December 2002,
                                         12:30 UTC)

        MSG HRV channel ~ 1 km


Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                  Slide 14
                  MSG: IMPROVED SPATIAL SAMPLING
                (Example: 11 November 2003, 11:00 UTC)




      MFG VIS Channel 2.5 km           MSG HRVIS Channel 1 km


Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                   Slide 15
                  MSG: IMPROVED SPATIAL SAMPLING
                     (Example: 5 November 2003)




                                                    Kaiserstuhl
                                                     (557 m)




           MFG VIS Channel 2.5 km     MSG HRVIS Channel 1 km
                08:00 UTC                   08:45 UTC

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                               Slide 16
                  MSG: IMPROVED SPATIAL SAMPLING
                 (Example: 8 December 2003, 11:45 UTC)




      MFG VIS Channel 2.5 km           MSG HRVIS Channel 1 km




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                   Slide 17
                   IMPROVED SPATIAL SAMPLING
               - MSG-1 HRVIS vs NOAA-16 AVHRR CH2 -
                    (Example: 19 November 2003)




          MSG HRVIS Channel, 13:00 UTC   AVHRR Channel 2, 13:02 UTC




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                   Slide 18
                      MSG: IMPROVED TIME SAMPLING
                          (Example: 8 June 2003)




  10:00                                 10:30                11:00
                                MFG VIS, 30 min sampling




  10:00                   10:15       10:30          10:45   11:00
                               MSG HRVIS, 15 min sampling


Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                        Slide 19
        MSG: IMPROVED SPATIAL AND TIME SAMPLING
        (Example: 10 December 2003 - MSG Rapid Scans)




     MFG VIS Channel 2.5 km/30 min MSG HRVIS Channel 1 km/5 min
         Click on the icon to see the animation
         (12:00-14:30 UTC, AVI, 10229 KB) !
Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                 Slide 20
                MSG: IMPROVED SPECTRAL SAMPLING
                  (Example: 20 May 2003, 12:00 UTC)




                                                    Severe
                                                  Convection



             MFG IR Channel            MSG RGB Composite
                                       (R=01, G=03, B=04i)

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                  Slide 21
                MSG: IMPROVED SPECTRAL SAMPLING
                  (Example: 8 June 2003, 12:00 UTC)




                                               Tornadic
                                                Storms


             MFG IR Channel           MSG-1 RGB Composite
                                       (R=01, G=03, B=09)

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                               Slide 22
                MSG: IMPROVED SPECTRAL SAMPLING
                 (Example: 3 August 2003, 12:00 UTC)




                                                  Smoke from
                                                   fores fires




            MFG VIS Channel            MSG RGB Composite
                                        (R=03, G=02, B=01)

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                    Slide 23
                MSG: IMPROVED SPECTRAL SAMPLING
                (Example: 9 September 2003, 12:00 UTC)




                                             Hurricane
                                              Isabel
           MFG IR Channel                MSG RGB Composite
                                       (R=05-06, G=04-09, B=03-01)

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                    Slide 24
                MSG: IMPROVED SPECTRAL SAMPLING
                (Example: 11 November 2003, 03:00 UTC)




                                                    Fog/Low
                                                 Stratus (night)




         MSG IR10.8 Channel               MSG RGB Composite
                                        (R=10-09, G=09-04, B=09)

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                      Slide 25
                MSG: IMPROVED SPECTRAL SAMPLING
               (Example: 26 September 2003, 08:00 UTC)




                                                  Contrails




         MSG IR10.8 Channel              MSG Difference Image
                                           (IR12.0 - IR10.8)

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                   Slide 26
                   The Following Slides ….


      • … will show full disk views of each channel, providing a
        general overview
      • after that each channel and its specific application will be
        discussed in more detail and with more examples




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                          Slide 27
 Land Surface                   MSG Channel VIS0.6             Clouds
                                                               high reflectance
    sun glint
                                                               thick clouds


        snow


       desert
                                     cloud detection,          thin clouds
                                     cloud tracking,           over land
                                   aerosol observation,
                                    image navigation
    bare soil
                                support scene identification
                                                               thin clouds
       forest                                                  over sea



          sea
                                                               low reflectance



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                        Slide 28
 Land Surface                   MSG Channel VIS0.8             Clouds
                                                               high reflectance
    sun glint
                                                               thick clouds


        snow


       desert
                                     cloud detection,          thin clouds
                                     cloud tracking,           over land
    grass etc.                     aerosol observation,
        forest                      image navigation
     bare soil
                                support scene identification
                                                               thin clouds
                                                               over sea



           sea
                                                               low reflectance



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                        Slide 29
 Land Surface                   MSG Channel NIR1.6             Clouds
                                                               high reflectance
  sun glint
                                                               water clouds
      desert                                                   with small
                                                               droplets

                                                               water clouds
                                                               with large
                                   aerosol observation,        droplets
                                    snow/ice detection
 grass etc.                     support scene identification   ice clouds
      forest                                                   with small
                                                               particles
  bare soil

                                                               ice clouds
                                                               with large
                                                               particles
      snow
         sea
                                                               low reflectance



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                        Slide 30
                         Contribution Function




                                             “window” channel
                                             CO2 absorption
                                             plus solar
                                             contribution during
                                             daytime!




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                 Slide 31
  Land Surface               MSG Channel IR3.9 Day                 Clouds
                                                                    low reflectance/
                                                                          cold
                                                                   cold ice
          snow
                                                                   clouds

            sea
                                                                   ice clouds
     cold land                                                     with small
                                  293.0
                                       night-time fog detection    particles
warm tropical
                                 (SST: 297.7) cloud phase
        areas
                                           urban heat island       water
         forest                               fire detection       clouds over
                                    support scene identification   sea
                                                                   water
                                                                   clouds over
    hot desert                                                     land
          fires
      sun glint
                                                                   high reflectance/
                                                                        warm


 Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                             Slide 32
   Land Surface              MSG Channel IR3.9 Night             Clouds
                                                                  cold
                                                                 high-level
                                                                 clouds
 cold surfaces
                                                                 mid-level
                                                                 clouds

                                    night-time fog detection     low-level
warm surfaces                     291.7                          clouds
                                           cloud phase
 (trop. oceans,
         lakes)                         urban heat island
                                          fire detection
                                   suport scene identification



           fires

                                                                  warm



  Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                          Slide 33
                         Contribution Function




                                           no / almost no surface
                                           contribution
                                           actual weighting function
                                           depends on actual
                                           humidity profile
                                           WV6.2: higher in
                                           atmosphere than WV7.3


Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                  Slide 34
  Land Surface                   MSG Channel WV6.2              Clouds
                                                                cold
                                                                high-level
high humidity                                                   clouds
      in upper
  troposphere


                                  water vapour information
                                 243.2
                                       wind tracking
                                 support scene identification
low humidity                        support GII retrieval
     in upper
 troposphere




                                                                warm



 Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                         Slide 35
  Land Surface                   MSG Channel WV7.3              Clouds
                                                                cold
                                                                high-level
high humidity                                                   clouds
       in mid
  troposphere
                                                                mid-level
                                                                clouds
                                  water vapour information
                                 263.1
                                       wind tracking
                                 support scene identification
low humidity                        support GII retrieval
      in mid
 troposphere

   high level
warm surface


                                                                warm



 Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                         Slide 36
                         Contribution Function




                                           “window” channel
                                           H2O absorption




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                 Slide 37
 Land Surface                   MSG Channel IR8.7              Clouds
                                                               cold
                                                               high-level
  cold land                                                    clouds
    surface


                                                               mid-level
                                thin or broken cirrus clouds
                                291.7                          clouds
                                         cloud phase
                                support scene identification
  warm sea                          support GII retrieval
   surface                                                     low-level
                                                               clouds

   hot land
    surface


                                                               warm



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                         Slide 38
                         Contribution Function




                                          large surface contribution,
                                          ozone absorption




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                   Slide 39
 Land Surface                   MSG Channel IR9.6           Clouds
                                                            cold
                                                            high-level
  cold land                                                 clouds
    surface


                                                            mid-level
                                  total ozone information
                                272.5                       clouds
                                   tropopause monitoring

  warm sea
   surface                                                  low-level
                                                            clouds

   hot land
    surface


                                                            warm



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                      Slide 40
                         Contribution Function




                                           “split window” channels
                                           large surface contribution
                                           some H2O absorption
                                           (higher in 12.0)




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                   Slide 41
 Land Surface                   MSG Channel IR10.8              Clouds
                                                                cold
                                                                high-level
  cold land                                                     clouds
    surface


                                                                mid-level
                                earth and cloud temperature
                                293.8                           clouds
                                      low level humidity
                                        cloud tracking
  warm sea                       support scene identification
   surface                                                      low-level
                                    support GII retrieval
                                                                clouds

   hot land
    surface


                                                                warm



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                          Slide 42
 Land Surface                   MSG Channel IR12.0              Clouds
                                                                cold
                                                                high-level
  cold land                                                     clouds
    surface


                                                                mid-level
                                earth and cloud temperature
                                292.6                           clouds
                                      low level humidity
                                        cloud tracking
  warm sea                       support scene identification
   surface                                                      low-level
                                    support GII retrieval
                                                                clouds

   hot land
    surface


                                                                warm



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                          Slide 43
                         Contribution Function




                                           some surface contribution
                                           CO2 absorption




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                  Slide 44
 Land Surface                   MSG Channel IR13.4              Clouds
                                                                cold
                                                                high-level
  cold land                                                     clouds
    surface


                                                                mid-level
                          height determination of thin clouds
                             273.5                              clouds
                              support scene identification
                                 support GII retrieval
  warm sea
   surface                                                      low-level
                                                                clouds

   hot land
    surface


                                                                warm



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                          Slide 45
                                MSG Channel HRVIS
                                                          high reflectance
   sun glint                                               very thick
                                                           clouds
        snow


      desert
                                 small scale convection    very thin
                                                           clouds over
                                    surface features       land
    bare soil                     aerosol observations
                                                           very thin
                                    (cloud tracking)       clouds over
       forest                                              sea



sea surface


                                                           low reflectance



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                     Slide 46
                                 VIS0.6                               HRV


                     Usefulness of HRV data can be best assessed by
                           comparing to 3km resolution data

Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                           Slide 47
                      Summary: MSG Benefits

          Improved Nowcasting (very short term forecasting)
          Higher quality of the image data
          Higher temporal and spatial resolution, and higher
           quality of the meteorological parameters, which are
           derived from the image data  better forecasts
          Higher capacity of data collection
           (climate monitoring, science)
          GERB instrument for climatological studies
          S&R package for emergencies



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                    Slide 48
Summary: Value of MSG for Nowcasting

          Higher temporal sampling (15 minutes)
          Higher spatial sampling (3 km IR and VIS, 1 km HRVIS)
          Higher spectral sampling (12 channels)
          Higher quality of data (e.g. 10 bits digitisation)
          Better discrimination of surfaces/clouds (window
           channels)
          More information on vetical structure of the atmosphere
                  – Pseudo sounding and stability products
                  – Water vapour at two levels (WV channels)
                  – Ozone/tropopause information (IR9.6 channel)



Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                      Slide 49
        Summary: Value of MSG for NWP

          Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV)
                  –   Better tracking (15 minutes)
                  –   Improved height assignment (with IR13.4 and WV channels)
                  –   Potential for higher resolution winds
                  –   Better spatial coverage near and over active weather systems
                         more layers of AMVs (2 WV channels, Ozone channel)
                         more information on cloudy and cloud-free areas
                  – Automatic quality control and flags for NWP assimilation
          Clear Sky Radiances (CSR)




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                                        Slide 50
    Summary: Value of MSG for Climate
              Monitoring
          Improved calibration and radiometric accuracy
          Provision of basic climate data sets
          Dedicated Satellite Application Facility (Climate SAF)
           and multi-mission archive (U-MARF)
          Potential for land applications (e.g. surface albedo)
          Novel observations of convective phenomena (micro-
           physics and dynamics)




Version 1.0, 30 November 2004                                       Slide 51

								
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