Fish oil Processing for Biodiesel by anveshraovani1

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   PROCESSING OF CRUDE FISH OIL

           BY PHYSICAL

                &

        CHEMICAL REFINING

 FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL




A BRIEF REPORT ON PROCESS BENEFITS
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                         CONTENTS


1) Flow Chart of Physical Refining -
2) Flow Chart of Proposed Chemical Refining of Fish Oil

3) Proposed Chemical Refining plan

4) Additional Equipment required for chemical refining.

5) Impact of Physical refining on the Quality of Biodiesel
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              1) Flow Diagram: Continuous Physical Refining of Fish Oil



                                         Crude fish oil from tank Farm (40 Micron Mesh)


                                                    Day tank: temp: 60 Deg C


0.2% Dosage of Con. H3 PO4: m/m                      Shear mixing/De-gumming



                                                          Reaction tank
Dosage of 4 Baume NaoH Solution

                                                     Shear mixing/De-gumming



                                                         Reaction Tank



                                                          Centrifuging                         Wet Gums/Storage



                                                         De-gummed Oil

Dosage of Bleaching Earth @ 0.5-2.5%

                                                       Continuous Bleacher
Dosage of Activated Carbon: 0.05-0.25%


                                                      Pressure leaf Filtration               Spent Bleaching Earth



                                                  De-gummed Bleached Fish Oil



Injection of Sparge Steam                                   Deodorizer                    Distilled Volatiles Like: FFA



                                                                                                Fatty Acid Storage
                                                          RBD Fish Oil
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             2) Flow Diagram: Continuous Chemical Refining of Fish Oil



                                         Crude fish oil from tank Farm (40 Micron Mesh)


                                                    Day tank: temp: 60 Deg C


0.2% Dosage of Con. H3 PO4: m/m                      Shear mixing/De-gumming



                                                          Reaction tank
Dosage of 20 Baume NaoH Solution

                                                     Shear mixing/De-gumming



                                                         Reaction Tank


                                                           Centrifuging                       Wet Gums/SOAP
                                                                                          wSAOAP/Storage


                                                   De-gummed Neutral Fish Oil                  Batch Water washing

Dosage of Bleaching Earth @ 0.5-1.5%

                                                       Continuous Bleacher                Washed fish oil          Wash water
Dosage of Activated Carbon: 0.05-0.15%


                                                       Pressure leaf Filters                Spent Bleaching Earth



                                                  De-gummed Bleached Fish Oil                  Effluent Treatment Plant



Injection of Sparge Steam                                  Deodorizer                     Low B.P Volatiles: Distillate

                                                                                                       Volatiles

                                                                                                   Fatty Acid Storage
                                                          RBD Fish Oil
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3) Proposed Chemical Refining plan:

3.1: Selection of raw material

Restricting the FFA of crude fish oil below 5%. This will enable us to utilize the existing
equipment at its best Efficiency, like westfalia Centrifuge.

3.2. De-gumming Cum neutralization

De-gumming section will act as gum conditioning cum neutralization, where we remove the
gums along with FFA of fish oil by making it as Soap. This is called chemical Refining.

Chemical refining will greatly enhance the removal of soluble and insoluble impurities like FFA,
proteins, dark colored pigments & gums.

Process change is shown in the flow diagram, the only difference is addition of calculated NaoH
solution (Strenth: 20 Baume) to precipitate the FFA as Soap, which is insoluble in the oil and can
be easily separated by centrifuging, and the centrifuged oil needs to be washed to remove the
residual soap ppm.

Washing of oil is needed to reduce the soap ppm below 100 ppm. This can be done by
continuous centrifuge process or by batch kettle.

3.3. Continuous Bleaching

There is no change in the bleaching Process. The chemical consumption will reduce as most of
the color will be reduced in the caustic neutralization itself. Moreover we can use cheaper
bleaching earths which are available locally at Rs.3.5/kg instead of Refoil Rs.18/kg.

Presently we are using @ 2.5 % bleaching earth and 0.1% Carbon. This will reduce to 1.25% %
Bleaching earth and 0.05%.

3.4. Continuous Deodorization

There is no much change in the deodorization process except the temperature. We have to try for
240 deg C instead of 260 deg C, a lower process temperature, which is always good for the oil.
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4) Additional Equipment required for chemical refining

 1) 10 KL Round & Conical bottom Kettle like that of Day tank with additional facility for
    water spray nozzles and steam heating Coil.
 2) 10 KL, Intermediate buffer tank for storing Washed oil.
 3) 5 m3/hr pump sets: 2 No’s, one for transfer of neutral oil to wash water kettle and other for
    wash water kettle to washed oil tank.



5) Impact of Physical refining of fish oil on the Quality of Bio-diesel

Fish oil is very special in the processing as it contains many impurities like, soluble protein,
dioxins, PCB’s & insoluble impurities. So it needs special attention to remove all the impurities,
this can be achieved by Chemical Refining with NaoH solution, as it is a strong surfactant cum
electrolyte, which not only removes most of impurities & also leaches out most of the color
bodies from the oil.

Improper De-gummed/de-sludge oil will give a poor bleached Oil, and hence a poor RBD oil.
Deodorizer feed should be free from impurities like, proteins, carbohydrates, starches and gums.

The impurities of Fish oil, which are not removed in the conventional de- gumming, are
hindering the remaining process like Deodorization.

6) Uses of chemical Refining Vs physical Refining

Generally as far as edible oil refining is concerned, people are shifting from age old chemical
refining to latest physical refining to make the process cost effective. So in general we used to
say the advantages of Physical refining over chemical refining, as physical refining is less
expensive and does not require NaoH solution, to remove FFA from crude oil.

But where as in case of Poor Quality oils like crude cotton seed oil, Fish oil we may need to
adopt chemical refining to produce EN Grade Bio-diesel.
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   Physical & Chemical Properties of Fish oil Bio-diesel
    produced by both Chemical vs. Physical Refining.


                                             Physically      Chemically (LAB)
                                         Refined/Produced   Refined/Produced B-
           TEST                UNITS           B-100                100
Kinematic Viscosity at 400C      Cst           8.5                  4.5

Water content                  % by wt         0.05                0.045

Iodine Value                    Units           96                  95

Peroxide Units                 meg/kg          5.11                  -

Insoluble Impurities           % by wt          -                    -

Density at 150C                gm/ml           0.91                0.88
Flash Point                    Deg C           >170                >170
                                mg
Total Acid value
                              KOH/gm           0.94                 0.8
Ester content                  % by wt          -                    -
Linolenic acid methyl ester   % by Wt           -                    -
Methanol                       % by wt          -                    -
Free glycerol                  % by wt         0.04                  -
Total glycerol
                               % by wt         0.24                  -

Cloud Point                    Deg C            8                    -

Freez Point                   Deg C             6                    -

Water content                  % by wt         0.05                0.045
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End of Report




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