Economy of Canada

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					Economy of Canada
Use with text pgs. 64-70, 162
  Look where most of the lights are in Canada!
Look where they aren’t! What part of Canada is
              most populated?
Much like the U.S., over its long history Canada has
 changed from an agrarian (agricultural) economy to
 an industrial and service economy. Today it is the
 world’s 10th largest economy.
• Early settlement of Canada began in the East. People
  tended to settle in areas further south, such as the
  St. Lawrence Lowlands, because those areas were
  warmer and had fertile land for farming.
• Also being closer to the U.S. was important, because
  it made trade with the U.S. more convenient.

            Farming in the St. Lawrence Lowlands
           Canadian Expansion
   Like the U.S., settlement spread westward.
    Canada also constructed a transcontinental
    railroad (The Canadian Pacific Railway) to aid this
    expansion and unite Canada politically, culturally,
    and economically.

Driving the
last spike in
Canada’s Economic Activity
   by Physical Regions
Appalachian Highlands (NE):

                   Fishing,
       St. Lawrence and Great Lakes
     Lowlands (E. Quebec & S. Ontario):
  ―Heartland‖ of Canada- most populated
   Farming & Industry are the main
  economic activities
   Canada’s main financial region.

                                                 Industry along the St.
                                                 Lawrence River
Toronto, Ontario is the country’s financial capital
         The Canadian Shield:
•Industrial metals
•Hydroelectric power
for central provinces
and NE U.S.
                Interior Plains:
(the Prairie Provinces between Rockies and Can. Shield)

   Canada’s
    produces grain
    natural gas, oil,
    potash (used to
    make glass,
    soap, and                 Canada Potash
    fertilizers), coal        Feldspar
         Western Cordillera:
    (Mountainous area in the west)
                                  Forest industry
                                   Tourism
                                   Hydroelectric

Waneta Dam, British Columbia
Arctic Islands: Northern Canada
                       mineral
                       natural gas

                       petroleum

                       Cannot have
                        due to harsh
                        temp and
                      (Few People)
Forestry and Logging
  • Canada contains a tenth of the
    total global forest cover
  • Canada is the top world
    exporter with 30% of the
    international lumber trade.
    • Canada sells its forestry products
      to over 100 countries; its biggest
      export markets are the United
      States, the European Union and
    • Around 65% of all forestry exports
      = lumber, wood, or pulp, as
      opposed to finished products like
  • Canada is the world's largest exporter of
    minerals and metals, Canada's mining sector is
    an important part of the Canadian economy and
    way of life.
Agriculture:   (Text pgs. 162 & 164)

• Although a rather small amount of Canada’s land
  can be farmed, Canada is one of the largest
  agricultural producers and exporters in the world.
  The interior plains make Canada among the world’s
  six largest wheat producers.
Fishing: (Text pgs. 174-175,177)
   • Fishing is bound to be important in a nation that
     borders three oceans and the Great Lakes, and has
     hundreds of rivers. Historically fishing off the Grand
     Banks of Newfoundland has been an important
     Canadian industry. More recently fishing in this region
     has become controversial. Conservationist believe
     that a ban on fishing for as many as two decades in
     the Grand Banks is needed to allow Northern Cod
     populations to recover. Cod fishing in these waters has
     been banned since 2003.
    Service Industries and Tourism:
   Like most developed
    nations today, the
    Canadian economy is
    dominated by service
    industries, which employ
    about three fourths of all
                                     Canadian Ice
Canada faces unique challenges due      Roads
to the vast and remote landscape.    Canadians have
                                     created man-
                                     made structures
                                     on the surface of
                                     bays, rivers,
                                     lakes, or seas in
                                     the far north to
                                     link dry land,
                                     frozen waterways,
                                     portages and
                                     winter roads. The
                                     ice roads are
                                     usually remade
                                     each winter to
                                     allow temporary
                                     transport of goods
                                     to areas with no
                                     permanent road
Today most of Canada’s large cities are located
close to the US border and close to waterways.
       Why do you think this is the case?



CANADA - Population Density – Notice concentration in
 the south and proximity to US/CANADA border and
       Membership in International
   Canada is one of the world's wealthiest
    nations, and participates actively in
    today’s global economy.
   Canada is a member of the North
    American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA,
    the Organization for Economic Co-
    operation and Development (OECD) and
    Group of Eight (G8), and the Northwest
    Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO).
(Click links for information on International Organizations)
Economic Interdependence
(Text pgs. 68-70)
                       Because of the
                        close economic
                        tie between the
                        US and Canada
                        both can be
                        positively and
                        affected by the
                        ups and downs
                        of the other’s
The U.S. is Canada’s main
trading partner in part because
the US is Canada’s closest
neighbor. The two countries
share a 5,525 mile border that’s
largely open due to a long
history of good relations.

• In 2008, 75% of Canada's exports went to the
• In 2008, 63% of Canada's imports came from
  the U.S.
• Since NAFTA went into effect in 1994, trade
  among Canada, the U.S. and Mexico has been
  easier due to the removal of trade barriers.
              Environmental Issues
                 (Environment:Text pgs. 65-67)

    As neighbors, the US and Canada
     share a common environment— they
     share the Great Lakes, rivers and
     oceans, the air, and wildlife, which do
     not recognize political boundaries.

                                    Soo, Ontario – Paper Mill
Algoma Steel, Soo, Ontario
         International Agreements to Protect the
   The US and Canada have entered into agreements to
    protect their shared resources and environment.
     • The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972)
       helps keep the shared waters clean.
     • The Canada – US Air Quality Agreement and the
       Border Air Quality Strategy work to keep the air we
       share clean.
     • In 1997, 84 countries, including Canada and the US,
       signed The Kyoto Accord. This international agreement
       is intended to reduce worldwide greenhouse gas
       emissions. In 2002
       the US refused to ratify
       the agreement, because
       it felt the agreement
       required things that
       would damage the US
    • NAFO ban on cod fishing
      in NW Atlantic. (Grand Banks)
      Political Regions
         of Canada

(Pacific      Territories)

Atlantic Provinces: Prince Edward Island, New
    Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland
•   Small areas and small populations
•   Rugged terrain not good for farming.
•   Main enterprises are logging and fishing.
•   New Brunswick has dense forests.
•   The Gulf of St. Lawrence has good fishing.

                Fishing in the
                Grand Banks
  Core Provinces: Quebec and Ontario
Canada’s heartland -
  60% of Canada’s
  population lives in these                    Quebec
  two provinces.
• Quebec is mostly French
• Ontario and Quebec
  power the Canadian
  • Most industry is located
    here due to its location by   Ontario
    the Great Lakes and the
    St. Lawrence Seaway.

Canada’s largest city and capital, is Ottawa, located
in Ontario
Second largest city is Montreal, Quebec.
 Prairie Provinces: Manitoba,
  Saskatchewan, Alberta (pgs. 162 & 164)
 • Canada’s breadbasket - About half of Canada’s
   crops are grown here.
    • Over half of the minerals come from this

An open pit mine in Alberta.
They pull petroleum from the
tar sand
Pacific Province: British Columbia              (pgs.168,170-172)
• Forestry, tourism, mining and fishing are its four main
• ¾ of this region is tundra, snowfields, and glaciers
• Two largest cities are Vancouver and Victoria.
                                      Vancouver is Canada’s
                                      largest port
                                          •Goods from the U.S.
                                          and across the Pacific
                                          enter Canada here.
                                          •$43 billion worth of
                                          trade with 90
                                          countries pass
                                          through Vancouver
                                          every year.
                                          •Vancouver is the 3rd
                                          largest film
                                          production center for
                                          U.S. productions in
                                          North America after
                                          Hollywood and New
                                          York City.
The Territories: Yukon Territory,
 Northwest Territory, and Nunavut
• 41% of Canada--geography is rugged.
   • Very sparsely populated. 41% of Canada’s
     land area contains just 0.3% of Canada’s

Territory                           Nunavut

            Northwest Territories
                It’s under there!!!

   Most of this land is
   This is an
    unspoiled land
    of beauty but
    has many sought
    after deposits of
    copper, lead,
    gold, natural gas,
    and petroleum.

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