Economy of Canada
Use with text pgs. 64-70, 162
Look where most of the lights are in Canada!
Look where they aren’t! What part of Canada is
Much like the U.S., over its long history Canada has
changed from an agrarian (agricultural) economy to
an industrial and service economy. Today it is the
world’s 10th largest economy.
• Early settlement of Canada began in the East. People
tended to settle in areas further south, such as the
St. Lawrence Lowlands, because those areas were
warmer and had fertile land for farming.
• Also being closer to the U.S. was important, because
it made trade with the U.S. more convenient.
Farming in the St. Lawrence Lowlands
Like the U.S., settlement spread westward.
Canada also constructed a transcontinental
railroad (The Canadian Pacific Railway) to aid this
expansion and unite Canada politically, culturally,
last spike in
Canada’s Economic Activity
by Physical Regions
Appalachian Highlands (NE):
St. Lawrence and Great Lakes
Lowlands (E. Quebec & S. Ontario):
―Heartland‖ of Canada- most populated
Farming & Industry are the main
Canada’s main financial region.
Industry along the St.
Toronto, Ontario is the country’s financial capital
The Canadian Shield:
for central provinces
and NE U.S.
(the Prairie Provinces between Rockies and Can. Shield)
natural gas, oil,
potash (used to
soap, and Canada Potash
fertilizers), coal Feldspar
(Mountainous area in the west)
Waneta Dam, British Columbia
Arctic Islands: Northern Canada
due to harsh
Forestry and Logging
• Canada contains a tenth of the
total global forest cover
• Canada is the top world
exporter with 30% of the
international lumber trade.
• Canada sells its forestry products
to over 100 countries; its biggest
export markets are the United
States, the European Union and
• Around 65% of all forestry exports
= lumber, wood, or pulp, as
opposed to finished products like
• Canada is the world's largest exporter of
minerals and metals, Canada's mining sector is
an important part of the Canadian economy and
way of life.
Agriculture: (Text pgs. 162 & 164)
• Although a rather small amount of Canada’s land
can be farmed, Canada is one of the largest
agricultural producers and exporters in the world.
The interior plains make Canada among the world’s
six largest wheat producers.
Fishing: (Text pgs. 174-175,177)
• Fishing is bound to be important in a nation that
borders three oceans and the Great Lakes, and has
hundreds of rivers. Historically fishing off the Grand
Banks of Newfoundland has been an important
Canadian industry. More recently fishing in this region
has become controversial. Conservationist believe
that a ban on fishing for as many as two decades in
the Grand Banks is needed to allow Northern Cod
populations to recover. Cod fishing in these waters has
been banned since 2003.
Service Industries and Tourism:
Like most developed
nations today, the
Canadian economy is
dominated by service
industries, which employ
about three fourths of all
Canada faces unique challenges due Roads
to the vast and remote landscape. Canadians have
on the surface of
lakes, or seas in
the far north to
link dry land,
winter roads. The
ice roads are
each winter to
transport of goods
to areas with no
Today most of Canada’s large cities are located
close to the US border and close to waterways.
Why do you think this is the case?
CANADA - Population Density – Notice concentration in
the south and proximity to US/CANADA border and
Membership in International
Canada is one of the world's wealthiest
nations, and participates actively in
today’s global economy.
Canada is a member of the North
American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA,
the Organization for Economic Co-
operation and Development (OECD) and
Group of Eight (G8), and the Northwest
Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO).
(Click links for information on International Organizations)
(Text pgs. 68-70)
Because of the
tie between the
US and Canada
both can be
affected by the
ups and downs
of the other’s
The U.S. is Canada’s main
trading partner in part because
the US is Canada’s closest
neighbor. The two countries
share a 5,525 mile border that’s
largely open due to a long
history of good relations.
• In 2008, 75% of Canada's exports went to the
• In 2008, 63% of Canada's imports came from
• Since NAFTA went into effect in 1994, trade
among Canada, the U.S. and Mexico has been
easier due to the removal of trade barriers.
(Environment:Text pgs. 65-67)
As neighbors, the US and Canada
share a common environment— they
share the Great Lakes, rivers and
oceans, the air, and wildlife, which do
not recognize political boundaries.
Soo, Ontario – Paper Mill
Algoma Steel, Soo, Ontario
International Agreements to Protect the
The US and Canada have entered into agreements to
protect their shared resources and environment.
• The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972)
helps keep the shared waters clean.
• The Canada – US Air Quality Agreement and the
Border Air Quality Strategy work to keep the air we
• In 1997, 84 countries, including Canada and the US,
signed The Kyoto Accord. This international agreement
is intended to reduce worldwide greenhouse gas
emissions. In 2002
the US refused to ratify
the agreement, because
it felt the agreement
required things that
would damage the US
• NAFO ban on cod fishing
in NW Atlantic. (Grand Banks)
Atlantic Provinces: Prince Edward Island, New
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland
• Small areas and small populations
• Rugged terrain not good for farming.
• Main enterprises are logging and fishing.
• New Brunswick has dense forests.
• The Gulf of St. Lawrence has good fishing.
Fishing in the
Core Provinces: Quebec and Ontario
Canada’s heartland -
60% of Canada’s
population lives in these Quebec
• Quebec is mostly French
• Ontario and Quebec
power the Canadian
• Most industry is located
here due to its location by Ontario
the Great Lakes and the
St. Lawrence Seaway.
Canada’s largest city and capital, is Ottawa, located
Second largest city is Montreal, Quebec.
Prairie Provinces: Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, Alberta (pgs. 162 & 164)
• Canada’s breadbasket - About half of Canada’s
crops are grown here.
• Over half of the minerals come from this
An open pit mine in Alberta.
They pull petroleum from the
Pacific Province: British Columbia (pgs.168,170-172)
• Forestry, tourism, mining and fishing are its four main
• ¾ of this region is tundra, snowfields, and glaciers
• Two largest cities are Vancouver and Victoria.
Vancouver is Canada’s
•Goods from the U.S.
and across the Pacific
enter Canada here.
•$43 billion worth of
trade with 90
•Vancouver is the 3rd
production center for
U.S. productions in
North America after
Hollywood and New
The Territories: Yukon Territory,
Northwest Territory, and Nunavut
• 41% of Canada--geography is rugged.
• Very sparsely populated. 41% of Canada’s
land area contains just 0.3% of Canada’s
It’s under there!!!
Most of this land is
This is an
of beauty but
has many sought
after deposits of
gold, natural gas,