CRUISE REPORT R/V Aranda Cruise 06/2009 SEDU 2009 22 April - 29 April 2009 This report is based on preliminary data and is subject to changes. Finnish Environment Institute Mechelininkatu 34a P.O. Box 140 FI-00251 Helsinki Finland Phone: +358 20 610 123 Customer service: +358 20 690 183 Fax: +358 9 5490 2190 E-mail: first firstname.lastname@example.org Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 2/23 Cruise report Subject of the cruise The topics of the cruise included 1) education and research on sediments and acoustic surveys, 2) bio-optical research and 3) microbe and plankton sampling. The SEDU09 was a true multidisciplinary cruise also giving a possibility for students to obtain “hands-on” education on sediment research. Chief Scientist Harri T. Kankaanpää Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Marine Centre, Hakuninmaantie 6, FIN-00430 Helsinki, Finland. Email: email@example.com Participants Name Duration (2009) Affiliation Juhani Rapo 22.-29.4. FMI Tuomo Roine 22.-29.4. FMI Joonas Virtasalo 22.-29.4. IOW Jyrki Hämäläinen 22.-29.4. GSF Stefan Simis 22.-29.4. SYKE Pasi Ylöstalo 22.-29.4. SYKE Liisa Metsamaa 22.-29.4. EMI Kirsi Hyvärinen 22.-29.4. SYKE Anne Nykänen 22.-29.4. Univ. of Helsinki Pinja Kasvio 22.-29.4. Univ. of Helsinki Sabine Flury 22.-25.4. Århus University Outi Hyttinen 22.-25.4. Univ. of Helsinki Ian Snowball 22.-25.4. Lund University Bryan Lougheed 22.-25.4. Lund University Panu Hänninen 22.-29.4. SYKE Michael Pötzsch 22.-29.4. IOW Matthias Moros 22.-29.4. IOW Thomas Neumann 22.-29.4. IOW Aarno Kotilainen 22.-29.4. GSF Jørn Bo Jensen 22.-25.4. GEUS Daria Ryabchuk 22.-25.4. VSEGEI Karoline Kabel 22.-29.4. IOW Olli-Pekka Penttinen 22.-29.4. Univ. of Helsinki Alexander Sergeev 22.-25.4. VSEGEI Laura Arppe 25.4.-29.4. Univ. of Helsinki Mia Kotilainen 25.4.-29.4. Univ. of Helsinki Juha Karhu 25.4.-29.4. Univ. of Helsinki Slawomir Dobosz 25.4.-29.4. Sczeczin Univ. Anu Kaskeala 25.4.-29.4. GSF Christian Porsche 25.4.-29.4. IOW Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 3/23 Cruise report Group photos Members of the SEDU09 cruise during the first leg (April 22 – April 25, 2009). Photo: Satu af Ursin. Members of the SEDU09 cruise during the first leg (April 25 – April 29, 2009). Photo: Jukka Mattson. Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 4/23 Cruise report Route The departure of the cruise was in Helsinki on April 22, 2009 at 10.00 hours. Sea areas (in order of appearance) visited were central Gulf of Finland, western Gulf of Finland, Northern Baltic Proper, Åland Sea, central Gulf of Bothnia and Archipelago Sea. Change of crew took place in Mariehamn on April 25 at 19.00 hours. The cruise ended in Helsinki on April 29, 2009 at 09.30 hours. The general weather conditions were good for marine science as wind was calm and temperatures mostly above the normal temperatures for the season. The route plot is based on the echo souding track lines generated with the Meridata MD/DSS system. Figure 1. Route plot given as a Meridata system vector plot. Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 5/23 Cruise report Table 1. Summary of sampling locations during the SEDU09 cruise. INDEX = index numbering used for each year´s sampling occasions, STAT = station name, LAT = latitude, LON = longitude, D = depth (metres), CTD = CTD casts, OPT = optical measurements and related sampling, MIC = sampling for water-column microbes, PHY = phytoplankton collection, GEM = sediment sampling with Gemax corer, MUC = IOW´s multi corer sampling, GRA = sediment sampling with IOW´s gravity corer, VAN = Van Veen sampling for either concretions (Åland deep) or benthic animals (LL11), ECHO = 12 kHZ echo-sounding recorded using the Meridata MD/DSS system. Number of sediment sampling hauls is indicated in the respective cells. CTD observations CTD casts were from 12 stations (see Table 1). The corresponding vertical distributions within the water column are given below. The data indicated stratification typical for the Baltic Sea. Oxygen depletion (< 2 ml O2 / l) occurred at stations JML, NCBE, GB1, GB2 and BY15 where also bottom anoxia was evident. Primary CTD data can be obtained through the Finnish Meteorological Institute on request. Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 6/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 7/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 8/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 9/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 10/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 11/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 12/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 13/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 14/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 15/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 16/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 17/23 Cruise report Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 18/23 Cruise report Optical measurements By Stefan Simis, SYKE Marine Centre Bio-optical research was conducted during this cruise as a separate activity (see Table 1 for sampling locations). The bio-optical research focused on the surface water layer, up to a maximum of 20 meters depth. The team responsible for these activities consisted of Stefan Simis and Pasi Ylöstalo (SYKE) and Liisa Metsamaa (Estonian Marine Institute). The main aim was to capture the optical properties of surface water layer constituents, the upwelling light field, primary productivity parameters, and fluorescence proxies for phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity, as well as to test new instrument prototypes during the springtime phytoplankton peak biomass period in the Northern Baltic Proper, Gulf of Finland, and archipelago area. Measurements of inherent and apparent optical properties of the water column were carried out at all daylight stations in support of our bio-optical studies. These studies concentrate on the development of optical proxies for primary productivity and on algorithm development for the interpretation of satellite imagery. Weather conditions were optimal or close to optimal at most stations with clear skies for every but the last 2 cruise days. There was little to no wave action disturbing the measurements. Two instrument packages were deployed for vertical profiling. The first (property of EMI) comprised several sensors to record particulate backscattering, beam attenuation, and absorption, as well as chlorophyll-a fluorescence. The second package contained sensors to measure the up- and downwelling irradiance in the water column. Throughout the cruise, several fluorescence sensors were mounted to the ship's continuous flow system to record the fluorescence of chlorophyll-a and dissolved organic material, as well as water turbidity, to give both an overview of the spatial heterogeneity along the cruise transect and to serve as calibration data for products derived from remotely sensed data. From samples collected at every station visited in daylight, radioactive carbon uptake rates and fluorescence proxies for energy kinetics were obtained. A preliminary inspection of the collected data shows that the spring phytoplankton biomass peak had already passed at the moment the cruise started, but considerable phytoplankton biomass was still present in the Gulf of Finland and the archipelago area. In the Northern Baltic Proper the spring phytoplankton population was already waning. Although the actual biomass peak was probably not observed, the collected data likely span a broad range of temperature, light, and nutrient conditions. At several stations the phytoplankton population appeared capable of high photosynthesis rates, even in areas where the overall phytoplankton biomass was low. Closer inspection of these data over the next months will reveal more detail. A massive number of observations on the upwelling light field (water colour) were obtained from continuous observation from the bow of the ship, and after data processing this may prove to become a highly valuable component to the validation of satellite imagery within SYKE. Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 19/23 Cruise report One week after our return from sea, satellite images suggest that the spring bloom in the Gulf of Finland has fully passed, suggesting that we were present at a suitable time to record rapid changes in primary production. Microbe sampling / water column The aim of this activity was to provide water samples containing indigenous microbes. The collection was carried out at two stations (Table 1), from where 2-litre water samples were collected using a DNA-depleted Hydro-Bios sampler at the depths of 1, 30 metres plus one metre above the seafloor. Aliquots of the water samples were used to establish agar-based and liquid medium cultures (storage at +4 °C after the cruise). The remaining water volume from each depth was filtered on 0.22 μm filters. Bacteria growing in the cultures were inoculated into additional plates plus aliquots stored as glycerol stocks at -78 °C. The community samples on filters will be analysed at the sequencing laboratory of the Institute of Biotechnololgy (University of Helsinki) later. Spring bloom samples The material from station AS-2 was concentrated using a plankton net, stored in 20 Falcon tubes and stored at -20 °C. Sediment research relating to the BONUS INFLOW programme By Aarno Kotilainen, Geological Survey of Finland INFLOW –project partners (16 persons) from Geological Survey of Finland, Helsinki University/Department of Geology, VSEGEI/Russia, Szczezin University/Poland and IOW/Germany participated to this cruise. Altogether over 950 nautical miles (1700 km) of echo-sounding data was collected during the SEDU 09 –cruise. Echo-sounding data was collected also from sediment sampling stations. All data is stored in DVD –disks. Collected acoustic 12 kHz data was high quality due to good weather conditions. A long sediment cores were recovered from 8 Sites (JML, NCB_in, GB1, GB2, F69, Åland Deep, SR5 and SMA) using IOW's 9 m long gravity corer. A total of 78 meters of sediment were collected. Longest sediment core recovered was 861 cm long (SMA Site). Surface sediment samples were collected from 10 sites using GEMAX- and IOW's Multicorer (MUC). Sediment cores were described and magnetic susceptibility was measured from every core. Sediment cores were subsampled for e.g. micropaleontological, Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 20/23 Cruise report geochemical, trace fossil and dating (including palaeomagnetic, AMS C14 and OSL) analysis. INFLOW -project partners participated also in planning and executing the educational program of SEDU 09 Cruise. Educational program included lectures, student presentations, hand-on activities in sediment studies (e.g. sediment describtion, various sub-sampling) as well as planning survey grids and executing echo-sounding profiling. INFLOW project co-operated also with other BONUS Programme projects providing Baltic Gas scientists onboard long sediment cores from 2 Sites for gas/methane studies. SEDU 09 Cruise collected echo-sounding data also for FINMARINET Life+ project from EEZ of the Gulf of Finland. Sediment samples for SYKE Marine Centre sample bank Sections of 0-20 at 1 cm intervals were collected at stations JML, NCB IN and AIRISTO2, and stored at -20 °C. Sediment samples for microbe diversity research Altogether 15 subsamples (varves) at varying depths were collected from a sectioned Gemax core from station F69. A total of 68 varve subsamples were collected from the deep gravity core from station GB2. A selected set of these samples will be used to determine variations in microbial populations over the history. These analyses will be carried out by the sequencing laboratory of the Institute of Biotechnololgy (University of Helsinki) later. Concretion sampling Concretions were found in subsurface sediment layers in sediment collected at Åland Deep. They were immersed in seawater and stored at +4 °C. Magnetic Research methods By Ian Snowball, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Department of Geology - Quaternary Sciences, Lund University, Sweden. 1. Surface scanning magnetic susceptibility (Ian Snowball) Magnetic susceptibility is a measure of the ease by which material can be magnetized (Thompson & Oldﬁeld 1986). It can provide an independent stratigraphic record of sediment sequences and qualitative information about the concentration of magnetic minerals. Relatively deep Baltic Sea sediments are known to have a Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 21/23 Cruise report mineral magnetic assemblage dominated by either a detrital ferromagnetic iron oxide (magnetite) or an authigenic ferrimagnetic iron sulphide (greigite). Magnetic susceptibility onboard R/V Aranda was measured with a Bartington Instruments MS2E1 high-resolution surface scanning sensor connected to a Bartington MS2 meter. This sensor and meter are interfaced to a TAMISCAN-TS1 automatic logging conveyor run by a PC (Sandgren and Snowball 2002). The system is approximately 3 m long and 0.4 m wide. The surfaces of split gravity cores and GEMAX cores were cleaned and covered with thin plastic film. The sensor measures magnetic susceptibility with 90 % of the signal detected in a slab, which is approximately 10 mm wide, 4 mm long and 3 mm thick with respect to the core surface, giving a best stratigraphic resolution of 4 mm. The TAMISCAN system measures air (the background) automatically before and after each surface measurement to compensate for electronic drift. Measurements were made at 5 mm increments for each core section using the 1.0 scale on the MS2 meter (it takes approximately 30 minutes to measure 1m of sediment core using this sensitivity). Results are provided in SI units (10-5). 2. Discrete palaeomagnetic sub-samples (Bryan Lougheed) Working halves of the gravity cores were sub-sampled into standard palaeomagnetic sample boxes (2x2x2 cm internal volume). These were oriented with respect to the vertical axis of the core and each sample is oriented so that they had the same (but unknown) azimuth. Gravity core liners (6 m long) were marked before coring and cutting into 1 m long sections to ensure that the same half of the gravity core was sub-sampled. This prevents random changes in declination at core breaks that are frequently caused by core sections that are not oriented to the same (but unknown) azimuth. The samples were taken to Lund University for palaeomagnetic measurements using a 2G-Enterprises 755 superconducting magnetometer. Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 22/23 Cruise report An echogram depicting gas-filled soft sediments near research station JML. Stratification of bottom deposits around research station NCBE. Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite 23/23 Cruise report Sediment deposits at research station GB1 at the eastern Gotland deep. Bottom characteristics on the arrival to research station F69 (Åland deep).