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					                                  CRUISE REPORT



                                             R/V Aranda



                                        Cruise 06/2009

                                            SEDU 2009
                                     22 April - 29 April 2009




This report is based on preliminary data and is subject to changes.




Finnish Environment Institute
Mechelininkatu 34a
P.O. Box 140
FI-00251 Helsinki
Finland
Phone: +358 20 610 123
Customer service: +358 20 690 183
Fax: +358 9 5490 2190
E-mail: first name.last.name@ymparisto.fi
Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite                                                2/23
Cruise report



Subject of the cruise

The topics of the cruise included 1) education and research on sediments and acoustic surveys,
2) bio-optical research and 3) microbe and plankton sampling. The SEDU09 was a true
multidisciplinary cruise also giving a possibility for students to obtain “hands-on” education on
sediment research.

Chief Scientist

Harri T. Kankaanpää
Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Marine Centre, Hakuninmaantie 6, FIN-00430
Helsinki, Finland. Email: harri.kankaanpaa@ymparisto.fi

Participants


                Name                       Duration (2009)           Affiliation
Juhani Rapo                        22.-29.4.                         FMI
Tuomo Roine                        22.-29.4.                         FMI
Joonas Virtasalo                   22.-29.4.                         IOW
Jyrki Hämäläinen                   22.-29.4.                         GSF
Stefan Simis                       22.-29.4.                         SYKE
Pasi Ylöstalo                      22.-29.4.                         SYKE
Liisa Metsamaa                     22.-29.4.                         EMI
Kirsi Hyvärinen                    22.-29.4.                         SYKE
Anne Nykänen                       22.-29.4.                         Univ. of Helsinki
Pinja Kasvio                       22.-29.4.                         Univ. of Helsinki
Sabine Flury                       22.-25.4.                         Århus University
Outi Hyttinen                      22.-25.4.                         Univ. of Helsinki
Ian Snowball                       22.-25.4.                         Lund University
Bryan Lougheed                     22.-25.4.                         Lund University
Panu Hänninen                      22.-29.4.                         SYKE
Michael Pötzsch                    22.-29.4.                         IOW
Matthias Moros                     22.-29.4.                         IOW
Thomas Neumann                     22.-29.4.                         IOW
Aarno Kotilainen                   22.-29.4.                         GSF
Jørn Bo Jensen                     22.-25.4.                         GEUS
Daria Ryabchuk                     22.-25.4.                         VSEGEI
Karoline Kabel                     22.-29.4.                         IOW
Olli-Pekka Penttinen               22.-29.4.                         Univ. of Helsinki
Alexander Sergeev                  22.-25.4.                         VSEGEI
Laura Arppe                        25.4.-29.4.                       Univ. of Helsinki
Mia Kotilainen                     25.4.-29.4.                       Univ. of Helsinki
Juha Karhu                         25.4.-29.4.                       Univ. of Helsinki
Slawomir Dobosz                    25.4.-29.4.                       Sczeczin Univ.
Anu Kaskeala                       25.4.-29.4.                       GSF
Christian Porsche                  25.4.-29.4.                       IOW
Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite                                           3/23
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Group photos




Members of the SEDU09 cruise during the first leg (April 22 – April 25, 2009).
Photo: Satu af Ursin.




Members of the SEDU09 cruise during the first leg (April 25 – April 29, 2009).
Photo: Jukka Mattson.
Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite                                                4/23
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Route

The departure of the cruise was in Helsinki on April 22, 2009 at 10.00 hours. Sea
areas (in order of appearance) visited were central Gulf of Finland, western Gulf of
Finland, Northern Baltic Proper, Åland Sea, central Gulf of Bothnia and Archipelago
Sea.

Change of crew took place in Mariehamn on April 25 at 19.00 hours. The cruise
ended in Helsinki on April 29, 2009 at 09.30 hours.

The general weather conditions were good for marine science as wind was calm and
temperatures mostly above the normal temperatures for the season.

The route plot is based on the echo souding track lines generated with the Meridata
MD/DSS system.




Figure 1. Route plot given as a Meridata system vector plot.
Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite                                                   5/23
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Table 1. Summary of sampling locations during the SEDU09 cruise. INDEX = index numbering
used for each year´s sampling occasions, STAT = station name, LAT = latitude, LON = longitude,
D = depth (metres), CTD = CTD casts, OPT = optical measurements and related sampling, MIC =
sampling for water-column microbes, PHY = phytoplankton collection, GEM = sediment sampling
with Gemax corer, MUC = IOW´s multi corer sampling, GRA = sediment sampling with IOW´s
gravity corer, VAN = Van Veen sampling for either concretions (Åland deep) or benthic animals
(LL11), ECHO = 12 kHZ echo-sounding recorded using the Meridata MD/DSS system. Number of
sediment sampling hauls is indicated in the respective cells.


CTD observations

CTD casts were from 12 stations (see Table 1). The corresponding vertical
distributions within the water column are given below. The data indicated
stratification typical for the Baltic Sea. Oxygen depletion (< 2 ml O2 / l) occurred at
stations JML, NCBE, GB1, GB2 and BY15 where also bottom anoxia was evident.

Primary CTD data can be obtained through the Finnish Meteorological Institute on
request.
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Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite                                                18/23
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Optical measurements

By Stefan Simis, SYKE Marine Centre

Bio-optical research was conducted during this cruise as a separate activity (see
Table 1 for sampling locations). The bio-optical research focused on the surface
water layer, up to a maximum of 20 meters depth. The team responsible for these
activities consisted of Stefan Simis and Pasi Ylöstalo (SYKE) and Liisa Metsamaa
(Estonian Marine Institute). The main aim was to capture the optical properties of
surface water layer constituents, the upwelling light field, primary productivity
parameters, and fluorescence proxies for phytoplankton biomass and primary
productivity, as well as to test new instrument prototypes during the springtime
phytoplankton peak biomass period in the Northern Baltic Proper, Gulf of Finland,
and archipelago area.

Measurements of inherent and apparent optical properties of the water column
were carried out at all daylight stations in support of our bio-optical studies. These
studies concentrate on the development of optical proxies for primary productivity
and on algorithm development for the interpretation of satellite imagery. Weather
conditions were optimal or close to optimal at most stations with clear skies for
every but the last 2 cruise days. There was little to no wave action disturbing the
measurements. Two instrument packages were deployed for vertical profiling. The
first (property of EMI) comprised several sensors to record particulate
backscattering, beam attenuation, and absorption, as well as chlorophyll-a
fluorescence. The second package contained sensors to measure the up- and
downwelling irradiance in the water column. Throughout the cruise, several
fluorescence sensors were mounted to the ship's continuous flow system to record
the fluorescence of chlorophyll-a and dissolved organic material, as well as water
turbidity, to give both an overview of the spatial heterogeneity along the cruise
transect and to serve as calibration data for products derived from remotely sensed
data. From samples collected at every station visited in daylight, radioactive carbon
uptake rates and fluorescence proxies for energy kinetics were obtained.

A preliminary inspection of the collected data shows that the spring phytoplankton
biomass peak had already passed at the moment the cruise started, but considerable
phytoplankton biomass was still present in the Gulf of Finland and the archipelago
area. In the Northern Baltic Proper the spring phytoplankton population was already
waning. Although the actual biomass peak was probably not observed, the collected
data likely span a broad range of temperature, light, and nutrient conditions. At
several stations the phytoplankton population appeared capable of high
photosynthesis rates, even in areas where the overall phytoplankton biomass was
low. Closer inspection of these data over the next months will reveal more detail. A
massive number of observations on the upwelling light field (water colour) were
obtained from continuous observation from the bow of the ship, and after data
processing this may prove to become a highly valuable component to the validation
of satellite imagery within SYKE.
Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite                                                  19/23
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One week after our return from sea, satellite images suggest that the spring bloom
in the Gulf of Finland has fully passed, suggesting that we were present at a suitable
time to record rapid changes in primary production.

Microbe sampling / water column

The aim of this activity was to provide water samples containing indigenous
microbes. The collection was carried out at two stations (Table 1), from where 2-litre
water samples were collected using a DNA-depleted Hydro-Bios sampler at the
depths of 1, 30 metres plus one metre above the seafloor. Aliquots of the water
samples were used to establish agar-based and liquid medium cultures (storage at +4
°C after the cruise). The remaining water volume from each depth was filtered on
0.22 μm filters. Bacteria growing in the cultures were inoculated into additional
plates plus aliquots stored as glycerol stocks at -78 °C. The community samples on
filters will be analysed at the sequencing laboratory of the Institute of Biotechnololgy
(University of Helsinki) later.

Spring bloom samples

The material from station AS-2 was concentrated using a plankton net, stored in 20
Falcon tubes and stored at -20 °C.


Sediment research relating to the BONUS INFLOW programme

By Aarno Kotilainen, Geological Survey of Finland

INFLOW –project partners (16 persons) from Geological Survey of Finland, Helsinki
University/Department of Geology, VSEGEI/Russia, Szczezin University/Poland and
IOW/Germany participated to this cruise.

Altogether over 950 nautical miles (1700 km) of echo-sounding data was collected
during the SEDU 09 –cruise. Echo-sounding data was collected also from sediment
sampling stations. All data is stored in DVD –disks. Collected acoustic 12 kHz data
was high quality due to good weather conditions.

A long sediment cores were recovered from 8 Sites (JML, NCB_in, GB1, GB2, F69,
Åland Deep, SR5 and SMA) using IOW's 9 m long gravity corer. A total of 78 meters
of sediment were collected. Longest sediment core recovered was 861 cm long (SMA
Site). Surface sediment samples were collected from 10 sites using GEMAX- and
IOW's Multicorer (MUC).

Sediment cores were described and magnetic susceptibility was measured from
every core. Sediment cores were subsampled for e.g. micropaleontological,
Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite                                                 20/23
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geochemical, trace fossil and dating (including palaeomagnetic, AMS C14 and OSL)
analysis.

INFLOW -project partners participated also in planning and executing the
educational program of SEDU 09 Cruise. Educational program included lectures,
student presentations, hand-on activities in sediment studies (e.g. sediment
describtion, various sub-sampling) as well as planning survey grids and executing
echo-sounding profiling.

INFLOW project co-operated also with other BONUS Programme projects providing
Baltic Gas scientists onboard long sediment cores from 2 Sites for gas/methane
studies. SEDU 09 Cruise collected echo-sounding data also for FINMARINET Life+
project from EEZ of the Gulf of Finland.


Sediment samples for SYKE Marine Centre sample bank

Sections of 0-20 at 1 cm intervals were collected at stations JML, NCB IN and
AIRISTO2, and stored at -20 °C.

Sediment samples for microbe diversity research

Altogether 15 subsamples (varves) at varying depths were collected from a sectioned
Gemax core from station F69. A total of 68 varve subsamples were collected from
the deep gravity core from station GB2. A selected set of these samples will be used
to determine variations in microbial populations over the history. These analyses will
be carried out by the sequencing laboratory of the Institute of Biotechnololgy
(University of Helsinki) later.

Concretion sampling

Concretions were found in subsurface sediment layers in sediment collected at Åland
Deep. They were immersed in seawater and stored at +4 °C.

Magnetic Research methods

By Ian Snowball, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Department of Geology - Quaternary
Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.

       1. Surface scanning magnetic susceptibility (Ian Snowball)

Magnetic susceptibility is a measure of the ease by which material can be
magnetized (Thompson & Oldfield 1986). It can provide an independent stratigraphic
record of sediment sequences and qualitative information about the concentration
of magnetic minerals. Relatively deep Baltic Sea sediments are known to have a
Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite                                                21/23
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mineral magnetic assemblage dominated by either a detrital ferromagnetic iron
oxide (magnetite) or an authigenic ferrimagnetic iron sulphide (greigite).

Magnetic susceptibility onboard R/V Aranda was measured with a Bartington
Instruments MS2E1 high-resolution surface scanning sensor connected to a
Bartington MS2 meter. This sensor and meter are interfaced to a TAMISCAN-TS1
automatic logging conveyor run by a PC (Sandgren and Snowball 2002). The system is
approximately 3 m long and 0.4 m wide.

The surfaces of split gravity cores and GEMAX cores were cleaned and covered with
thin plastic film. The sensor measures magnetic susceptibility with 90 % of the signal
detected in a slab, which is approximately 10 mm wide, 4 mm long and 3 mm thick
with respect to the core surface, giving a best stratigraphic resolution of 4 mm. The
TAMISCAN system measures air (the background) automatically before and after
each surface measurement to compensate for electronic drift.

Measurements were made at 5 mm increments for each core section using the 1.0
scale on the MS2 meter (it takes approximately 30 minutes to measure 1m of
sediment core using this sensitivity). Results are provided in SI units (10-5).

       2. Discrete palaeomagnetic sub-samples (Bryan Lougheed)

Working halves of the gravity cores were sub-sampled into standard palaeomagnetic
sample boxes (2x2x2 cm internal volume). These were oriented with respect to the
vertical axis of the core and each sample is oriented so that they had the same (but
unknown) azimuth. Gravity core liners (6 m long) were marked before coring and
cutting into 1 m long sections to ensure that the same half of the gravity core was
sub-sampled. This prevents random changes in declination at core breaks that are
frequently caused by core sections that are not oriented to the same (but unknown)
azimuth. The samples were taken to Lund University for palaeomagnetic
measurements using a 2G-Enterprises 755 superconducting magnetometer.
Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite                                              22/23
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An echogram depicting gas-filled soft sediments near research station JML.




Stratification of bottom deposits around research station NCBE.
Matkanjohtajan käsikirjan liite                                               23/23
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Sediment deposits at research station GB1 at the eastern Gotland deep.




Bottom characteristics on the arrival to research station F69 (Åland deep).

				
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