5.1 Self-management by Harri Virolainen by yaofenji



   Harri Virolainen

• Learn to know and become aware of oneself
  and one’s habits and actions better
• Find new manners of action
 Self-management framework
• Self-management & self-leadership introduced in 1980’s
• Multidisciplinary point of view
                                                Philosophy, religion,
                                                legal science
                                     Self-management            chemistry, cosmology

                                                                    Sport science
                   Educational science

                                   Medical science     Art
                                   Psychiatry          Literature
                                   Neuroscience        History
        Nosce te ipsum (know yourself)
                 »            consciousness

•   body         mind             feelings        values          work
•   nutrition    thinking         positiveness    values          key tasks
•   exercise     memory           emotion control objectives      goals
•   rest         learning         relationships   significances   competency
•   sleep        creativity       hobbies         balance         feedback
•   relaxation
Scientific theories of self-management
 •   S. Covey
 •   R. Quinn
 •   P. Russell
 •   D.Chopra
 •   J. Parikh
 •   M. Chikzentmihalyi  happiness, flow
•   alertness
•   modelling
•   self-knowledge
•   self-image
•   giving up limitations
•   expressing inner power
• Marcus Aurelius (Roman emperor 121-180

    • “Waste no more time arguing about what a
      good man should be. Be one. ”
• ancient language
• freely translated it means:

• ”Thank you for taking your power.”
       Unexploitation of competency
•   Full many a gem of purest ray serene
•   The dark unfathom’d caves of ocean bear;
•   Full many a flow’r is born to blush un seen
•   And waste its sweetness on the desert air
•   (Thomas Gray)
• you must know how to lead yourself before you can lead others
• self-leadership
   – challenge yourself
   – put yourself at stake
   – question your own actions
   – do things differently
   – develop your actions
   – aim to the next level
• As long as a person mismanages himself, he is apt to mismanage
  everything else. (Robert Bolton)

• a process through which people influence themselves, the motivation and
  orientation they need to perform
• in self-management an individual aims to choose activities which are positive in the
  long term
• a superior’s attempt to have the staff perform self-directedly, to manage
• this does not however remove the superior’s responsibility, hierarchic commanding
  becomes coaching
• Unexploited potential in organisations
  - fresh points of view
  - recognition of capacity

• The greatest obstacles for success are in our minds
  - models of thinking
  - attitudes
  - beliefs

• Continuous change
  - continuous renewal and improvement
• Success can be learned – organisations can develop
  - individual development
  - team development
  - organisational development

• why does progress stop
  - challenges end
  - the choice of methods is not optimal
• Professional capacity
• Objectives
• Managing your mind
          - a capability to renew attitudes and actions
• physical fitness
• coping economically
• time management
• social life
• self-knowledge
• fulfilling oneself
        Managing the mind

• Consciousness
   - being aware of your thinking models

• Your explanation models
   - how you explain your various ways of action to yourself
   - break your routines
   - question your interpretational models
        Managing the mind
• Increasing positive interaction
   - what do you think about other people
   - how do you interpret other people’s opinions

• Learning
  - eg. learning from experience – exploiting positive experiences,
    learning from mistakes
• Relaxation
• Visualisation
• Realisation of things in practice
• a person’s state of alertness affects their appearance, decision-making, interaction,
  many various actions

• you can affect your own state of alertness

• lift your state of alertness as soon as you wake up in the morning

• lift the state of alertness during the day

• exercises:
   – physical exercise – walking, rolling your shoulders
   – uttering sounds: different sounds, singing
   – posture: shoulders back, chest out, chin up, shoulders relaxed, back straight
•   copying the behaviour of those who are good at a certain thing
•   how do top experts act
•   what do they do
•   how do they behave

• for example, if you were a top executive, how would you act?
• ask questions, be curious and aim for on-going progress, how would
  your body look like, how would you interact, walk, talk
                                           Johari window
                                    known to self    unknown to self
known to others unknown to others

                                    open               blind

                                     hidden         unknown
             Things and emotions which are freely and securely expressed,
                         eg. telling about your day to friends

 A role self, within which it is safe to perform, conscious behaviour, which intentionally
                     communicates features required by the situation

      things and messages “others" better than we do, linguistic features, prejudice

gestures, expressions, mannerisms, see-through emotions, our attitude to others, are we
        interested in “others" or not, the features about us that annoy “others"

                                 Rejected self-image
strenghts we unnecessarily undervalue, personality traits we don’t appreciate ourselves,
                                   but “others” do
Things, emotions, impressions, opinions we intentionally hide from “others” or are kept a secret
from “others” because of our reservedness

Can also be about tactfulness, ie. avoidance of being blunt

Behaviour we want to hide from “others", like excessive eagerness, doubt, fear, excitement,
tension, uncertainty, ignorance

Unnecessary hiding, for example too much humbleness about one’s skills

Subconscious, experiences we have forgot, unconscious rejection and forgetting, childhood
experiences, features and skills left under the surface, unknown resources
Objective for introspection

The larger the open area is, the easier it is to get along with “others”,
no matter who they are.

Therefore the open area of safe action should be as large as possible.

Feedback from “others” helps us take over to the open area things
that we have been blind to.

Our body language is an example of something we are easily blind to.
Decisive about the effect of our gestures is the signals “others” receive”,
not what we think we send. In a broad sense gestures are perceived moves.

With the help of feedback we may realise the unfortunate fact that
our smile is seen as belittling, our look as arrogant, or our lack of eye contact
as a sign of fear or unwillingness to communicate with “others”.
The critical meditation of our secrets may help
us open up and let go of hidden things that
unnecessarily limit our actions.

In the best case opening up also brings out
hidden resources in us which help us become
more attentive.
• People tend to behave and act according to their self-

• A positive self-image steers a person towards active and
  positive actions

• A pessimistic and judging self-image leads to limitations
  and a lower level of capacity than expected
• what is your self-image of yourself as

• an employee
• a person in a social situation
• a team leader

• bring out your positive traits and restrictions as well
• think of ways to remove the restrictions
            Visualisation exercise
- imagery exercises have a powerful effect on a
  person’s self-image

- they also affect physiology, body, emotions, actions,
  whether a person is aware of it or not

- visualisation also affects a person’s subconscious and
  removes potential restrictions
• sit with your back straight
• take deep breaths
• relax
• see the situation the way you would like it to
  come true
• see the situation in the present
                        sense the situation not only with sight but also by hearing
                        the sounds, smelling the smells, feeling the touch,
                        tasting the taste, etc.
                        experience the situation vividly
                        repeat the successful imagery multiple times
• see yourself in a work situation, see yourself dealing
  well with an issue

• see yourself in social interaction

• see yourself as a team leader
• Questioning your oqn beliefs
  - enables new observations and new models of action

• What are your beliefs about
  - yourself
  - employees
  - your organisation
  - rivals
  - partners
  - clients

• Especially superiors should meditate their beliefs about
  - strategy
  - style of leadership
  - concept of man
• Whether you think that you can, or that you can't,
  you are usually right.

• Henry Ford
 Are you using the potential in you?
• Tony Volpentet – born without hands and legs – ran 100
  metres in 11,36
• Fausto Radicin – one blind eye – Alpine skiing World Cup
• Charles Boswell – born blind – golf handicap HCP 9
• Pavel Nerhansky – ran 300 marathons on successive days

• Usually the greatest limitations are in our minds
• Thomas Alva Edison made about 11,000 attempts before he succeeded in
  inventing electricity. When he was asked if he wasn’t tired of failing time after
  time, he answered: ”I have not failed, I've just found 11,000 ways that won't

• Sylvester Stallone visited hundreds of producers before he found one for his
  manuscript for the movie ”Rocky”. He went to see many producers multiple
  times. Finally Stallone found a producer. Rocky won an Oscar and was a huge

• when a baby is learning to walk, it first falls down many times, but persistently
  continues and finally learns to walk despite the difficulties
•   goal – vision – cut into several smaller objectives
•   write down the objectives
•   set a date
•   evaluate the intermediary objectives
•   apply to a concrete level

• ask yourself – is this taking me towards the goal or away from
• criteria for a sensible
• attainable
• measurable
• scheduled
• exact
• written down
The following questions may help in setting an objective

•   What do you want to get out of this meeting
•   We have 1/2hrs on our hands, where do you want to be then

When there is a will instead of a must an individual performs better
  – I want  for me
  – I must  for you

    –    What would be the most important thing for you to reach during this
Answers like

    »   A plan covering the next month
    »   A clear idea, commitment for the next two steps
    »   A decision on which direction we’re going
    »   To understand the main ideas
    »   An agreement on the budget for the work
                  Final objectives
•    To become a market leader
•    To become the sales manager
•    Is the decision available to you?

•    Performance objectives
    – Under your control
    – When fulfilled usually leads to the final objective
    – For example 100 cars sold
                  A good objective
•   Spesific

•   Measurable

•   Agreed                   SMART

•   Realistic

•   Time Phased
                A good objective
•   Positively stated

•   Understood
•   Relevant

•   Ethical
                  A good objective
•   Challenging

•   Legal

•   Enviromentally sound      CLEAR

•   Appropriate

•   Recorded


  End Goal

Performance Goal

• continuous improvement and development
                 Time management
A Chinese proverb:

           ”Beside the noble art of getting things done,
          there is the noble art of leaving things undone.

         Wisdom is getting rid of the unnecessary."
          Time management
• Habits are the key to success. Successful
  people establish a habit of doing things
  unsuccessful people don’t like to do.

• Earl Nightingale
                Time management
• important things 20 % of time         80 % of result

• insignificant problems 80 % of time         20% of result
                   Efficiency tips
•   get rid of unnecessary routines
•   tackle your tasks briskly
•   clean up your table
•   difficult tasks first
•   prevent interruptions
•   do not disturb others
•   one thing at a time
•   lump small things together
                          Efficiency tips
•   delegate, discard, trust others
•   efficiency-increasing tools
•   immediately write down the things you need to remember
•   eliminate all unnecessary meetings, many things can be communicated
    via e-mail or telephone
•   plan your negotiations
•   a minimum of personal issues
•   manage your phone usage
•   learn to say no
        You cannot save time
• it has to be distributed to the right issues
• there must always be time for planning
              a task to be done            a critical task

        no     waste of time                   a secondary task

                        no                         yes

• many people tackle first the tasks that are
  quick, easy, and fun

• you start with tasks that are important
•   use your schedule
•   explain why
•   be honest and strong (assertiveness)
•   offer options
•   no feeling of obligation
•   realise WHY, before you say yes

• a part of work
• lumping, regular meetings (tell your ”fishing
  stories” to everyone at the same time)
• close the door every now and then
• cutting it short (stand up, ”I have to go now”)
         Towards self-direction
• one of the superior’s tasks is to direct the staff towards
  self-direction, self-management

• empowering the staff

• giving responsibility, power, a permission to make decisions

• at a hotel each member of the staff was permitted to make
  individual decisions up to $5,000
          Leading self-directed staff
Not a commander, but
• an encourager
• the role of the developer of individual responsibility
• helps staff to improve their self-confidence
• develops the initiative of individuals
• develops the responsibility of individuals
         Flexibility and leadership
• a flexible way of leading has proved to lead to better results than
  inflexible and strict leadership (Merrill & Reid)

• there is more flexibility on the higher levels of organisations

• that is, the highest executives are on average more flexible than supervisors
  (contradictory results in Finnish studies)

• on average, the people-minded individuals are more able to modify their
  behaviour than the issue-minded
                 Supervisor out of office
• a way of assessing the staff’s self-directedness, empowerment, self-leadership,
  is having the supervisor leave work for a couple of days

    – is the work still done or do the working gloves get thrown away,
      how does the staff solve questions and challenges

        • ”the supervisor’s not here right now, we can’t do anything about it” ”we’re
          not authorised” ”I don’t know, our supervisor takes care of these things”
        • or ”let’s do it like this...”
           Peak acheivement and leadership
• peak acheivements require that physical, mental, social, etc. factors are in
  peak state

• physical environment includes eg. ergonomic working conditions, moderate
  working hours, short pauses during the day, etc.

• mental environment: a moderate pace of work, a balance between the challenges
  and skills at work, a balance between work and leisure

• social factors: fluent interaction between supervisor, colleagues, etc.

• the functionality of above factors is at the supervisor’s responsibility
       Peak achievement and leadership
• the organisations which have reached peak achievements have often had
  employees who have wanted to achieve something special both in their work
  and their life

• they are curious and willing to learn and search for their own limits

• the superiors who are capable of peak achievements realise that at its best
  work offers people satisfaction that is at par with sex, cf. the feeling of flow
Peak achievement and leadership
• each person wants to do good and be useful

• each person dreams of great achievements

• all a supervisor needs to do is help people see and find their
  own greatness
           Peak achievement
Pay special attention to the following:
       • inner motivation
       • resources
       • support, spurring, encouragement
       • everything is possible! remove restrictions,
         especially from your mind
       • set high goals -> high standards
       • good motivation
        flow – capability vs. challenge

          Support and challenges
                                target area for energy
support    day care centre

                                stress area              burn out
           cynical area

       Emotions and leadership
• people make most of their decisions based on emotions
• emotions have a very strong influence on people’s activities
• typically organisations have not paid enough attention to emotions, as if a
  person would turn into a robot at work
• it’s essential to reach the positive emotions: enthusiasm, joy, happiness,
• paying attention to emotions – emotional intelligence, empathy
• does not mean that you dive in in another person’s sorrow but
  understanding them
         Emotions and leadership
• your example – emotions are contageous, try and face people
  with happiness and excitement, smile, talka bout positive things,
  see what kind of impression you make

• also try the opposite

• think of other ways of lifting up the staff’s mood
•   Strongly direct behaviour
•   Aim for an emotion you find optimal
•   For instance, focused, relaxed, cheerful, etc.
•   Behaviour will follow automatically
             Managerial grid (                           Blake & Mouton 1971   )
             1/9 Country club style                           9/9 iTeam style, ideal
             Attention on people’s needs                      Clear objectives
Concern                                                       Concern for people
for people                                                    Praise and feedback

                                      5/5 Middle-of-the-road style
                                      Balance between goals and workers’ needs

             1/1 Impoverished style                           9/1 Authoritarian style
             Avoiding communication                           Production before people

                                    Concern for production
•   S- strengths
•   W – weaknesses
•   O – opportunities
•   T – threats
Appreciative inquiry (AI) developed by David Cooperrider offers a good starting
point for organisational development based on positive thinking.

The main idea of this method is that each employee in the organisation will start searching
for what is best in the organisation. When both the searching process and the process of
telling about the results are in dialogue and attention is paid to successful stories, it leads
to a positive cycle, dragging people with it.

Appreciative inquiry aims at starting a positive cycle, thus differing from the traditional
problem-based organisational thinking. Solving the problems easily starts a negative cycle.

Cooperrider, D. & Whitney, D. & Stravos, J. 2003. Appreciative inquiry handbook.
Lakeshore publishers.

Juuti, P. Toivon johtaminen
   Security zone / comfort zone
• Security zone is the area where people feel
  themselves secure, know they will succeed, familiar
  things and people, etc.

• Uncomfortable zone is the area where people feel
  some stress, there are no routines yet, eg. new
  tasks, new ways of behaviour, new people, etc.
              panic zone
                                  Comfort zone
                stretch zone

              comfort zone

curiosity                             experience

application       understanding       assessment, reflection
               Feedback and learning
• Feedback may launch a contradiction that stimulates learning
• Rewarding has proved to affect learning
• Positive feedback reinforces the continuation and repetition of
  action, whereas punishment for unwanted behaviour does not have
  as strong an effect
• Supervisors are often reluctant to give feedback, negative or positive,
  apparently because of the lack of skill and motivation
                             Concrete, active

                             uusien menettelytapojen
                             kokeilu käytännössä
     Theoretical                                        Personal
  conceptualisation                                    experience

ja uusien menettelytapojen

                             Kolb learning cycle
Kofman cycle of individual learning

   observe                 plan

single- ja double loop learning
                     Argyris & Schön 1974

  variables                   policy                 consequences
 values etc.

       double loop learning                 single loop learning
                                            Models of learning
1.       Single loop
     -         one-sided / operative
     -         reacting to one’s own everyday miscalculations
             -      an individual perceives their mistake and corrects it
     -         the individuals theory of action remains the same
     -         change in action without cognitive effect
     -         correcting mistakes

2.      Double loop
      -    percieving one’s mistakes as preconditions for action have changed,
           for example, because of changes in the world outside of the organisation
     -     a change in activities brought up by new information
     -     change in attitude
     -     giving up old norms – taking up new norms

3.     Triple loop /deutero learning
     -     learning to learn efficiently
     -     self-improvement
     -     metalearning
• governing variables, for example
   – things like values, plans, rules, strategies which people tend to keep within
     certain accepted limits

    – policies
    – the measures and plans people use to keep values etc, within the accepted

    –   consequences
    –   what happens because of an action
    –   may come about as planned or
    –   different from what was planned
         single-loop learning
• single loop learning (cf. thermostat)
• governing variables (goals, values, plans, rules and
  strategies) are taken as granted
• you act according to them and do not question them
• in case something goes wrong, you find another
  policy that helps you act according to the governing
             double loop learning
• governing variables (goals, values, plans, rules and
  strategies) are critically evaluated and questioned

• the fundamental assumptions behind ideas and policies
  are evaluated

• a more creative and reflective approach
Self-image – behaviour, learning
  • Imagine you are a professor
  • How would s/he learn
  • How would s/he behave
     Scale for self-assessment
• Evaluate (1-10) how you did
• What was your ”basic level”
• How much variation there was
• Which factors affected the variation
• How could you get more peak experiences
  within the variation
• What would you have to do to lift the level a
  little higher
Supervisor asks the staff some questions,
aiming for the staff to think of answers
independently instead of waiting for the
supervisor to bring out options for answers
•   What would have to happen so that interaction between staff, transfer of skills
    etc. would improve in your organisation

•   Let’s assume a ”miracle” has taken place in your organisation, resulting in great
    transfer of skills, interaction between staff etc. What has happened? How do you feel?

•   What does the situation look like now?

•   How do you notice there has been a change for the better?

•   What kind of improvement do you notice in your own behaviour?

•   What small hints of going towards a miracle have you noticed in your organisation?

To top