Self-management Harri Virolainen Harri.firstname.lastname@example.org Objectives • Learn to know and become aware of oneself and one’s habits and actions better • Find new manners of action Self-management framework • Self-management & self-leadership introduced in 1980’s • Multidisciplinary point of view Philosophy, religion, legal science Anthropology Psychology Quantumphysics, Self-management chemistry, cosmology Sport science Educational science Medical science Art Psychiatry Literature Neuroscience History Nosce te ipsum (know yourself) » consciousness • body mind feelings values work • nutrition thinking positiveness values key tasks • exercise memory emotion control objectives goals • rest learning relationships significances competency • sleep creativity hobbies balance feedback • relaxation Scientific theories of self-management • S. Covey • R. Quinn • P. Russell • D.Chopra • J. Parikh • M. Chikzentmihalyi happiness, flow self-management • alertness • modelling • self-knowledge • self-image • giving up limitations • expressing inner power • Marcus Aurelius (Roman emperor 121-180 AD) • “Waste no more time arguing about what a good man should be. Be one. ” ESPAVO • ESPAVO • ancient language • freely translated it means: • ”Thank you for taking your power.” Unexploitation of competency • Full many a gem of purest ray serene • The dark unfathom’d caves of ocean bear; • Full many a flow’r is born to blush un seen • And waste its sweetness on the desert air • (Thomas Gray) Leadership • you must know how to lead yourself before you can lead others • self-leadership – challenge yourself – put yourself at stake – question your own actions – do things differently – develop your actions – aim to the next level Self-management • As long as a person mismanages himself, he is apt to mismanage everything else. (Robert Bolton) • a process through which people influence themselves, the motivation and orientation they need to perform • in self-management an individual aims to choose activities which are positive in the long term • a superior’s attempt to have the staff perform self-directedly, to manage themselves • this does not however remove the superior’s responsibility, hierarchic commanding becomes coaching • Unexploited potential in organisations - fresh points of view - recognition of capacity • The greatest obstacles for success are in our minds - models of thinking - attitudes - beliefs • Continuous change - continuous renewal and improvement • Success can be learned – organisations can develop - individual development - team development - organisational development • why does progress stop - challenges end - the choice of methods is not optimal Self-management • Professional capacity • Objectives • Managing your mind - a capability to renew attitudes and actions • physical fitness • coping economically • time management • social life • self-knowledge • fulfilling oneself Managing the mind • Consciousness - being aware of your thinking models • Your explanation models - how you explain your various ways of action to yourself - break your routines - question your interpretational models Managing the mind • Increasing positive interaction - what do you think about other people - how do you interpret other people’s opinions • Learning - eg. learning from experience – exploiting positive experiences, learning from mistakes • Relaxation • Visualisation • Realisation of things in practice Alertness • a person’s state of alertness affects their appearance, decision-making, interaction, many various actions • you can affect your own state of alertness • lift your state of alertness as soon as you wake up in the morning • lift the state of alertness during the day • exercises: – physical exercise – walking, rolling your shoulders – uttering sounds: different sounds, singing – posture: shoulders back, chest out, chin up, shoulders relaxed, back straight Modelling • copying the behaviour of those who are good at a certain thing • how do top experts act • what do they do • how do they behave • for example, if you were a top executive, how would you act? • ask questions, be curious and aim for on-going progress, how would your body look like, how would you interact, walk, talk Johari window known to self unknown to self known to others unknown to others open blind hidden unknown Open: Things and emotions which are freely and securely expressed, eg. telling about your day to friends A role self, within which it is safe to perform, conscious behaviour, which intentionally communicates features required by the situation Blind: things and messages “others" better than we do, linguistic features, prejudice gestures, expressions, mannerisms, see-through emotions, our attitude to others, are we interested in “others" or not, the features about us that annoy “others" Rejected self-image strenghts we unnecessarily undervalue, personality traits we don’t appreciate ourselves, but “others” do Hidden: Things, emotions, impressions, opinions we intentionally hide from “others” or are kept a secret from “others” because of our reservedness Can also be about tactfulness, ie. avoidance of being blunt Behaviour we want to hide from “others", like excessive eagerness, doubt, fear, excitement, tension, uncertainty, ignorance Unnecessary hiding, for example too much humbleness about one’s skills Unknown: Subconscious, experiences we have forgot, unconscious rejection and forgetting, childhood experiences, features and skills left under the surface, unknown resources Objective for introspection The larger the open area is, the easier it is to get along with “others”, no matter who they are. Therefore the open area of safe action should be as large as possible. Feedback from “others” helps us take over to the open area things that we have been blind to. Our body language is an example of something we are easily blind to. Decisive about the effect of our gestures is the signals “others” receive”, not what we think we send. In a broad sense gestures are perceived moves. With the help of feedback we may realise the unfortunate fact that our smile is seen as belittling, our look as arrogant, or our lack of eye contact as a sign of fear or unwillingness to communicate with “others”. The critical meditation of our secrets may help us open up and let go of hidden things that unnecessarily limit our actions. In the best case opening up also brings out hidden resources in us which help us become more attentive. Self-image • People tend to behave and act according to their self- image • A positive self-image steers a person towards active and positive actions • A pessimistic and judging self-image leads to limitations and a lower level of capacity than expected Self-image • what is your self-image of yourself as • an employee • a person in a social situation • a team leader • bring out your positive traits and restrictions as well • think of ways to remove the restrictions Visualisation exercise - imagery exercises have a powerful effect on a person’s self-image - they also affect physiology, body, emotions, actions, whether a person is aware of it or not - visualisation also affects a person’s subconscious and removes potential restrictions Visualisation • sit with your back straight • take deep breaths • relax • see the situation the way you would like it to come true • see the situation in the present sense the situation not only with sight but also by hearing the sounds, smelling the smells, feeling the touch, tasting the taste, etc. experience the situation vividly repeat the successful imagery multiple times Visualisation • see yourself in a work situation, see yourself dealing well with an issue • see yourself in social interaction • see yourself as a team leader Beliefs • Questioning your oqn beliefs - enables new observations and new models of action • What are your beliefs about - yourself - employees - your organisation - rivals - partners - clients • Especially superiors should meditate their beliefs about - strategy - style of leadership - concept of man Beliefs • Whether you think that you can, or that you can't, you are usually right. • Henry Ford Are you using the potential in you? • Tony Volpentet – born without hands and legs – ran 100 metres in 11,36 • Fausto Radicin – one blind eye – Alpine skiing World Cup winner • Charles Boswell – born blind – golf handicap HCP 9 • Pavel Nerhansky – ran 300 marathons on successive days • Usually the greatest limitations are in our minds Persistence • Thomas Alva Edison made about 11,000 attempts before he succeeded in inventing electricity. When he was asked if he wasn’t tired of failing time after time, he answered: ”I have not failed, I've just found 11,000 ways that won't work.” • Sylvester Stallone visited hundreds of producers before he found one for his manuscript for the movie ”Rocky”. He went to see many producers multiple times. Finally Stallone found a producer. Rocky won an Oscar and was a huge success • when a baby is learning to walk, it first falls down many times, but persistently continues and finally learns to walk despite the difficulties Objectives • goal – vision – cut into several smaller objectives • write down the objectives • set a date • evaluate the intermediary objectives • apply to a concrete level • ask yourself – is this taking me towards the goal or away from it? Objectives • criteria for a sensible objective: • attainable • measurable • scheduled • exact • written down Objectives The following questions may help in setting an objective • What do you want to get out of this meeting • We have 1/2hrs on our hands, where do you want to be then When there is a will instead of a must an individual performs better – I want for me – I must for you – What would be the most important thing for you to reach during this meeting Answers like » A plan covering the next month » A clear idea, commitment for the next two steps » A decision on which direction we’re going » To understand the main ideas » An agreement on the budget for the work Final objectives • To become a market leader • To become the sales manager • Is the decision available to you? • Performance objectives – Under your control – When fulfilled usually leads to the final objective – For example 100 cars sold A good objective • Spesific • Measurable • Agreed SMART • Realistic • Time Phased A good objective • Positively stated • Understood PURE • Relevant • Ethical A good objective • Challenging • Legal • Enviromentally sound CLEAR • Appropriate • Recorded Goal Dream End Goal Performance Goal Process kaizen • continuous improvement and development Time management A Chinese proverb: ”Beside the noble art of getting things done, there is the noble art of leaving things undone. Wisdom is getting rid of the unnecessary." Time management • Habits are the key to success. Successful people establish a habit of doing things unsuccessful people don’t like to do. • Earl Nightingale Time management • important things 20 % of time 80 % of result • insignificant problems 80 % of time 20% of result Efficiency tips • get rid of unnecessary routines • tackle your tasks briskly • clean up your table • difficult tasks first • prevent interruptions • do not disturb others • one thing at a time • lump small things together Efficiency tips • delegate, discard, trust others • efficiency-increasing tools • immediately write down the things you need to remember • eliminate all unnecessary meetings, many things can be communicated via e-mail or telephone • plan your negotiations • a minimum of personal issues • manage your phone usage • learn to say no You cannot save time • it has to be distributed to the right issues • there must always be time for planning Prioritising important a task to be done a critical task yes no waste of time a secondary task no yes urgent Prioritising • many people tackle first the tasks that are quick, easy, and fun • you start with tasks that are important Refusing • use your schedule • explain why • be honest and strong (assertiveness) • offer options • no feeling of obligation • realise WHY, before you say yes Interruptions • a part of work • lumping, regular meetings (tell your ”fishing stories” to everyone at the same time) • close the door every now and then • cutting it short (stand up, ”I have to go now”) Towards self-direction • one of the superior’s tasks is to direct the staff towards self-direction, self-management • empowering the staff • giving responsibility, power, a permission to make decisions • at a hotel each member of the staff was permitted to make individual decisions up to $5,000 Leading self-directed staff Not a commander, but • an encourager • the role of the developer of individual responsibility • helps staff to improve their self-confidence • develops the initiative of individuals • develops the responsibility of individuals Flexibility and leadership • a flexible way of leading has proved to lead to better results than inflexible and strict leadership (Merrill & Reid) • there is more flexibility on the higher levels of organisations • that is, the highest executives are on average more flexible than supervisors (contradictory results in Finnish studies) • on average, the people-minded individuals are more able to modify their behaviour than the issue-minded Supervisor out of office • a way of assessing the staff’s self-directedness, empowerment, self-leadership, is having the supervisor leave work for a couple of days – is the work still done or do the working gloves get thrown away, how does the staff solve questions and challenges • ”the supervisor’s not here right now, we can’t do anything about it” ”we’re not authorised” ”I don’t know, our supervisor takes care of these things” • or ”let’s do it like this...” Peak acheivement and leadership • peak acheivements require that physical, mental, social, etc. factors are in peak state • physical environment includes eg. ergonomic working conditions, moderate working hours, short pauses during the day, etc. • mental environment: a moderate pace of work, a balance between the challenges and skills at work, a balance between work and leisure • social factors: fluent interaction between supervisor, colleagues, etc. • the functionality of above factors is at the supervisor’s responsibility Peak achievement and leadership • the organisations which have reached peak achievements have often had employees who have wanted to achieve something special both in their work and their life • they are curious and willing to learn and search for their own limits • the superiors who are capable of peak achievements realise that at its best work offers people satisfaction that is at par with sex, cf. the feeling of flow Peak achievement and leadership • each person wants to do good and be useful • each person dreams of great achievements • all a supervisor needs to do is help people see and find their own greatness Peak achievement Pay special attention to the following: • inner motivation • resources • support, spurring, encouragement • everything is possible! remove restrictions, especially from your mind • set high goals -> high standards • good motivation flow – capability vs. challenge frustration capability flow anxiety challenges Support and challenges target area for energy support day care centre stress area burn out cynical area challenges Emotions and leadership • people make most of their decisions based on emotions • emotions have a very strong influence on people’s activities • typically organisations have not paid enough attention to emotions, as if a person would turn into a robot at work • it’s essential to reach the positive emotions: enthusiasm, joy, happiness, etc. • paying attention to emotions – emotional intelligence, empathy • does not mean that you dive in in another person’s sorrow but understanding them Emotions and leadership • your example – emotions are contageous, try and face people with happiness and excitement, smile, talka bout positive things, see what kind of impression you make • also try the opposite • think of other ways of lifting up the staff’s mood Emotions • Strongly direct behaviour • Aim for an emotion you find optimal • For instance, focused, relaxed, cheerful, etc. • Behaviour will follow automatically Managerial grid ( Blake & Mouton 1971 ) 1/9 Country club style 9/9 iTeam style, ideal Attention on people’s needs Clear objectives Concern Concern for people for people Praise and feedback 5/5 Middle-of-the-road style Balance between goals and workers’ needs 1/1 Impoverished style 9/1 Authoritarian style Avoiding communication Production before people Concern for production swot • S- strengths • W – weaknesses • O – opportunities • T – threats Appreciative inquiry (AI) developed by David Cooperrider offers a good starting point for organisational development based on positive thinking. The main idea of this method is that each employee in the organisation will start searching for what is best in the organisation. When both the searching process and the process of telling about the results are in dialogue and attention is paid to successful stories, it leads to a positive cycle, dragging people with it. Appreciative inquiry aims at starting a positive cycle, thus differing from the traditional problem-based organisational thinking. Solving the problems easily starts a negative cycle. Cooperrider, D. & Whitney, D. & Stravos, J. 2003. Appreciative inquiry handbook. Lakeshore publishers. Juuti, P. Toivon johtaminen Security zone / comfort zone • Security zone is the area where people feel themselves secure, know they will succeed, familiar things and people, etc. • Uncomfortable zone is the area where people feel some stress, there are no routines yet, eg. new tasks, new ways of behaviour, new people, etc. panic zone Comfort zone stretch zone comfort zone curiosity experience application understanding assessment, reflection Feedback and learning • Feedback may launch a contradiction that stimulates learning • Rewarding has proved to affect learning • Positive feedback reinforces the continuation and repetition of action, whereas punishment for unwanted behaviour does not have as strong an effect • Supervisors are often reluctant to give feedback, negative or positive, apparently because of the lack of skill and motivation Concrete, active experimentation uusien menettelytapojen kokeilu käytännössä Theoretical Personal conceptualisation experience ja uusien menettelytapojen omaksuminen Reflection Kolb learning cycle Kofman cycle of individual learning assess reflect observe plan apply single- ja double loop learning Argyris & Schön 1974 governing variables policy consequences values etc. double loop learning single loop learning Models of learning 1. Single loop - one-sided / operative - reacting to one’s own everyday miscalculations - an individual perceives their mistake and corrects it - the individuals theory of action remains the same - change in action without cognitive effect - correcting mistakes 2. Double loop - percieving one’s mistakes as preconditions for action have changed, for example, because of changes in the world outside of the organisation - a change in activities brought up by new information - change in attitude - giving up old norms – taking up new norms 3. Triple loop /deutero learning - learning to learn efficiently - self-improvement - metalearning • governing variables, for example – things like values, plans, rules, strategies which people tend to keep within certain accepted limits – policies – the measures and plans people use to keep values etc, within the accepted limits – consequences – what happens because of an action – may come about as planned or – different from what was planned single-loop learning • single loop learning (cf. thermostat) • governing variables (goals, values, plans, rules and strategies) are taken as granted • you act according to them and do not question them • in case something goes wrong, you find another policy that helps you act according to the governing principles double loop learning • governing variables (goals, values, plans, rules and strategies) are critically evaluated and questioned • the fundamental assumptions behind ideas and policies are evaluated • a more creative and reflective approach Self-image – behaviour, learning • Imagine you are a professor • How would s/he learn • How would s/he behave Scale for self-assessment • Evaluate (1-10) how you did • What was your ”basic level” • How much variation there was • Which factors affected the variation • How could you get more peak experiences within the variation • What would you have to do to lift the level a little higher Questions Supervisor asks the staff some questions, aiming for the staff to think of answers independently instead of waiting for the supervisor to bring out options for answers Questions • What would have to happen so that interaction between staff, transfer of skills etc. would improve in your organisation • Let’s assume a ”miracle” has taken place in your organisation, resulting in great transfer of skills, interaction between staff etc. What has happened? How do you feel? • What does the situation look like now? • How do you notice there has been a change for the better? • What kind of improvement do you notice in your own behaviour? • What small hints of going towards a miracle have you noticed in your organisation?
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