Elements of Drama_

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					Elements of Drama!
 Preparing for Arthur Miller’s The
   Drama is a form of literature designed to be
    performed in front of an audience.
   There are 2 main types: COMEDY &
   Like fiction, dramatic works have:

        a plot (action of the story)
       characters (those who take part in the action of
        the story)
        setting (time and place)
       conflict (the struggle(s) within a story)
       and a theme (the lesson/moral of the story).
Terms to know!
   Act: a division within the play, much like
    chapters in a novel.
   Aside: lines that are spoken by a character
    directly to the audience.
       Think: talking to the side…!
   Cast of Characters: a listing of the
    characters who appear on stage.
   Comedy: a humorous work of drama
   Dialogue: conversation between two or more
   Dramatic Irony: when the audience or reader
    knows something that the characters in the story
    do NOT.
   Foil: a character who is much like another
    character in class, rank, and background, but has
    opposite traits which provide a contrast and
    conflict between the two characters.
   Monologue: a long speech spoken by a character
    to himself, another character, or to the audience.
   Scene: a division of the act into smaller parts.
   Stage directions: italicized comments that identify
    parts of the setting or the use of props or
    costumes, give further information about a
    character,or provide background information.
   Tragedy: a serious work of drama in which
    the hero suffers catastrophe or serious
    misfortune, usually because of his own
   Tragic Hero: a protagonist with a fatal flaw
    which eventually leads to his demise.
   Every character has a motivation!
   These are forces and reasons that give the
    character a reason to act the way they do,
    or make the decisions they make.
   We learn about a characters’ motivation
    through direct and indirect
Direct Characterization
   When the author or narrator directly tells
    the reader what the character is like.
   For example: “Jennifer is a fiery red-head
    with the tenacity of a mule.”
Indirect Characterization
   When the author gives information about a
    character and allows the reader to draw his
    or her own conclusions about that
       Through the character’s own thoughts, feelings,
       OR by what other characters say/feel or how
        they act towards another character.
   The struggle between opposing forces.
   Closely related to a character’s motivation.
   EXAMPLE: You wanted to buy a candy bar
    to get an energy boost while studying
    (motivation). However, you don’t have any
    money (conflict). How you respond to not
    having the money and wanting the candy
    would reveal a lot about your personality.
Main motivation    To be with John Proctor

                  She is unable to be with John Proctor because
Main conflict     he and Elizabeth are still married; Abigail wants
                  to get rid of Elizabeth

                  Conniving, vengeful, lustful,
                  controlling, manipulative

Effect on           After Tituba is forced to confess, Abigail
                    jumps in and starts accusing others
Puritan Religion & Beliefs
   Frustrated by the church of England, early Puritan
    came to America to escape persecution and to
    establish a new sect in which God’s law was held
   They believed that the Bible and its message
    were above man’s law, and therefore, it was key
    to salvation.
   Most settled in NE, where the close-knit
    community was governed by absolute religious
    fait and strict discipline.
Puritan Religion & Beliefs
   The Puritans believed in predestination- that people were
    either born sinful and bound to a life in Hell, or they were
    destined to be saved. Nothing could be done to change
    one’s destiny except to live a life of purity and pray that God
    would save them at the time of their death.
   Puritans believed in a life of hard work, self-discipline, and
    religious duty.
   Those who engaged in gossip, dancing, drunkenness,
    adultery, and other activities which were seen as the work of
    the devil and a threat to the conformity of the sommunity
    were subjected to public humiliation and punishment.
Puritan Religion & Beliefs
   The strict, oppressive environment created
    tension in the community. Satan was ever-
    present in their daily lives, as death, drought,
    flood, and other natural disasters were blamed on
    Satan and his followers. As a result, Puritans
    became paranoid and suspicious of each other,
    and were often quick to place blame. This tension
    and paranoia created the perfect equation for the
    Salem Witch Hunt in 1692
Puritan Religion & Beliefs
   Spurred by political and social unrest in the
    community, and religious leaders such as Cotton
    Mather who wrote the book Memorable
    Providences Relating to Witchcraft and
    Possessions (1689), the hysteria in Salem spread
    like wildfire. By the end of the trials in 1692,
    nineteen men and women were hanged, one man
    was pressed to death, and many others died while
    awaiting trial in prison.

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