Annual Report - Sandia National Laboratories

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					About Sandia...

  Sandia came into being as an             Sandia also performs a wide variety of
  ordnance design, testing, and assembly   research and development for other
  facility, and was located on Sandia      national security efforts.
  Base, in Albuquerque, New Mexico,
                                           Lockheed Martin Corporation has
  to be close to an airfield and work
                                           managed Sandia since October 1,
  closely with the military. Originally
                                           1994, for the U.S. Department of
  known as Z Division, part of what’s
                                           Energy (DOE). Most of Sandia’s work
  now Los Alamos National Laboratory,
                                           is sponsored by DOE’s National
  Sandia was born out of America’s
                                           Nuclear Security Administration
  atomic bomb development effort — the
                                           (NNSA), but the Labs also works for
  Manhattan Project.
                                           other federal agencies, including the
  In 1949, President Harry S. Truman       Department of Defense (DoD) and
  wrote a letter to the American           the Department of Homeland Security
  Telephone and Telegraph Company          (DHS). We work cooperatively with a
  president offering the company “an       number of government, U.S. industry,
  opportunity to render an exceptional     and academic partners to accomplish
  service in the national interest” by     our missions. Today Sandia employs
  managing Sandia. AT&T accepted,          about 8,700 people and has two
  began managing the Labs on               primary facilities: a laboratory and
  November 1, 1949, and continued          headquarters in Albuquerque and a
  in the role for nearly 44 years. The     laboratory in Livermore, California.
  Labs’ original mission — providing
  engineering design for all nonnuclear
  components of the nation’s nuclear
  weapons — continues today. But
                                      Rising to a new plateau
                                                                    T future is never
                                                                     he
                                                        what you expect it to be.

                                                                  Would we ever have thought that the supremacy of our
                                                                  nation in science and engineering would be challenged?
                                                                  Yet it is, and today we face competition from workers who
                                                                  live just a mouse-click away in India, China, and dozens
                                                                  of other nations with well-trained, productive citizens and
                                                                  growing economies. We are fast losing our technological
                                                                  edge. To reverse that trend we will need to transform.

                                                                  Recognizing the challenge, we at Sandia have begun a
                                                                  very deliberate journey to transform our operations to
                                                                  better support our missions. We are going to take it up
                                                                  a notch, to a new plateau of excellence. In the pages
I keep thinking this is a super, extraordinary, exceptional
                                                                  that follow, you will have the opportunity to learn what
place. A place that was created for a reason: to make a
                                                                  we’ve been doing this year to pave the way for these next
difference. A place that holds some really core inherent values
                                                                  steps. I have a sense that we can take all the things facing
that it can demonstrate to the country and truly be a place of
                                                                  us and turn them into real opportunities and make a
unquestioned excellence in science and engineering. A place
                                                                  difference for our country. It’s probably a time like few
that’s a foundation for national security and a place where
                                                                  others this laboratory has had where we can make a real
we have this impeccable way in which we operate, leading an
                                                                  contribution.
enterprise that’s a model for the world.

The path to the future has to be one of change and transfor-      Thomas O. Hunter
mation because the world is truly in a state of transformation.   Sandia National Laboratories
                                                                  President and Director
Would we ever have thought:
• that natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina would have            “Sandia today faces demands from a spectrum of
  such a big economic and political impact as they have had?
                                                                      customers. All over America, people are asking
• that the nation would adopt an energy policy embraced by
  both houses of Congress and signed at Sandia Labs by the            their institutions how they can rise above where
  President of the United States?                                     they are now to a whole new plateau. How they
• that the nuclear weapons complex would come under such
                                                                      can become something different than they are,
  very intense scrutiny?
• that the national debt would be approaching nine trillion           because the global and domestic demands
  dollars and that the federal government would be operat-            are such that the current way we do things
  ing in large part on what is money borrowed from our                will not be competitive in the future.”
  children and grandchildren?
• that the conflict in Iraq would be approaching the duration         Thomas O. Hunter
  of World War II and would have an accumulated incre-                Sandia President and Director
  mental cost to the defense budget alone of more than 300
  billion dollars?



                                                                                                                                 
    Transformation
    Exhibiting flexibility in a time of change
                          Sandia’s role in the national science and technology arena is undergoing dramatic change. While
                          upgrading and maintaining the country’s nuclear stockpile remains a top priority, Sandia also is
                          spearheading other research in the name of national security. The Labs’ organization is reflecting
                          this broader focus. Here are some thoughts on this transformation from the Labs Leadership Team.

                          “Complex 2030 envisions                       “For the foreseeable future,
                          transformation of the stockpile from          nuclear weapons will
                          the life-extension project era — where        play a critical role in the
                          alterations and modifications extend the      nation’s security. Yet, the
                          life of existing weapons — to a stockpile     nation has also recognized
                          based on the Reliable Replacement             that the threats we face are
                          Warhead concept. This will require the        more diverse than ever,
                          complex to operate and produce full           ranging from the terrorist
                          systems in a way unlike we have in the        threat of non-state actors,
                          recent past. An RRW-based stockpile           to rogue states, to peer
                          enables better manufacturability,             competitors, to economic
                          incorporates greater design margins, and      conflict regarding energy
         enables improvements in safety, security, and use control.     and resources. Sandia is well positioned to offer new
         It allows us to design weapons in such a way that we           ideas and new science, technology, and engineering to
         can continue to have confidence in our assessment of           address these threats. Sandia’s strength has always been
         weapon reliability with much enhanced surety.”                 to ‘deliver the goods,’ whether to meet customers’ urgent
         Deputy Director Joan Woodard,                                  needs or to deliver a technology for which the utility
         Nuclear Weapons                                                will not be realized for decades into the future. If we
                                                                        continue to create new ideas, solve today’s problems for
                                                                        our customers, and deliver the technologies they need for
                          “Our new Strategic Plan reflects a            tomorrow, we will always be able to provide ‘exceptional
                          much deeper awareness of the need to          service in the national interest.’”
                          transform so that Sandia is properly          Deputy Director Al Romig,
                          positioned to meet the nation’s               Integrated Technologies and Systems
                          expectations in the future. We need
                          to not just be driven by the winds of
                          fortune, but rather be intentional about
                          how we manage the Laboratories and
                          particularly about how we manage the
                          movement of work and people.

                           “Everyone at Sandia is part of the
                           transformation effort. It isn’t about some
         separate entity that someone, somewhere else is working
         on transformation. It’s something that’s deeply embedded
         through Sandia.”
         Deputy Director John Stichman,
         Labs Transformation


2
                                            Table of Contents
Nuclear Weapons Program.............................................................................      4
Defense Systems & Assessments..................................................................... 10
Homeland Security & Defense........................................................................ 14
Energy, Resources, & Nonproliferation............................................................. 18
       Bioterrorism– reducing the threat........................................................... 18
       Leading a new center for solid-state lighting ............................................ 21
       Nanoscience–collaborating at a very small scale ....................................... 22
       Looking one million years into the future ................................................. 25
Advanced Concepts Group............................................................................. 27
Strategic Relationships................................................................................. 28
FY 2006 Financial & Staffing Report................................................................ 30
Community Outreach.................................................................................... 32
Community Outreach.................................................................................... 32
Sandia Corporation Board of Directors............................................................. 33




                                                                                                              3
    Nuclear Weapons Program
    New era brings many new challenges to Sandia
         Despite another year of international         The middle of this first decade in
    efforts to halt nuclear proliferation:       the 2st century has brought with it
    • North Korea detonated a nuclear            a new era for nuclear weapons, their
       device,                                   development, and the maintenance of
    • In defiance of requests to stop, Iran      a national nuclear deterrent. “On the
       continues developing a nuclear pro-       international scene, the Cold War and
       gram that most in the West believe is     the associated bipolar world is a thing
       aimed at producing nuclear weapons,       of the past,” says Joan Woodard, Sandia      Computational model used for a simulation of a B61-7
       and                                       Executive Vice President and Deputy          impact.
    • Japan — whose constitution many            Laboratories Director for Nuclear Weap-
       believe forbids even the presence of      ons. “Now we face the rise of multi-         complex, Sandia continues to have core
       nuclear weapons on its soil — has         factionalism and the complex environ-        responsibilities to sustain the nation’s
       talked openly about the possible need     ment that comes with it.”                    stockpile and nuclear deterrent. With
       to develop them.                               Sandia is working to maintain a         more than 60 years’ experience in
                                                 deterrent that is aligned with national      developing and designing the non-
        On the Indian Subcontinent, India        policy. Changes in overall stability of      nuclear components and subsystems
    and Pakistan, both of which acknowl-         Europe and Asia and the advent of            of the U.S. nuclear stockpile, Sandia is
            edge at least a limited nuclear      global terrorism have altered the way        ready to continue to provide answers to
              weapons capability, have, in       the stockpile is being thought of by         the challenges of the nation’s nuclear
                 the past year, tested mis-      policy makers. The U.S. stockpile of the     enterprise.
                 siles capable of delivering     future will be smaller — much smaller             Woodard and her strategic manage-
                nuclear warheads, as has         than at the height of the Cold War. Its      ment group are addressing the evolv-
                Iran — despite Tehran’s          weapons will be less costly to design,       ing challenges by seeking to achieve a
               continuing denials of interest    manufacture, and sustain. The threat of      number of strategic objectives:
               in nuclear weapons. As the        theft or sabotage to the stockpile will be
              U.S. debates the need and          considered even more carefully. The loss     • Continue to ensure a credible nuclear
              process for developing the         of a weapon, especially into the hands         stockpile for the nation while, at the
              Reliable Replacement War-          of a group that will not hesitate to use       same time
                head (RRW), the United           it, is not an acceptable outcome for           - improving our science-based stock-
                 Kingdom is also nearing a       tomorrow’s world.                                 pile evaluation techniques and
                    decision on extending the         Alignment with national policy also       - creating a Common Adaptable
                        life of its deterrent.   means reductions in funding for the               System Architecture, making use of
                                                 nation’s nuclear weapons program as a             microsystems and other advanced
                                                                    whole and for Sandia.          technologies for the transformed
                                                                  Nuclear weapons staff-           stockpile.
                                                                  ing levels at the Labs      • Achieve a transformed nuclear
                                                                  dropped by 200 full-time      weapons enterprise by leading in the
                                                                       equivalent positions     production of nonnuclear systems
                                                                         by the end of          with demonstrated performance at
                                                                           2006.                lower cost.
                                                                                              • Assure safe weapon response in all
                                                                         Strategic              environments at all times, without
                                                                         objectives             exception, with absolute control and
                                                                           Despite this         no compromise in reliability.
                                                                   time of changes within     • With Sandia’s Science, Technology,
                                                                the nuclear weapons             and Engineering business unit,

  accelerate engineering and                              Information from modeling,         capabilities, and facilities of today into
  innovation by integrated                         simulation, and validation testing        new capabilities and skills that will
  application of simulation,                        and knowledge from Sandia’s labo-        make it responsive, cost-effective, and
  scientific understanding,                          ratorydirected research and devel-      sustainable.
  experiment, and test.                               opment efforts will be combined to          With the unveiling of Complex
                                                       provide predictions on aging and      2030, the DOE’s National Nuclear Se-
Transforming the                                       environmental changes, to antici-     curity Administration responded with a
stockpile                                               pate problems, and to fix them       collection of recommendations based on
    An ideal future vision                               before they arise. Information      the input of others. Tom D’Agostino,
for policy makers oversee-                                from changes to the weapons        acting NNSA administrator, testified
ing the U.S. stockpile                                     or even dismantlement can         before the House Armed Services
would include transfor-                                     be used to advance the ISE       Committee Subcommittee on Strategic
mation to modular, adap-                                    knowledge base.                  Forces, that the 2030 plan will establish
tive designs, improved                                          Another key feature in the   a smaller, more efficient nuclear weap-
integration with new weapons delivery          stockpile transformation is CASA, creat-      ons complex able to respond to future
platforms and new mission capabilities,        ing a Common Adaptable System Ar-             challenges.
robust reliability margins, integrated         chitecture, to make use of capabilities of        A smaller, safer, more secure stock-
surety features, and reduced life-cycle        Sandia’s Microsystems and Engineering         pile, with assured reliability over the
costs. But while those goals are being         Science Applications program (MESA)           long term, must be backed by an
addressed, there is an overriding need         through integrated microsystems. CASA         industrial and design capability to
to ensure that the existing stockpile con-     will approach future stockpile require-       respond to changing technical, geo-
tinues to be safe, secure, reliable, and       ments using integrated subsystems,            political or military needs, D’Agostino
capable of meeting its requirements.           small packages developed with advanced        said. The 2030 plan “offers the best
     Science-Based Engineering is a            technology, in a modular manner.              hope of achieving the President’s vision
concept that brings together the fun-               Built around a centralized control-      of the smallest stockpile consistent with
damental science, computer models,             ler concept, which establishes standard       our national security needs.”
and experimental facilities needed to          interfaces among the subsystems, CASA              In the past, Sandia held an impor-
understand, predict, and verify weapons        designs will be able to meet require-         tant role in assessing complex processes
systems performance. Without under-            ments identified by the military today        and programs. But since the end of the
ground testing, Science-Based Engineer-        and have the flexibility to meet different    Cold War, the role of system integra-
ing is critical to the continuing qualifica-   demands in the future. The concept of         tor has remained vacant. With changes
tion of nuclear weapons.                       CASA will include expansion mod-              recommended by Congress and the
     To back this qualification effort,        ules to address self-testing, guidance        administration, Sandia is expanding
experiments and modeling and simula-           and navigation, and a variety of other        its role in the area of technical support
tions are needed on a variety of scales        subsystems.                                   for integration. Sandia’s Responsive
from large machines — like the Z                                                             Infrastructure Team is supporting
(pulsed-power accelerator), Saturn (hard       Transforming the complex                      NNSA and its newly established Office
X-ray source), and HERMES III (gamma                The stockpile of the future demands      of Transformation. The team’s activities
ray source) — to tests in smaller labora-      a nuclear complex of the future.              are now addressing both near- and long-
tory settings.                                 The future com-                               term mission needs, to develop a path
     Integrated Stockpile Evaluation           plex, discussed in                            forward to NNSA’s 2030 vision.
(ISE), or the evaluation of the stockpile      a series of public
through Science-Based Engineering, is          meetings late last
one of several major transformational          year, is seen as
efforts under way in Sandia’s weapons          one that needs
program. ISE is designed to integrate          to transition
the knowledge collected on a weapon            the skills,
system during its lifetime in the stock-
pile and use it in a predictive way. This
capability will help stockpile stewards
know what issues are likely to come up
with respect to each weapon.
                                                                                                                                      
            The underpinning of science and technology
                      The skill sets of the people in Sandia’s weapons
            program and the facilities that support them are essential to
            meeting the Labs’ nuclear weapons responsibilities.

    • The $462 million, seven-year MESA project is the engineering and science
    underpinning for future warhead designs. On time and budget, the Micro-
    systems and Engineering Sciences Applications complex at Sandia in
    Albuquerque combines systems designers, component designers, and computer
    visualization researchers to quickly imagine and design key hardware elements.
    MESA is scheduled to be fully functional in 2008.


                                                            • Sandia’s pulsed power capabilities, including the powerful Z machine, are used by all of the
                                                            nation’s nuclear weapons laboratories to understand the fundamental properties of materials
                                                            critical to nuclear weapon performance. A $60 million refurbishment of the Z machine began
                                                            in mid-2006.




    • Sandia participates in the NNSA’s high-performance computing
    program through the design, acquisition, and use of supercomputers
    like Sandia’s Red Storm machine. Red Storm is one of the world’s
    fastest computers. Upon completion of an ongoing upgrade this year,
    Red Storm will have a theoretical peak performance of 125 trillion
    floating point operations in a single second. These parallel-processing        Examples of Sandia’s underlying
    computers support sophisticated models and simulations, which allow            efforts in science and engineering
    Sandia researchers to understand the effects of environments and               appear throughout the pages of
    aging on various components and subsystems in warhead designs.                 this Annual Report and are identified
                                                                                   with the Science Engineering Innovation
                                                                                   logo shown here.
    Sandia’s LDRD
        Sandia’s world-class science, technology, and engineering define the Labs’ value to the nation.
    Because U.S. security depends on it, Sandia strives to keep its capabilities on the cutting edge.
        Sandia’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program provides the flexibility to invest
    in long-term, high-risk, and potentially high-payoff research that stretches the Labs’ science and technology
    capabilities.
        LDRD supports Sandia’s primary strategic business objectives: nuclear weapons; energy resources and
    nonproliferation; defense systems and assessments; and homeland security and defense. LDRD also promotes
    creative and innovative research by funding projects that are discretionary, short-term, and often high-risk, attracting
    exceptional research talent from across many disciplines.
        Many examples of LDRD projects grown into full-fledged concepts appear in this report and are indicated by this logo:

6
                                     Coating technology moves
                                     to next level with modeling
                                     and simulation insights
                                                                                                        to wet the substrate by carefully controlling
                                                                                                        coating constituents.
                                                                                                            With sufficient interaction strength be-
                                                                                                        tween the polymer components, the nonwet-
                                                                                                        ting substance spread on top of a molecular
                                                                                                        layer of the wetting substance. This effort
                                                                                                        revealed previously unavailable molecular-
                                                                                                        scale information about phenomena control-
                                                                                                        ling coating behavior.
                                                                                                            The model created can address constitu-
                                                                                                        ents of arbitrary molecular structure and
                                                                                                        interaction strength, which permits broad
                                                                                                        applicability across coating engineering
      This time sequence in a coating simulation shows how wetting constituent (blue) forms a mono-
      layer and spreads out along the surface (red). Then the nonwetting constituent (yellow) spreads
                                                                                                        science. In addition, complexities such as
      on top of the wetting monolayer.                                                                  introducing a chemical pattern on the sub-
                                                                                                        strate surface have been studied. Results are
                                                                                                        helping coatings scientists develop stable
         The challenge                   How to ensure that a substrate material                        multicomponent wetting formulations that
                                     is evenly and securely wetted by a wetting                         allow the use of required wetting agents
    becomes greater as               agent has long been the challenge in coating                       even when those substances would not
                                     technology. Failure to develop a complete                          otherwise coat the substrate.
           we advance                wetting of a substrate often leads to coating
                                     failure. In epoxy systems, for instance, incom-
    engineered devices               plete wetting of the surfaces to be joined
                                     can lead to sealant failure and, in turn, device
 into ever-diminishing               failure. The challenge becomes greater as we
                                                                                                           t=0                                         t = 12000
                                     advance engineered devices into ever smaller
         length scales.              scales.
                                         Understanding coating failure requires
                                                                                                           t = 24000                                   t = 36000
                                     molecular-level descriptions of the coating
                                     constituents as well as the interface with
                                     the solid material. This is a level of resolu-
                                     tion unattainable by existing experimental
                                     techniques. Molecular-scale simulations have                           t = 48000
                                     been used to study wetting phenomena, but
                                     until recently computational resources did
                                     not exist to study chemically realistic coating
    For more information:            materials.
                                         Sandia researchers Gary Grest and                              In this simulation, a polymer nanodroplet (red) spreads across
Edmund B. Webb, III, Ph.D.           Edmund Webb developed numerical                                    a chemically patterned surface. The pattern consists of parallel
          505-284-6517                                                                                  strips of wetting (blue) and nonwetting (green) regions. The
                                     simulations of multicomponent polymer
   ebwebb@sandia.gov                                                                                    droplet spreads on the wetting strip by removing material from
                                     nanodroplets being applied to substrates.
                                                                                                        on top of the nonwetting (green) region. Understanding the
                                     The simulations, using high-performance,
                                                                                                        complex patterns of coating can guide engineers in developing
                                     large-scale parallel-processing computers,
                                                                                                        new nanodevices.
                                     were done with binary component droplets.
                                     Grest and Webb observed conditions where
                                     a nonwetting coating constituent was made
                                                                                                                                                                           
     Nuclear Weapons Program                                                                                      The role of RRW
    Integrated surety                             concept links the internal capabilities                  The Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW)
         At Sandia, surety is moving towards      and status of the weapon with capabili-                  concept is rooted in two clear-cut realities:
    the goal of predictable, safe weapon          ties and status of the external world,                   • The Cold War is over.
    response in all environments at all           including transportation, storage, and                   • Nuclear testing is likely gone forever.
    times, without exception. Electronic          deployment.
    systems aid in the control of virtually all                                                            Nuclear weapons design has been changed
    major systems in today’s world — in-          Transforming engineering                                 by these two facts. The end of the Cold War
    cluding nuclear weapons. But unlike               To achieve President Bush’s goal                     brought with it the reality that the high
    commercial electron-                                              of “a stockpile with                 yield-to-weight designs of the past, based
    ics, nuclear weapons                                              the lowest-possible                  on launching powerful multiple warheads
    electronics must                                                  number of nuclear                    across continents or from submarine- or
    remain reliable in                                                weapons consistent                   ground-based missile platforms, no longer
    severe environments,                                              with our national                    match the politics of deterrence in a
    including those where                                             security needs,”                     changing world.
    they are exposed to                                               the complex must                     The end to nuclear testing meant that
    ionizing radiation in                                             continue on its cur-                 any design must be able to be qualified
    space, on the nuclear                                             rent path of stockpile               and certified with high confidence in the
    battlefield, or from                                              dismantlement. At                    absence of real-world test data. Finally,
    the radiation gener-                                              the same time it must                military experts also realized that nuclear
    ated by the materials                                             develop the capabil-                 weapons don’t have to be designed near
    that form the core of                                             ity to produce new                   the edge of their reliability envelope to
    the nuclear explosives                                            warheads in a much                   preserve the yield-to-weight advantage.
    package.                                      more agile, timely fashion. The goal,                    Instead, restrictions on mass and volume
         If launched, warheads would be           according to former NNSA Administra-                     can be traded for greater confidence,
    subjected to violent shaking, increases       tor Linton F. Brooks, is to “demonstrate                 greater surety, and easier and cheaper
    in the pull of gravity up to seven times      that we can produce warheads on a                        manufacture.
    normal, weightlessness, and the thermal       timescale in which geopolitical threats
                                                                                                           A first design study for the RRW concept
    shocks of going from sub-zero tempera-        could emerge.”
                                                                                                           was completed in 2006. Due to a new
    tures in space to extremely high heat on           Achieving such a responsive infra-
                                                                                                           set of requirements for the 21st century,
    reentry — all while traveling faster than     structure presents a challenge to our
                                                                                                           the designs from both New Mexico and
    the speed of a bullet.                        existing views of engineering, itself — a
                                                                                                           California design teams were significantly
         Additionally, the scale of modern        challenge that Sandia President and
                                                                                                           different from systems in the current stock-
    weapon electronics has become very            Director Tom Hunter has embraced. As
                                                                                                           pile. Designers placed a heavy emphasis
    small — sometimes measured in terms           the nation’s premier engineering labora-
                                                                                                           on confidence in reliability, surety, ease of
    of the number of atoms. Very small            tory, Sandia should be in a leadership
                                                                                                           manufacture, and flexibility of deploy-
    systems, referred to as integrated, intel-    position in this transition, he maintains.
                                                                                                           ment. While at the publication date of
    ligent microsystems, can sense, process            By using simulation-based engi-
                                                                                                           this annual report no decision had been
    information, actuate other elements,          neering design, a concept that relies on
                                                                                                           made to move beyond this first study, RRW
    and communicate — all within a single         high-speed computers that fold together
                                                                                                           proponents believe the first new weapons
    package. To support these needs, Sandia       design ideas with hard performance
                                                                                                           using this concept could be in the stockpile
    maintains a complete design, simula-          data from tests and experiments, use of
                                                                                                           as early as 2012.
    tion, and testing capability.                 computer models, and detailed scientific
         At Sandia, a new effort is under         understanding of processes, Sandia is
    way to better link internal weapon surety     attempting to accelerate engineering and
    — the systems integrated within the           engineering innovation to this end.
    functions and operations of the weapon
    — and external surety — the umbrella          (Above) High-fidelity weapon shock test at Sandia’s
    associated with weapons storage and
    handling. Called Integrated Surety, this
                                                  Light-Initiated High Explosives Facility.
                                                                                                        www.
                                                                                                        sandia.gov/mission/nuclear


                                       Generating rich data sets
                                       for fire model validation
                                                                                             application simulations are scientific
                                                                                             hypotheses. Experiments test the hypothesis
                                                                                             and the quantitative comparisons validate
                                                                                             our current level of understanding.
                                                                                             Knowledge gained is then codified. The goal
                                                                                             is to quantify our uncertainties to establish
                                                                                             weapon system safety in fire environments.
                                                                                             An example of a fire simulation of a validation
                                                                                             experiment, done on a complex calorimeter
                                                                                             in a well-controlled fire, can be seen in the
                                                                                             illustration (a) on this page.

            Spatially and                       Fire has always been one of humankind’s          High-fidelity experiments often result
                                                                                             in new knowledge. An example (b) is a
                                            greatest threats and one of its most useful
                                                                                             sequence of images showing bubble and
          temporally rich                   tools. To modern-day science, it is an exqui-
                                                                                             spike structures, mixing at the edge of a
                                            sitely complex chemistry problem that results
                                                                                             simple helium plume, as the plume becomes
             data sets are                  in a self-lofting, turbulent plume, which is
                                                                                             unstable. An edge instability results in a
                                            engulfed in a sea of mostly unseen infrared
          helping Sandia                    photons. Now, high-tech laser-based diag-        circular vortex that grows, engulfing the
                                                                                             bubble and spike structures. This vortex
                                            nostics combined with new world-class fire
              researchers                   laboratories in Sandia’s new Thermal Test        draws in heavy air over the light helium and
                                                                                             the cycle repeats itself. The same dynamics
                                            Complex and state-of-the-art multiphysics fire
         understand and                     simulation tools, optimized to take advantage    occur in a fire.
                                            of large-scale, high-performance computers,
               corral fire’s                are giving Sandia researchers a look into the
                                            world of large-scale, complex fires.
      unpredictable ways.                       These techniques, in turn, are returning
                                            spatially and temporally rich data that are
                                            helping to better predict how fire reacts and
                                            how a weapons system might respond in a
                                            fire. Modeling and simulation is the modern
                                            application of theory in which the numerical
                                            simulation tools are the codification of
                                            our theoretical understanding, and the

        For more information:
   Sheldon R. Tieszen, Ph.D.
              505-844-6526
        srtiesz@sandia.gov
                                                                                             The codified knowledge permits fire
                                                                                             scientists to design experiments to challenge
                                                                                             systems realistically. Fire simulations like the
                                                                                             one above represent 385 million unknowns,
                                                                                             calculated with tens of thousands of time
                                                                                             steps. The image here depicts a fire in a cross-
  State-of-the-art facilities at Sandia’s                                                    wind at a snapshot in time.
        Thermal Test Complex allow for
controlled experiments that permit the
    development of better fire models.                                                       www.
                                                                                             sandia.gov/news-center/news-releases/2004/         
                                                                                             other/thermal-test-complex
Defense Systems & Assessments
 Keeping watch while you are sleeping
                      Whenever a nuclear device is               Nuclear Detonation (NUDET)
                 detonated somewhere in the world —              Detection System (USNDS).
                 regardless of whether the clandestine                USNDS’s mission is to reliably
                       event takes place in the middle           detect, locate, characterize, and report
                         of the night and in the most            in near real-time nuclear detonations
                             remote corner of the globe          anywhere in Earth’s atmosphere or
                                 — a cadre of enlisted Air       near space.
                                 Force men and women                  USNDS operators must use the
                                likely is among the first        evidence provided through ICADS to
                                to know.                         determine what happened, when it
                               As data from dozens of            happened, and exactly where on this
                                   nuclear burst detectors       vast globe or in space a detonation took
                                         aboard a network        place. Ultimately the information would
                                          of U.S. defense        be combined with other evidence to
                                         satellites flood into   assign responsibility, the second move
                                       their ground stations,    in the high-stakes diplomatic chess
                                     it is these operators’      game that would follow.
                                        jobs to decide,                Above-ground NUDET events have
                                              in real-time,      been nonexistent since the U.S.
                                                   whether       and former Soviet Union declared a
                                                  to refer       nuclear test moratorium in the early
                                                the event        0s. But USNDS is no Cold War
                                             to higher-ups       relic. With budding nuclear weapons
                                           as a violation        programs in at least two nations — Iran
                                     of international law        and North Korea — possibly pressuring
                            or to designate the event as         whole regions into nuclear deterrence
                 something less nefarious — a lightning          postures, the USNDS may be called
                 strike or, perhaps, a satellite glitch.         upon to gather the facts about a round
                      The critical decisions they make, based    of 2st century nuclear detonations,
                 on a torrent of data, could result in an        which — depending on who carries
                 embarrassing false alarm, or worse, trigger     them out and why — could change the
                 an international diplomatic crisis.             course of history.
                      Fortunately the satellite signals                ICADS allows operators to
                 they interpret already will have been           quickly compare live satellite data
                 processed by ICADS, the Integrated              with hundreds of event profiles in its
                 Correlation and Display System, created         event database. Certain atmospheric
                 for the Air Force by Sandia National            phenomena — lightning, solar storms,
                 Laboratories.                                   and even pings to a satellite by energetic
                      ICADS, the guts of the ground              micrometeorite particles — can cause
                 station where the operators work,               energy disturbances that register on the
                 includes the antennae, hardware, and            satellites’ sensors.
                 more than a million lines of software                 When a signal is verified by
                 code that gather, correlate, and help           detectors aboard multiple satellites and
                 make sense of defense satellite data            bears the pulse waveform signature
                 available as part of the United States          characteristic of a nuclear event,
0
the operators refer the event up the         payload integration role for USNDS,           heavy emphasis on human-computer
national command structure, ultimately       ensuring newly developed satellite            interface theory, which makes the job of
including notification of the U.S. State     sensors fit seamlessly with the satellite’s   interpreting ICADS data more intuitive
Department that a treaty may have been       hardware and software.                        and increases the operators’ chances of
violated.                                                                                  success. (IIF signifies the next generation
       “In some scenarios a nuclear          National asset                                of GPS satellites; the first GPS IIF is
proliferator or terrorist group might              Sandia developed the first ground       scheduled for launch in 200.)
detonate a device in a way that makes        station for NuDet data processing in the            The $ million Sandia ICADS
it difficult to assign blame,” said John     early 60s. In an effort to make sense       IIF program was unusual in its size
Williams, Sandia senior manager for          of the increasing number of signal feeds      and complexity; and because it was
USNDS. In that case, he said, U.S.           from USNDS satellites, the first ICADS        delivered, fully qualified and verified,
policy makers would need accurate            was delivered in 2, with upgrades          under budget, and on time based on a
real-time information about the time,        in  and 200. Each iteration has          delivery date set half a decade earlier, it
location, yield, and any other evidence      included significant new hardware and         is a rarity for a large military software
available via USNDS in order to              software functionalities. As a whole,         development program, said Sandia
determine the appropriate response.          ICADS now is considered a national            project manager Don Rountree.
       “USNDS may be more important          command structure asset, said Williams.             “A program this complex is almost
than ever to strategic national security,”         “This is a complex, data-rich           expected to fall behind schedule,”
said Jerry McDowell, Vice President          environment,” he said. “It would take         said McDowell. “To keep the promise
for Sandia’s Defense Systems and             a very long time to integrate, correlate,     we made back in 2000 required an
Assessments unit. “The threats are real,     and assess the signals from dozens            incredible level of dedication and
and USNDS provides critical global           of sensors about a single event. But          expertise by hundreds of people.”
awareness,” he said. “We are proud           U.S. decision makers need answers             The program required a spectrum of
to support our Air Force customer            immediately. The analysis provided by         Sandia expertise, from atmospheric
to address one of the nation’s most          ICADS before an operator ever sees the        phenomenology and high energy
important national security problems.”       data helps make real-time interpretation      physics to software development and
(See DS&A on page 2.)                       possible.”                                    systems engineering.
       Sandia and other NNSA                       Last year Sandia delivered ICADS
laboratories have supported USNDS            version IIF, the latest USNDS military
since the early days of the Cold War.        ground station system,
Optical, electromagnetic pulse, and X-       including more than a
ray sensor payloads now in orbit aboard      million lines of custom
GPS and DSP satellites were developed        software code
and built at the national labs. And          and a
Sandia has long played the primary




                                                                                                      ICADS allows operators to
                                                                                                      quickly compare live satellite data
                                                                                                      with hundreds of event profiles in
                                                                                                      its event database.




                                                                                                                                            
          Sandians continue to support the                 — unusual data signatures that don’t                    and planned new series of DSP and
     USNDS program throughout its life                     match existing event profiles. Sandians                 GPS III satellites. Continued ICADS
     cycle, adds Williams. Technical experts               also train the Air Force ICADS trainers,                development to support the new satellite
     at Sandia and Los Alamos national labs                who in turn train the ICADS operators.                  systems is under way as well.
     are on pager call 2/, 36 days a year,                   Now, under NNSA                                         “USNDS is a long-term
     to provide the Air Force satellite and                nonproliferation funding, Sandia is                     commitment for us,” said Williams.
     ground station state-of-health support                working on the next generation of
     as well as second opinions regarding                  lighter-weight, smaller global burst
     Air Force analysis of “zoo events”                    detectors to fly aboard the GPS IIF




                                                     Defense Systems and Assessments deals
                                                     with set of strategic national security concerns
                                                      As threats to U.S. national     • Proliferation assessment — Supporting federal agencies in the non-
                                                    security have broadened and in-     proliferation community with technologies and systems.
                                                   tensified, so has the meaning of   • Intelligent transformational systems/robotics — Developing and
                                              the term strategic national security,     delivering complex micro- to macro-sized automated systems, and
                                        said Jerry McDowell, Vice President for         adapting machine intelligence techniques, to support the warfighter.
                Sandia’s Defense Systems and Assessments unit.
          Recent federal government policy papers include — as part of their          • Science and technology products — Employing microsystems and
       definitions of “strategic national security” — references to a spectrum of       other advanced technologies to give the warfighter new capabilities.
       capabilities beyond nuclear deterrence.                                        • Strategic industrial relations — Amplifying Sandia’s value to the
          DS&A’s customers include the Department of Defense, the non-prolif-           nation and national security by effectively working with the DoD
       eration technology community, and other federal agencies.                        industrial base.
       DS&A has programs and capabilities in:                                            The DS&A seal includes the Latin phrase Novus Ordo Seclorum,
                                                                                      meaning ‘A New Order for the Ages.’
       • Surveillance and reconnaissance — Advancing capabilities in
                                                                                          “Our mission is to embrace the new world order by bringing our Labs’
         synthetic aperture radar and other remote-sensing technologies to
                                                                                      outstanding engineering, science, and technology capabilities to bear on
         provide science, technology, and engineering advances for the battle-
                                                                                      the newly emerging and compelling strategic national security problems
         field and space.
                                                                                      — those that, if left unattended, could put our liberty and peace at risk,”
       • Remote sensing and verification — Deterring proliferation and                said McDowell.
         verifying compliance with international agreements using space- and
         ground-based remote-sensing technology.
       • Integrated military systems — Nonnuclear strike systems that
                                                                                                                  www.
                                                                                                                  sandia.gov/mission/mta
         advance the DoD’s abilities to reach hardened, deeply buried, and other
         strategic military targets using conventional weapons systems with
         advanced capabilities including earth penetration. Missile defense
         work to support the DoD’s efforts to develop a missile defense
         system capable of detecting, intercepting, and killing enemy
         missiles using interceptor missiles launched from
         ground or ship. Energetic systems such as elec-
         tromagnetic launchers for ship-borne aircraft
         and munitions.
       • Information operations — Ensuring
         critical infrastructure network security
         using trusted detection systems to detect
         anomalies and intrusions by sophisti-
         cated adversaries such as well-financed
         terrorists and rogue nations.
2
                                  High-performance computing
                                  provides clues to scientific mystery
                                                                              (Left) Libyan Desert                           High-resolution computer simulations of
                                                                              Glass is found in an area                  the impact process, requiring huge amounts
                                                                              spanning 6,500 km2, in                     of memory and processing power, support
                                                                              the Great Sand Sea of the                  the hypothesis that the glass was formed
                                                                              Western Desert of Egypt,                   by the radiative heating and ablation of
                                                                              near the border with                       sandstone and alluvium near ground zero,
                                                                              Libya. In 1998, an Italian                 when a 100-megaton or larger atmospheric
                                                                              mineralogist showed that                   explosion resulted after the breakup of a
                                                                              a carved scarab in King                    comet or asteroid.
                                                                              Tut’s breastplate was made                     Using Sandia’s Red Storm supercomputer,
                                                                              of this glass.
                                                                                                                         Boslough ran high-resolution shock-physics
                                                                                                                         simulations to show how a 120-meter-
                                                                                                                         diameter asteroid entering the atmosphere
                                                                                                                         at 20 kilometers per second (resulting in
                                                                                                                         an explosion with a yield of about 110
        Enigmatic silica                    Most natural glasses are volcanic in                                         megatons) breaks up just before hitting
                                        origin and have chemical compositions                                            the ground. The fireball that is generated
     glass in the Sahara                consistent with rapid cooling of lava without                                    remains in contact with the Earth’s surface
                                        opportunity for crystalline structure to grow.                                   at temperatures exceeding the melting
     Desert has survived                The rare exceptions are tektites, which are                                      temperature of quartz for more than 20
                                        formed by shock melting associated with the                                      seconds. At the same time, the air speed
       nearly 30 million                very high velocity, or hypervelocity, impact of                                  behind the blast wave exceeds several
                                        a comet or asteroid. But Libyan Desert Glass                                     hundred meters per second. These conditions
         years. How did                 does not fall into either category, and has                                      are consistent with rapid melting and
                                        baffled scientists since its discovery by British                                quenching to form the Libyan Desert Glass.
                 it form?               explorers in 1932.                                                                   These simulations require the massively
                                           For physicist Mark Boslough and his Sandia                                    parallel processing power provided with
                                        colleagues, the 1994 collision of Comet                                          Sandia’s Red Storm computer.
                                        Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter provided                                               The risk to humans from such impacts
                                        Sandia with a unique opportunity to model a                                      is small but not negligible. Because of the
                                        hypervelocity atmospheric impact. Insights                                       low frequency of these events, both their
                                        gained from those simulations and                                                probability and consequences are difficult
      For more information:             subsequent astronomical observations of the                                      to determine. The most likely scenario that
                                        actual event led to a deeper understanding                                       would cause damage and casualties would
      Mark Boslough, Ph.D.
                                        of the geologic process of impacts on Earth.                                     not be a crater-forming impact, but a large
            505-845-8851
                                        The hypervelocity atmospheric impact thesis                                      aerial burst similar to the one that created the
      mbboslo@sandia.gov
                                        presented a likely scenario for the formation                                    unusual Libyan natural glass. This research
                                        of Libyan Desert Glass.                                                          is forcing risk assessments to recognize and
                                                                                                                         account for the process of large aerial bursts.

  As these simulations show, the heat of an atmospheric explosion created a
  vapor plume more than 10 kilometers in diameter, which stayed in contact
        with the Earth for up to 20 seconds with very high temperatures and
    continuous wind blasts exceeding 100 meters per second. The conditions
                         suggest one way the glass could have been created.    3 .8 0 s ec   4 .0 0 s ec   5 .0 0 s ec   7 .4 9 s ec      9 .9 9 s ec




www.
sandia.gov/LabNews/060915#three
                                                                                                                                                                        3
     Homeland Security & Defense
     It’s not your grandfather’s border
         When you think of an international      commerce and contraband extends far               Defensive measures must cover not
     border, what most likely comes to mind      beyond our physical boundaries.”             only the hundreds of airports, maritime
     is a chain-link fence topped by three            Working with a range of sponsors        ports, and land-border crossings con-
     strands of barbed wire, or perhaps a        and partners, engineers, and scientists      sidered official ports of entry, but also
     guard shack and a few armed sentries        at Sandia are playing a key role as part     vast unprotected land and water areas
     straddling the center line of a highway.    of the national strategy to enhance and      as well. A comprehensive view of U.S.
                                                 ensure security of U.S. borders. Current     borders also must include awareness
          That was yesterday’s border. Today,
                                                 efforts focus primarily on maritime and      and engagement of threats at or near
     with the threat of terrorism and a broad-
                                                 land borders — and the most                  their points of origin, or at their point
     ening set of socioeconomic problems
                                                 significant threats and pathways in those    of embarkation for the U.S., often far
     associated with immigration, and an
                                                 areas.                                       outside our borders, said Susan Rhodes,
     ever-increasing number of ways to enter
                                                                                              Maritime Borders Program Manager.
     the country, a border is no longer just a   Keeping borders fluid and secure                  Sandia’s team applies systems analy-
     checkpoint or a line on a map, but a            People and goods can cross U.S.
                                                                                              sis and engineering — a capability built
     complex concept whose problems re-          borders in many ways — by air aboard
                                                                                              from the Labs’ extensive experience in
     quire multidimensional thinking.            cargo, passenger, and private planes; by
                                                                                              nuclear-weapons stockpile stewardship
          “Many pathways exist through our       land via passenger vehicles, trains, cargo
                                                                                              — to understand these complexities
     borders, and threats can range from         trucks, private vehicles, and on foot;
                                                                                              and develop border solutions within an
     people to drugs to hazardous materials      and by sea aboard cargo ships, private
                                                                                              orderly framework.
     to weapons of mass destruction,” said       vessels, and passenger ships.
                                                                                                   Sandia has been involved in major
     Jill Hruby, Catastrophic Event Mitiga-          An estimated 00 million people,
                                                                                              border projects at many levels, including
     tion Mission Area Leader, of Sandia’s       30 million vehicles, 6 million trucks,
                                                                                              understanding the problem, develop-
     Homeland Security                           2. million rail cars, and . million
                                                                                              ing security technologies and systems,
     & Defense unit. “And                        cargo containers cross U.S. borders
                                                                                              testing security systems, and placing
     the flow of both                            every year. Protecting these borders
                                                                                              systems into field operations.
                                                 from illegal entry of people and mat-
                                                      erials while fostering the flow of      Projecting our borders outward
                                                       legitimate trade and travel is an           Ensuring that dangerous materials
                                                 incredible challenge, said Jane Ann          never approach our borders is a key
                                                 Lamph, Land Borders Program                  element of the Materials Protection,
                                                 Manager.                                     Control, and Accounting Program,
                                                                                              sponsored by NNSA. A key element
                                                                                              of the program is to secure potential
                                                                                              threats at the source by improving secu-
                                                                                              rity of Russian Federation fissile mate-
                                                                                              rial and nuclear warheads.





     Sandia also is involved in NNSA        Beach. The program funded through           demonstrated a system of sensors to
programs to prevent nuclear smug-           the DHS Grants program seeks to iden-       alert authorities of a bioaerosol attack in-
gling across foreign borders that bound     tify, evaluate, and demonstrate technolo-   side an airport by testing this approach
potential sources of nuclear weapons        gies that would reduce risks arising from   using harmless tracer gas through an
and/or material. The Second Line of         containerized cargo.                        empty San Francisco International Air-
Defense program — now extending to                Labs researchers have created         port terminal. The team then worked
more than  countries — focuses on         computer simulation tools to evaluate se-   with Lawrence Berkeley National Labo-
surveying sites, installing                                                                        ratory to develop guidelines
security and radiation-                                                                            — now being distributed to
detection systems, and                                                                             airport authorities by the
surveying and equip-                                                                               Transportation Security
ping foreign seaports to                                                                           Administration — for mini-
prescreen U.S.-bound                                                                               mizing human exposures
container cargo.                                                                                   during a bioterrorism
In another project, the                                                                            incident at an airport.
U.S. Department of
Homeland Security’s                                                                                Securing remote borders
Domestic Nuclear Detec-                                                                                   Sandia has done
tion Office asked Sandia                                                                             extensive work to help
to develop a concept for                                                                             the nation manage the
detecting radiological                                                                               vulnerability inherent in
and nuclear material                                                                                 the thousands of miles
in land, sea, and air cargo throughout      curity options at several types of border   of unprotected U.S. land and water
the transportation-supply chain, and to     crossings — including airports, seaports    borders.
recommend solutions.                        with cargo, pedestrian crossings, and           A major Sandia study recom-
     Sandia plays a key role in the joint   vehicle crossings. The tools model not      mended a phased approach to
NNSA/Customs and U.S. Border                only the security of an entry point but     rapidly, efficiently, and effectively
Patrol Megaports initiative to evaluate     also the flow of people and goods and       enforcing and improving border
the vulnerability of foreign seaports to    the economic consequences of slow-          security. The approach incor-
illegal shipments of special nuclear ma-    downs resulting from security incidents.    porates intrusion detection to
terials and deploy detection equipment           The simulations can help authori-      boundary defenses, patrol proce-
to screen U.S.-bound cargo.                 ties make decisions about selecting secu-   dures, and interior checkpoints.
                                            rity measures that promise the greatest
Securing U.S. ports of entry                benefits while minimizing unwanted
     For the last three years Sandia has    effects.
supported Operation Safe Commerce                Sandia has been active in helping
for the Ports of Los Angeles and Long       secure airports as well. A Sandia team




                                                                                                                                       
                                                Sandia operates several centers dedi-    leading to programs in 2006 to upgrade
                                           cated to border-security research, includ-    the sensors, such as a buried-fiber-optic
                                           ing the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) de-       system now in use along the Nogales
                                           signed to test sensors, communications        fence.
                                           links, display technologies, assessment            At the northern border, Sandia pro-
                                           methods, and other integration issues         vides support annually to the Integrated
                                           for border-monitoring applications.           Border Enforcement Teams in their
                                           The work done at the OTF has led to a         search for sensor systems to provide
                                           number of collaborative efforts support-      enhanced capabilities. The team
                                           ing the DHS Science and Technology            consists of a number of members of the
                                           Directorate and the Border Patrol.            U.S. border-security community and
                                                 In San Diego, California, Sandia        technical representatives of the Royal
                                           operates the Border Research and Tech-        Canadian Mounted Police Special “I”
                                           nology Center (BRTC) in conjunction           Division.
                                           with the National Institute of Justice to
                                                                                         Detection technologies
                                           provide technical assistance to federal,
                                                                                             Borders and border crossings are
                                           state, and local agencies involved with
                                                                                         good places to stop smuggling of any
                                           border security. One activity in progress
                                                                                         number of threats into the country.
                                           at the BRTC involves developing and
                                                                                         Sandia has developed, evaluated, and
                                           deploying an intelligent, secure, collab-
     Other technologies useful             orative system to track cargo movement.
                                                                                         deployed a variety of systems to detect a
                                                                                         spectrum of contraband.
        for border security                      Also through the Border Technol-
                                           ogy Deployment Center, Sandia and             Explosives — Sandia’s unique explosives
     Several other Sandia technologies                                                   “sniffing” technologies, for example,
                                           New Mexico State University evaluate,
     and areas of expertise offer po-                                                    detect traces of explosives on people and
                                           test, and integrate commercial sensor
     tential border security solutions,                                                  objects. These technologies form the
                                           systems, develop methodologies and
     including:                                                                          basis of detection devices including
                                           train operational personnel, and deploy
     • Networked sensors,                                                                the hand-held “Hound” and “Micro
                                           state-of-the-art technologies for the Santa
     • Unmanned aerial systems,                                                          Hound” systems. Sandia has also devel-
                                           Teresa, New Mexico, border crossing.
     • Joint small tactical simulation                                                   oped a walk-through portal, commercial-
       capabilities,                       Assistance on the border                      ized by Smiths Detection, that has been
     • Risk assessment,                         At the southern border, for exam-
                                                                                         installed in airports across the country.
     • Information architectures (to       ple, Sandia supported the DHS Science
       integrate disparate data into       & Technology Directorate and the              Radiation/Nuclear — Sandia has de-
       actionable knowledge),              Arizona Border Control Initiative goal        veloped a detection system called
     • Red teaming,                        of evaluating and selecting several com-      “SMART” (Sensor for Measurement
     • Integrated physical security        mercial sensor systems for operational        and Analysis of Radiation Transients)
       systems,                            testing in 200 with the Border Patrol        that incorporates proprietary San-
     • The national infrastructure simu-   in the Tucson sector. Some sensors            dia software for isotope identification.
       lation and analysis center, and     were transitioned to operational status,      SMART technology can be used to
     • Numerous sandia test                                                              measure and identify radiation signa-
       facilities.                                                                       tures within passing vehicles or installed
                                                                                         in a vehicle to scan the environment it
                                                                                         is traveling through.
                                                                                         People — Sandia has worked to develop
                                                                                         a three-dimensional sensor and associ-
                                                                                         ated 3-D facial-recognition technologies
                                                                                         based on scannerless laser radar, which
                                                                                         can produce geometrically accurate
                                                                                         spatial and range measurements in
                                                                                         uncontrolled environments at ranges to
                                                                                         hundreds of meters or more. Its poten-
6
tial uses in a number of border-security              more National Laboratory to develop                   “Our goal is to present security solu-
environments are being explored.                      BioBriefcase, a compact, highly sensitive             tions to border problems that extend
                                                      system for detecting a broad spectrum                 far beyond the borders themselves and
Tunnels — Sandia’s experience in near-
                                                      of biological agents. For DHS, Sandia                 that include more than just insertion of
surface geophysical characterization has
                                                      has developed and deployed SNIFFER                    technologies.”
been applied to the problem of tunnel
                                                      (Sensing Nodes Informing and Facili-
detection for several customers.
                                                      tating Fast Emergency Response) for
Chemical/Biological — Sandia has                      chemical detection.
developed a handheld MicroChemLab                          “Today’s borders present difficult,
system for rapid detection and identifi-              multifaceted challenges, and the threats
cation of chemical and biological agents
and is partnering with Lawrence Liver-
                                                      they pose require us to think about
                                                      them as a complex system,” said Hruby
                                                                                                            www.
                                                                                                            sandia.gov/mission/homeland




                                                                Homeland Security and Defense deals
                                                                with three high-consequence mission areas
                                                         Sandia’s Homeland        • Homeland Defense and Force Protection — supporting elements
                                                         Security and Defense       of the Department of Defense
                                                        Strategic Management        - Physical security, DoD — security systems architecture for high-
                                      Unit is organized in three mission areas,       consequence military assets.
                                  each with a program portfolio aligned with
     the mission responsibilties of its major customer.                             - Chemical and biological warfare defense — systems to detect,
                                                                                      defeat, and mitigate chemical and biological attacks on military
     • Catastrophic Event Mitigation — supporting primarily the United                installations or troop deployments.
       States Department of Homeland Security
                                                                                    - Weapon remediation — systems for destruction of residual chemi-
       - Chemical and biological protection — applied science, technology             cal munitions.
         development, and systems analysis to deliver solutions to detect,
         deter, defeat, and mitigate chemical and biological attacks.               - Force protection systems and initiatives — protecting critical mis-
                                                                                      sion functions, personnel, high-value assets, installations, infra-
       - Radiological and nuclear detection — systems architecture,                   structure, and forces on the move.
         detection technologies, incident response, and test and evaluation,
         primarily in support of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office.           • Risk Management and Infrastructure Protection — supporting
                                                                                    the National Nuclear Security Administration and other federal
       - Energetics — explosives detection systems and mitigation counter-          agencies
         measures.
                                                                                    - Critical infrastructure protection — modeling and simulation to an-
       - Border and transportation security — maritime and land-border                ticipate the consequences of disruptions to national infrastructures
         security analysis; rail security test and evaluation.                        (National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center).
       - Command, control, communications, computers, intelligence,                 - Physical security, DOE — security systems architecture for high-
         surveillance, reconnaissance — communications interoperability,              consequence DOE assets.
         cyber security, and information analysis.
                                                                                    - Risk assessment and management — methodologies to help
       - Systems analysis — threat and vulnerability studies; systems                 responsible agencies prioritize threats and response investments.
         architecture design.
       - Red teaming — adversary-based assessment of systems and
         designs.



                                                                                                                                                             
Energy, Resources, & Nonproliferation
     Bioterrorism– reducing the threat

                                                              International Engagement To Date
        The anthrax attacks of 200 and
     more recently the threat of avian
     influenza demonstrate that infectious
     diseases — whether natural or man-
     made — pose a significant hazard to
     international peace and security.
          Although bioweapons are diffi-
     cult to make and have been used only
     sporadically, the psychological impact of
     even a low-consequence weapon could
     make them attractive to terrorists.
          Sandia’s Reynolds Salerno — a
     biosecurity expert and manager of the
     Labs’ International Biological Threat
     Reduction department — concedes that
     while the threat today is relatively low,
     it will increase over time. “The worry
     for me is that the threat will escalate                         Past and continuing efforts        Recent and new efforts
     as it becomes easier and easier and
     less and less expensive for people to          escaped Salerno. He believes that over         such as changing demographics,
     misuse biology,” he said. “Today, there        time there will be more bioscience facili-     urbanization, and closer human-animal
     is a large technical hurdle for terrorists     ties and more bioscientists and techni-        contact are likely the cause of this
     to overcome to use biological weapons          cians — globally — with the necessary          abrupt appearance of more infectious
     successfully. But in the next five to 0       technical skills to misuse biology.            disease.
     years, the height of that hurdle will be            Thus, there will be more institu-
     significantly lower.”                          tions and individuals whom terrorist           Double-edged sword
          The irony that advancing biotech-         organizations could exploit for their               “Highly pathogenic avian influ-
     nology, while improving the health             own malicious purposes, he believes.           enza (HN) is a good example,” said
                           and well-being of             World Health Organization data            Salerno, scanning through maps on his
                               millions, also       shows that there has been a marked rise        computer screen that show the epidemic
                                  could increase    in the number of natural outbreaks of          spreading across Asia and Europe.
                                  the risk of in-   emerging infectious disease around the         “This is a disease that did not exist
                                  tentional mis-    world in just the last decade. Factors         0 years ago and now it’s endemic in
                                  use hasn’t                                                       almost half of the world,” he said.
                                                                                                   Public health organizations are investing
                                                                                                   in infrastructure to address infectious
                                                                                                   disease outbreaks and this, in turn,
                                                                                                   could create opportunities for abuse.
                                                                                                   “This is a double-edged sword. While
                                                                                                   public health will surely benefit from
                                                                                                   more infectious disease work interna-
                                                                                                   tionally, the risk that someone may
                                                                                                   misuse biology will also increase.”
                                                                                                        Following the anthrax attacks of
                                                                                                   200, the U.S. government dramatically
                                                                                                   increased spending to respond to this

                                                                                            Special symposia to raise awareness of the risks
                                                                                            of working with dangerous biological materials
                                                                                            around the world are one of the key elements
                                                                                            in the IBTR program. Sandia also offers design
                                                                                            and implementation services to evaluate and
                                                                                            establish security and safety systems at bio-
                                                                                            science facilities.




threat — $36 billion since 200. Pri-        develop and implement systems and                   “We want to protect international
marily, these new U.S. programs have         practices that promote the safe, secure,       legitimate bioscience communities from
focused on enhancing the nation’s abil-      and responsible use and management of          exploitation by terrorists,” he said.
ity to respond to a bioterrorist attack.     high-risk biological agents across the              “This is fundamentally about help-
While many Sandia programs, includ-          globe. Because almost all of biology is        ing good scientists understand that the
ing MicroChemLab and other devices,          potentially dual use — for improving           bad guys may want to take advantage of
are actively involved in bolstering the      public health or attacking it — Sandia’s       their materials, technologies, and exper-
U.S. response posture, the Labs more         experts are equally concerned with             tise,” he said. “Perhaps one of the best
recently became involved in a preven-        naturally occurring, highly infectious         ways to prevent bioterrorism at home is
tive effort as well.                         disease and those that are maliciously         to work with international scientists to
     “We spent some time looking at          introduced, Salerno explained.                 help them protect themselves from ter-
the gaps that existed and asked if it was                                                   rorist exploitation.
                                             Integrated approach
really wise for the U.S. to put all of its        IBTR is a policy support program;              “It’s not a foolproof system by any
eggs in this one [response] basket,”         it does not include a bioscience re-           means. It won’t definitively stop bio-
Salerno said. As a result, Sandia now        search laboratory function. “We take           terror, and that’s why biodefense
assists the new Department of State          a multidisciplinary approach, with a           programs designed to improve response
Biosecurity Engagement Program               variety of the life sciences, veterinarians,   systems remain critical. What we’re try-
designed to reduce future biological         nonproliferation and physical protection       ing to do is raise awareness to biological
threats globally, as well as related         experts, IT specialists, software engi-        risks and persuade the international
NNSA biosecurity efforts.                    neers, and others,” Salerno said. The          community to act responsibly.”
    Sandia’s International Biological        program is designed to build relation-
Threat Reduction (IBTR) program              ships and share technological expertise.
advances U.S. threat reduction and
counterterrorism goals by working to




                                                                                                                                               
                                                Transmembrane protein function
                                                evaluated in biomimetic environments
                    Prototype drawing of a
                   microfluidic instrument
                  for simultaneous optical
                       and electrochemical
                 measurements on a single
                  transmembrane protein.




              The scientists can                      Many cell membrane functions — such          creation of a body of knowledge that could
                                                as regulation of cellular potential, selective     benefit drug development, medical treat-
             now perform optical                filtration, molecular recognition, and regula-     ment, and biosensing technologies.
                                                tion of nutrient and waste movement — are              Initial work focused on the thermodynam-
               fluorescence and                 mediated by transmembrane proteins.                ics of gramicidin ion channel formation (see
                                                Despite decades of intensive research about        above) in supported lipid bilayers, investi-
                 electrochemical                the relationship of these proteins’ structure to   gated through single molecule fluorescence
                                                function, there is much to be learned.             imaging. More recently, lipid-coated nanopo-
             studies, isolating a                    Now, Sandia researchers, led by Susan         rous silica beads have shown promise as
                                                Brozik in collaboration with scientists at the     convenient platforms for the study of trans-
               single protein on                University of New Mexico, are developing           membrane proteins.
                                                artificial biomimetic structures, where they           Team members, including Gabriel Lopez,
            these microspheres.                 can place transmembrane proteins, eliminat-        Ryan Davis, and James Brozik from UNM,
                                                ing the complications of the cell and cell         have learned that the proteins can be cor-
                                                membrane during study.                             rectly oriented in these artificial substrates,
             For more information:                  This approach — borrowing design from          have near-native diffusion characteristics,
                                                nature — allows scientists to isolate individu-    and retain their functions in the biomimetic
               Susan Brozik, Ph.D.
                                                al proteins for study, while retaining their       environment. To date, the beads have been
                   505-844-5105
                                                native structure and function. This team of        the most stable biomimetic platform report-
              smbrozi@sandia.gov
                                                researchers is also adapting optical and           ed. The scientists can now perform optical
                                                electrochemical techniques to probe the            fluorescence and electrochemical studies,
                                                structure and function. The goal is the            isolating a single protein on these micro-
               scanning electron microscope                                                        spheres.
                  images of nanoporous silica                                                          Ultimately, the goal is to produce new
     microspheres used to help understand                                                          microfluidic instruments, in which single
        transmembrane proteins. Image at                                                           transmembrane proteins can be simultane-
     the left is a 10,000 times enlargement                                                        ously measured with electrochemical and
               of a 10-micrometer bead with                                                        optical probes. These single-molecule
            10-nanometer-diameter pores.                                                           spectroscopic measurements would offer a
         Images enlarged to 100,000 times                                                          unique opportunity for obtaining a dynamic
           actual size in right column show                                                        view of structural/functional relationships on
      beads (from the top) of 10-, 50-, and                                                        transmembrane proteins.
                       100-nanometer pores.

20
Energy, Resources, & Nonproliferation
Leading a new center for solid-state lighting
      Dramatic changes are unfolding in       DOE will provide $ million for seven       • Developing new wavelength-conversion
 lighting technology as semiconductor         research projects in solid-state lighting     and color-mixing technologies for
 light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, have         through the Office of Energy Efficiency       generation of white light,
 become as bright and efficient as            and Renewable Energy.                       • Designing new lighting fixtures and
 incandescent bulbs. Until recently                The research will be conducted           systems, based on the unique ways
 LEDs were used mainly as simple              through the Center for Integrated             people can interact with solid-state
 indicator lamps in electronics and           Nanotechnologies (CINT), jointly              lighting, and
 toys, but now they are beginning             operated by Sandia and Los Alamos           • Developing a science and technology
 to replace incandescent bulbs in             National Labs, and four other DOE             foundation for high-volume, low-cost
 many applications, such as traffic,          nanotechnology centers around the             manufacturing.
 automotive, display, and architectural       country. New LED technologies
 area lighting. Applications requiring        “offer excellent prospects for meeting
 durability, compactness, cool operation,     our future lighting needs in a less
 and directionality are all LED               costly, more efficient way than today’s
 candidates.                                  incandescent and even fluorescent
      In 2006, U.S. DOE Secretary             fixtures,” Bodman said. The research
 Samuel W. Bodman announced an                area also presents an opportunity to
 effort to further this technology shift      assume a leadership role in an emerging
 by naming Sandia as the new home             industry, he said.
 of the National Laboratory Center                 Research is centering on several key          Researchers believe further major LED
 for Solid-State Lighting Research and        challenges, including:                        improvements are achievable. Electrical-
 Development.                                 • Understanding of the physics of LED         to-optical energy conversion efficiencies of
                                                                                            more than 50 percent have been achieved
      Sandia will conduct solid-state            materials and nanostructures,              in infrared light-emitting devices. If similar
 lighting research and coordinate             • Improving optoelectronic devices            efficiencies can be achieved in visible light
 related efforts at several other national       for efficient photon generation and        emitting devices, the result would be a white
                                                                                            light source twice as efficient as fluorescent
 laboratories. Sandia also continues             extraction,                                lamps, and 10 times more efficient than
 to work with leading universities and        • Improving packaging technologies for        incandescent lamps.
 private industry in this research area.         high-power lamps,                              Such a new source would:
                                                                                            • Reduce electricity for lighting
                                                                                                  worldwide by more than 50 percent,
                                                                                            •    Reduce total consumption of electricity
                                                                                                 by 10 percent,
                                                                                            •    Reduce carbon emissions, and new
                                                                                                 capital infrastructure associated with
                                                                                                 electricity generation, also by 10
           Mixing of light
                                                                                                 percent,
    from LEDs of multiple
                                                                                            •    Enhance the human viewing
    colors to create white
          with high color-
                                                                                                 experience through digital and
        rendering quality.                                                                       independent control over the color,
                                                                                                 intensity, and spatial distribution of
              Courtesy of                                                                        lights, and
       Fred Schubert, RPI
                                                                                            •    Further the development of compact
                                                                                                 visible and UV light sources, for water
                                                                                                 purification and detection of bioagents.

                sandia.gov/news/resources/releases/2006/led-center                                                                           2
Energy, Resources, & Nonproliferation
     Nanoscience–collaborating at a very small scale
         Nanoscience, nanotechnology, and
     nanoscale are words that have slipped
     into our 2st century vocabulary: the
     science, technology, and measurement
     standard for things very small. Research-
     ers in the field believe that nanodevices
     will very soon find their way into the
     lives of many of us.
          The technical ability to work at
     the nanoscale is now being developed.
     But reliable nanodevices still await an
     increased understanding of the physi-
     cal principles that operate at this scale,
     which are often very different than at     The Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies’ curved front wall of stacked stone, symbolically links New Mexico’s
     other scales.                              history of innovation by Native Americans, nearly a thousand years ago, with that emerging today.
          That is a key focus of the $. mil-
     lion Center for Integrated Nanotechnol- tion of nanostructures into the micro                          microscopes for materials characteriza-
     ogies (CINT), a DOE Office of Science       and macro worlds. CINT research and                        tion, chemical/biological synthesis labs,
     Nanoscale Science Research Center           associated outreach activities are bring-                  and a clean room for nanomicrodevice
     with its Core Facility in Albuquerque       ing together university faculty, students,                 fabrication and integration.
     and Gateway Facilities at both Sandia       other national laboratory scientists, and                          Success in CINT’s mission to dis-
     and Los Alamos national labs. CINT          industrial researchers to propose, de-                     cover, understand, and exploit novel
     is operating as a national user facility    sign, and explore the integration of new properties of nanostructered materials
     devoted to establishing the scientific      nanoscale materials into novel architec-                   requires much more than new facilities
     principles that govern the design, per-     tures and microsystems.                                    and instrumentation: It requires a scien-
     formance, and integration of nanoscale            During its pre-operational phase,                    tific community of world-class experts to
     materials.                                  CINT launched 0 nanoscience proj-                         attract the leading external researchers
          At CINT, which officially opened       ects. An additional 30 were approved                      as users/collaborators.
     its doors at an August 2006 dedication,     during 2006.                                                      Recognizing this, CINT has estab-
     the emphasis is on exploring the path             The CINT Core Facility houses                        lished four science thrusts that will
     from scientific discovery to the integra-   low-vibration laboratories with sensitive                  provide the knowledge foundation for
                                                                                                            integrated nano-microtechnologies:
                                                                                                                   • Nanoscale Electronics, Mechanics,
                                                                                                                     and Systems
                                                                                                                   • Nanophotonics and Optical
                                                                                                                     Nanomaterials
                                                                                                                   • Soft, Biological and Composite
                                                                                                                     Nanomaterials
                                                                                                                   • Theory and Simulation of Nanoscale
                                                                                                                     Phenomena




                                                                                                                   www.
                                                                                                                   http://cint.sandia.gov
     CINT Director Julia Phillips visits with New Mexico’s two U.S. senators at the center’s dedication in 2006.
22
                               Z machine study
                               of ‘metallic water’
                               reveals new insights
                                                                                                                                 water. This is a phase where
                                                                                                                                 the water molecule’s two
                                                                                                                                 hydrogen atoms are free to
                                                                                                                                 move about while the
                                                                                                                                 oxygen atoms remain
                                                                                                                                 frozen in place.
                                                                                                                                     One ramification of the
                                                                                                                                 work by researchers
                                                                                                                                 Thomas Mattsson and Mike
                                                                                                                                 Desjarlais is a revision of
                                                                                                                                 astronomy calculations of
                                                                                                                                 the strength of the mag-
                                                                                                                                 netic cores of gas-giant
                                                                                                                                 planets, like Neptune.
                                                                                                                                 Because the planet’s temp-
                                                                                                                                 eratures and pressures lie
   Taken from first-principles simulations, these figures show the increasingly disordered structure of metallic, or conducting,  partly in the revised sector,
   water. Red spheres are hydrogen atoms, white spheres oxygen. The electron density responsible for conductivity is shown as     electrically conducting
   a gold color. High-energy-density water is more than twice as dense as regular water.                                          water probably contributes
                                                                                                                                  to Neptune’s magnetic field.
    Data from Sandia’s                      While researching the conditions of                                   In the current year, Sandia’s Z accelerator is
                                      shocked water found in the heart of Sandia’s                          undergoing an extensive renovation that will
  high-energy-density                 Z machine pulsed power system, Sandia                                 increase the machine’s pulse from 20 to 26
                                      researchers discovered a new phase of water, million amps — a 30 percent rise. The ques-
     water studies add                which is relevant to the physics of giant                             tion to researchers: How will water behave,
                                      planets.                                                              subjected to these more extreme conditions?
          to the body of                   Sandia researchers began work in the                                   The effort thus began with a look at a
                                      high-energy-density water arena to better                             specific problem. “We were trying to under-
 knowledge about the                  understand the short-lived, high-tempera-                             stand conditions at Z,” said Mattsson, a
                                      ture, high-pressure fluid environment inside                          theoretical physicist, “but the problems are so
   electronic properties              Sandia’s Z machine. The Z machine, which is                           advanced that they linked to other branches
                                      the size of a major college basketball arena, is of science.”
of water, a prerequisite              the highest peak-current pulsed-power
                                      device in the world.
for correctly describing                  The Z machine is used for studying the
                                      physics of nuclear weapons and for learning
 the physics of various               about fusion reactions that may someday
                                      produce commercial power.
  objects such as giant                    Earlier work predicted that water would
                                                                                                            For more information:
                                                                                                            Thomas R. Mattsson , Ph.D.
     planets and shock                transition to a state where it would behave
                                      like a metallic fluid at 7,000 Kelvin and 250                         505-844-9215
        waves in water                gigapascals of pressure. The new findings
                                      place the temperatures and pressures
                                                                                                            trmatts@sandia.gov

                                      significantly lower — at 4,000 K and 100 GPa.
                                      The new work also shows, unexpectedly, that
                                      on a pressure-vs-temperature phase diagram,
                                      the conducting, or metallic, phase of water                   www.     sandia.gov/news/resources/releases/2006/
                                      directly borders the superionic phase of                               metallic-water
                                                                                                                                                               23
     Strategic partnering to achieve national and global impacts
          U.S. security needs will evolve rapidly in   infrastructure issues associated with water. The    geoscience technologies, and engineered barri-
     the next 10 years and become more diverse         program develops and demonstrates persistent        ers research. Other efforts focus on the security
     as major demographic shifts, trends in energy     energy sources for electricity and transportation   and management of sealed radioactive sources,
     and technology, and increased threats from        and takes aim at creating a flexible, enabling      hazardous, and nuclear materials.
     radiological and biological materials produce     energy infrastructure. Energy storage capabili-          The goal of ERN’s Global Security programs
     new threats. Given this diversification of        ties are also a focus of this program.              is to create sustainable, technology-based sys-
     emerging security challenges, the degree of            Energy-efficiency activities reduce demand     tem solutions through international coopera-
     global economic integration, and the velocity     on national energy resources. Sandia’s pioneer-     tion. Sandians in these programs are at work in
     of information flows, cascading change will       ing work in solid-state lighting (See story on      nuclear, regional security, and biological thrust
     impact U.S. interests in unpredictable ways.      page 21) is an example of work in this area.        areas. In addition to international safeguards
          Sandia’s Energy, Resources, and Nonpro-      Exploring the transition to a hydrogen-based        efforts in Europe and Asia, programs are under
     liferation (ERN) unit is meeting the goals of     economy and developing more efficient, less         way to reduce radiological threats, increase
     its complex mission by establishing strategic     polluting automobile engines — work now             biosurveillance and biosecurity (See story on
     partnerships with a variety of government and     under way at Sandia’s Combustion Research           page 18), and strengthen regional security in
     nongovernmental organizations, universities,      Facility — are other examples.                      South Asia and the Middle East.
     and with industry. Sandia’s ERN customers will         Researchers in Sandia’s Nuclear Energy pro-         Sandia’s Science Research portfolio of
     depend upon Sandia’s ability to engage globally   gram are evaluating the safety and security of      projects includes fusion energy research,
     as never before. ERN’s energy lines of busi-      existing power plants and helping develop the       biological and environmental research, and
     ness will require more effective integration of   next generation of nuclear power technology.        computational technology research. Basic
     security design into engineering solutions.       They are also developing approaches for new         energy sciences research in materials sciences,
          ERN’s Fuel and Water Systems efforts         risk-informed regulations, using risk assess-       chemical sciences, and earth sciences continues
     include an emphasis on focused solutions for      ment, accident modeling, structural analysis,       to open new possibilities. Sandia’s Center for
     transportation fuels for the 21st century and     and large-scale experiments to provide a            Integrated Nanotechnologies (See story on
                                                       scientific basis.                                   page 22) is among the world-class research and
                                                            Sandia is working at the Waste Isolation Pi-   development laboratories engaged in these
                                                       lot Project and the Yucca Mountain Project (See     projects.
     for treatment, monitoring, management, and        story on page 25) on performance assessment,




2
Energy, Resources, & Nonproliferation
 Looking one million years into the future
        The road to a global future where                                                  evolving environment, with thermal,
 nuclear energy contributes clean, af-                                                     chemical, and hydrological aspects.
 fordable power to developing nations                                                      Researchers need to assess and predict
 along with strong safeguards to prevent                                                   how long these containers will last
 proliferation begins in Nevada.                                                           before they corrode and what the con-
       Until the U.S. can                                                                                  sequences of the containers
 demonstrate the concept of                                                                                breaching is.
 geologic storage for high-                                                                                      The performance
 level nuclear fuel at Yucca                                                                               assessment team must take
 Mountain, progress toward                                                                                 into account normal as
 advanced nuclear energy                                                                                   well as possible disruptive
 concepts is likely to be very                                                                             events, such as volcanic
 slow. That’s the challenge                                                                                or seismic activity. This
 the Department of Energy                                                                                  requires multidisciplinary
 presented Sandia with early                                                                               expertise involving math
 in 2006.                                                                                                  and science, engineering,
       The DOE’s Office of                                                                                 software, field and lab
 Civilian Radioactive Waste                                                                                testing, as well as busi-
 asked Sandia to step up to                                                                                ness systems and quality
 the responsibility of becom-                                                                              engineering specialties. All
 ing Lead Lab for Repository                                                                               the supporting data and
 Systems. The Labs officially stepped into        Sandia is stepping forward with an       modules developed over the years by nu-
 the lead role in October 2006.               excellent mix of staff and management        merous participants are then integrated
       Moving from its position as one of     with relevant experience. “Our position      into a total system-performance assess-
 many laboratories and institutions work-     is that the license application has to be    ment, which determines if the project
 ing on the huge Yucca Mountain Project       done and that we can do it,” said Orrell.    complies with the regulations the NRC
 in Nevada to the central role of coordi-     “There is a strong sense we can, we          has set.
 nating the scientific activity would be a    have to, and we will do it.”                        “It’s a big step from a 3-person
 big step for any company. “We know                 Sandia is responsible for about half   workforce and $0 million budget a
 this work and we have the most relevant      of a ,000-page license application and      year ago to coordinating the efforts of
 management experience in perform-            for most of the underpinning science.        an estimated 600 contributors (30
 ing and managing work to support the         The long-term performance section,           full-time equivalent workers) around the
 regulatory process,” said Andrew Orrell,     called the post-closure performance as-      world and a $30 million budget,” said
 Senior Project Manager.                      sessment, will be Sandia’s contribution.     Orrell. “This is very analogous to what
       Sandia is using its experience at      Recent regulation changes have pushed        we did at WIPP and that’s why DOE
 Yucca Mountain, the Waste Isolation          the post-closure timeframe from 0,000       has asked us to take this role.”
 Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New       years to one million years. The license
 Mexico, and other relevant projects to       must take into account all of the things     Its status as lead laboratory (logo above) for repository
 more efficiently direct efforts in Nevada.   that could happen and their effects.         systems puts responsibility for the Yucca Mountain
 The goal: deliver to the Nuclear Regu-             One example of the work involved       Project license application squarely on Sandia.
 latory Commission by June 200, a            is the project’s approach to the waste
 defensible license application showing       packages that will hold the spent fuel
 that YMP will be safe and meet federal       rods underground beneath Yucca
 requirements as the nation’s sole reposi-    Mountain. The large, corrosion-resistant     www.
                                                                                           sandia.gov/LabNews/070105.html#one
 tory for high-level waste.                   steel containers will be exposed to an
                                                                                                                                                       2
                                             Using STM to determine origins
                                             of self-organized surface patterns
                                                                                                                  scopy. They chose a system simple enough to
                                                                                                                  allow a precise determination of its atomic
                                                                                                                  structure — a triangular array of vacancy
                                                                                                                  islands, or holes, in a one-atom-thick mono-
                                                                                                                  layer silver film that develops spontaneously
                                                                                                                  when a monolayer of silver grown on a
                                                                                                                  ruthenium crystal is exposed to a tiny
                                                                                                                  amount of sulfur.
                                                                                                                      They found that although the holes wan-
                                                                                                                  der about their respective average positions,
                                                                                                                  the arrays are extremely stable. Combining
                                             Above: A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) image of a very         the real-time STM measurements with atom-
                                             regular array of vacancy islands (holes) embedded in a one-atom-     istic modeling, the researchers were able to
                                             thick silver film. At the right, an overlay of two STM images (red   determine the origin of this stabilizing force.
                                             and cyan) acquired 12 seconds apart at 80 degrees Celsius shows          The thermal hole vibrations observed by
                                             the thermal vibrations in this self-organized lattice.               STM were inconsistent with the conventional
                                                                                                                  explanation for the surface ordering, which
                                                The ability to work in the nanometer                              involved elastic distortions of the substrate.
                                             range offers the prospect of continuing the                          In a search for an alternative ordering mecha-
                                             drive to miniaturization in electronics and                          nism, the researchers used atomically
     An atomically resolved STM image of     designing novel devices with specific proper-                        resolved STM images.
          the hole-array structure shown     ties that rely on very small dimensions.                                 The hole-hole interactions originated from
            above and a model, based on                                                                           dislocations, which often formed to help
                                                Two Sandia researchers used a tool called
                       the data collected.                                                                        accommodate mismatches between the
                                             scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to
                                             understand “self organization.” Thin films and                       lattice constants of the film and the substrate.
                                                                                                                  The tendency of the dislocations to run along
        A novel combination                  solid surfaces are often observed to sponta-
                                             neously “self-organize” into ordered patterns                        specific crystallographic directions connect-
              of quantitative                at nanometer to micron length scales. Such
                                             patterns are often too large to be manufac-
                                                                                                                  ing the holes, created stabilizing interactions,
                                                                                                                  the researchers noted.
       real-time microscopy                  tured by chemical synthesis and too small to                             Since dislocations are extremely common
                                                                                                                  in crystalline solids, scientists expect to
                                             be accessible to existing microtechnologies,
         measurements and                    based on photolithography.                                           discover other systems where self-organiza-
                                                                                                                  tion is accomplished through similar mecha-
                                                 Understanding the physics of nanoscale
         atomistic modeling                  self-organized patterns is challenging,                              nisms. The value of such ordered nanostruc-
                                             because it is difficult to manipulate them in                        tures could be greatly enhanced if scientists
     helps solve the problem                 any controlled way. This difficulty is com-                          learn to tailor their properties.
                                             pounded by the complexity of the involved                                In the case of the studied vacancy island
            of manipulating                  nanometer-scale forces.                                              lattice, the possibility of achieving this
                                                To surmount these difficulties, Sandia                            tailoring exists, because control of the hole-
            structures at the                researchers Konrad Thürmer and Norm                                  hole spacing can be obtained by adjusting
                                             Bartelt combined quantitative real-time                              the composition of the film.
                   nanoscale.                microscopy measurements and atomistic
                                                                                                                  For more information:
                                             modeling to understand the physics needed
                                             to manipulate nanoscale structures.                                  Konrad Thürmer, Ph.D.      Norm Bartelt, Ph.D.
                                                The two first quantitatively analyzed the                         925-294-4564               925-294-3061
                                             naturally occurring thermal vibrations in                            kthurme@sandia.gov         bartelt@sandia.gov
                                             these structures using variable-temperature,
                                             atomic-resolution scanning tunneling micro-

26
Advanced Concepts Group
                 Think tank for national security
     For Sandia’s Advanced Concepts        Student Science Symposium                    as to treat and cure brain disease and
Group, formed in  to harness                In a three-hour session in late 2006    mental illness.
the knowledge and creativity of diverse    at Albuquerque’s National History                Sandia can provide computational
groups around the Labs, new ap-            Museum, 20 high school students              power, systems expertise, and modeling,
proaches to national and global security   discussed future global problems or          says Yonas, who describes the proposed
issues are the organization’s trademark.   opportunities with Yonas and ACG staff       project “as challenging as anything
And empowering others to pursue these      members. Sitting under the museum’s          we’ve ever attempted at Sandia.”
ideas is their “coin of the realm.”        towering ceilings with a huge prehistoric
     The future of warfare, the looming    flying reptile suspended overhead, one       Integrated workshops
Asian influenza pandemic, the workings     group discussed what might be the ef-             In collaboration with the Depart-
of the human mind under pressure,          fects of electronic communication that       ment of Defense, the ACG hosted work-
energy and water, transportation, aging,   involved all five senses. Another group      shops on the future of war and effects-
health care, or dealing with the social,   delved into alternative means of rising      based information operations. A War
political, and security issues along our   into outer space, while a third group        in 203: The Role of Emerging Tech-
nation’s borders are examples of sub-      brainstormed ideas to save polar bears,      nologies workshop was cosponsored by
jects being tackled by this group.         western pine forests, and coral reefs        the Center for Strategic and Budgetary
     Led by Sandia Vice President and      from extinction due to the forces of cli-    Assessments and about a dozen invited
Principal Scientist Gerry Yonas, the       mate change. The small groups debated        experts on nano-, bio-, and neuro-
group consists of a small staff with       their ideas and then presented a briefing    technologies, and intelligent machines
diverse technical backgrounds, serving     to the larger group afterward.               discussed potential applications of these
rotational assignments of two to three                                                  technologies in military conflicts.
years. It’s a highly interactive group,    Human brain research                              ACG researchers — collaborating
inside and outside the laboratories. The        An increasing tempo of interactions     with the Consortium for Science, Policy,
staff takes advantage of the power         between Sandia’s Advanced Concept            and Outcomes at Arizona State Uni-
of diverse expertise and disciplines       Group and the Albuquerque-based              versity — conducted a workshop on the
at Sandia to understand current            MIND Institute promises yet another          policy implications of converging nano-,
approaches to problems without             new engineering direction opening to         bio-, info-, and cognitive technologies
allowing those approaches to limit         Sandia researchers: the human brain.         for enhanced human cognition. These
thinking.                                       Following discussions last fall, the    technologies raise complex technical,
     Working in small information          Institute is conducting a study of ways      social, ethical, economic, and politi-
teams, supplemented by other collabora-    to accelerate learning for warfighters and   cal issues and the workshop brought
tors, ACG staff and leadership recruit     intelligence analysts, says Rex Jung, a      together neuroscientists, bioethicists,
individuals and groups to test new         MIND Institute psychologist and neu-         policy scholars, nanoscientists, and
ideas.                                     rologist and part-time staffer in Sandia’s   social experts to explore a wide range of
                                           ACG. The Institute is a national part-       possible public policies.
                                           nership committed to expanding neuro-
                                           science research by discovering new ways
                                           to understand human behavior, as well
                                                                                        www.
                                                                                        sandia.gov/acg




                                                                                                                                    2
     Strategic Relationships
     Developing better products through partnerships
          Industry partners come to Sandia                to turn Sandia’s miniSAR technology                      front surface and makes cells more
     seeking innovative solutions to a vast               into a product that can be deployed                      efficient and less costly to build led
     range of engineering and design                      tactically by the U.S. military. Rockwell                a Sandia researcher to a new startup
     problems. When they do, they receive a               Collins designs, produces, and supports                  company. The startup, Advent Solar, is
     huge return on their investment.                     communication and aviation electronics,                  located in Albuquerque, New Mexico,
     “Sandia offers its partners access to a              and global surveillance solutions.                       and has licensed Sandia’s back-contact
     wide spectrum of exceptional technical               MiniSAR is a small synthetic-aperture                    photovoltaic cell technology.
     talent, world-class facilities, and high-            radar developed at Sandia that can                            To help Advent and speed the
     quality science-based engineering                    see through clouds and in the dark to                    commercialization of this critical solar
     solutions,” said Rick Stulen, Vice                   provide images for use on the battlefield                technology, Sandia’s licensing team and
     President and Chief Technology Officer.              and in other intelligence applications.                  technical line worked closely with the
          Sandia also receives a huge return              The partnership provides a strong and                    company to craft a partnership over a
     on investment in the process. Partner-               complementary match to bring ad-                         matter of months. Later, the partnership
     ships provide validation for new ideas               vanced radar remote-sensing capability                   was modified to satisfy Advent Solar
     and commercial sources for mission                   to the warfighter, said Brett Remund,                    investors.
     components.                                          Deputy Director, Microwave Intelligence,                      With these changes, Advent was
          “In the dynamic business world of               Surveillance, and Reconnaissance.                        able to secure $3 million in venture
     today, we have to provide an innovative                   An umbrella Cooperative Research                    capital funding and begin construction
     partnerships program that is tailored to             and Development Agreement, or CRA-                       of a production plant with a capacity of
     the needs of our various management                  DA, is allowing Sandia and Rockwell                      2 megawatts of solar cells at Mesa del
     units,” said David Goldheim, Direc-                  Collins to explore further projects in a                 Sol, a new 2,000-acre development in
     tor for Sandia’s Strategic Relationships             number of fields.                                        Albuquerque.
     Center. Working with the Labs’ Cali-
     fornia Business Development Support                  Advent Solar
     Department, the program “facilitates                     A breakthrough photovoltaic cell
     partnerships and develops novel ap-                  design and fabrication process that
     proaches,” Goldheim said.                            eliminates collection grids from the

     Rockwell Collins                                                        Advent Solar’s innovative cell design has resulted in
          Aerospace leader Rockwell Collins
                                                                             a startup company that currently employs nearly
     announced that it will spend several
                                                                             100 engineers, technicians, production operators, and
     million dollars over the next two years
                                                                             administrative staff, and is projected to have 300 employees
                                                                             in a few years. The company’s new Mesa del Sol plant in
                                                                             Albuquerque is pictured in this architect’s rendition.
                          Novint’s Falcon Controller is the first consumer
                          3-D touch controller that gives a user a very
                          precise sense of touch on a computer.




2
                                                                                                                      Lockheed Martin
                                                                                                                           After designing and manufacturing
                                                                                                                      the Joint Strike Fighter, the pivotal next-
                                                                                                                      generation strike aircraft for the new
                                                                                                                      century, to be used by Navy, Air Force,
                                                                                                                      U.S. Marine, and allied forces, Lock-
                                                                                                                      heed Martin Corp. began the job of
                                                                                                                      creating a support system for its warbird
                                                                                                                      around the world.
                                                                                                                           Through a “Shared Vision” partner-
                                                                                                                      ship with Sandia, the company has
                                                                                                                      incorporated a creative tool — called the
                                                                                                                      Support Enterprise Model (SEM) — to
                                                                                                                      provide a supply- and repair-chain
                                                                                                                      process worthy of the new fighter’s
                                                                                                                      nickname: “Lightning II.”
The Novint Falcon makes interactive 3-D touch possible and practical for consumer computing applications for the           In fact, SEM is able to design,
first time, fundamentally changing how people play and interact.
                                                                                                                      evaluate, and refine logistical support
Novint Technologies                                         negotiations took a creative turn. The                    concepts for an array of aircraft and
     Novint Technologies, Inc., has                         solution involved Sandia taking a stock                   weapons systems. Recent improvements
taken software it licensed from Sandia                      position in the company in lieu of most                   allow planners to determine which
and paired it with a 3-D touch control-                     royalties — representing a challenge, as                  system inputs have the most impact on
ler to make interactive “touch” possible                    do most “firsts.”                                         the system (sensitivity analysis) and how
and practical for consumer applications                          Today Novint has raised $6. mil-                    to cope with a broad range of possible
for the first time. With a product called                   lion to expand its team and finalize a                    conditions (uncertainties).
the Novint Falcon, users feel realistic                     design for its first commercial product.                       Given that life-cycle costs on the
weight, shape, texture, dimension, dy-                      The company, which went public in                         F-3 Joint Strike Fighter alone are
namics, and force effects. This technol-                    2006, is partnering with game develop-                    expected to reach into the billions of
ogy, called haptics, is applicable to many                  ers to create games and software and                      dollars, such a system can maximize the
fields, including military applications,                    with hardware manufacturers to expand                     “bang for the buck” of taxpayer dollars
medical training and visualization, and                     the use of its technologies.                              dramatically into the future.
computer gaming.
     To meet Sandia’s goal of commer-
cializing the technology and Novint’s
goal of getting financial backing,                                                          The Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter


Rockwell Collins’ partnership with Sandia took the path of a traditional
Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. In addition to efforts
to commercialize the miniSAR technology for use on unmanned aerial
vehicles like the Shadow 200 used by the U.S. military, the partners will
pursue other mutual technology interests.




                                                                                                                                     www.
                                                                                                                                     sandia.gov/bus-ops/partnerships


                                                                                                                                                                    2
     &
     FY 2006 Financial
                    Staffing Report
                                                                       FY 2006 Actual Revenue by Source: $2,269.8M
                                                                       (Budget Authority in Millions)

     As a contractor to the Department of Energy and other
                                                                                                                            WFO, 33%, $759M
     government agencies, the bulk of Sandia’s revenue is from tax
     dollars. Sandia’s Fiscal Year 2006 total revenue, total expen-                                                                 Other DOE
     ditures, and total employment levels were slightly below the                                                                       16%,
     Fiscal Year 200 record-high levels. Throughout Fiscal Year                                                                       $363M
     2006, Sandia business staff continued to improve the Labs’
     financial stewardship of entrusted taxpayer funds through
     implementation of best-in-class practices in financial business
     operations and internal control policy and procedures to              DOE Weapons, 51%,
     ensure compliance with all accounting standards and provide           $1,148M
     accountability to our customers.
     At the end of the fiscal year, Sandia counted:
     • $2.20 billion total revenue received,
     • ,22 employees,
     • ,32 acres of land,                                              The total revenue provided by Sandia’s customers is allo-
     • , buildings with .0 million square feet of space,          cated to four mission organizations, or business units, within
     •  leased buildings totaling ,000 square feet, and           the Labs. These organizations conduct the missions assigned
     • 2,00 total workers, counting contractors, consultants,        to Sandia by our customers. The Nuclear Weapons unit
        and students at all sites.                                     continues to be the largest, using 3 percent of the revenue.
                                                                       The remaining three business units share  percent of the
         Sandia’s revenue for FY 2006, $2.20 billion, represents
                                                                       revenue as shown here:
     a $. million (2. percent) decrease from the previous year.
     The majority of Sandia’s income, 6 percent, came from the
     Department of Energy —  percent for weapons work and
                                                                       Application of FY 2006 Sandia Revenue by Strategic
     6 percent for all other DOE programs. The remaining 33
                                                                       Management Units (SMU): $2,269.8M
     percent came from “Work for Others” customers, comprising
                                                                       (Budget Authority in Millions)
     other federal agencies, state and local governments (including                                                         DS&A, 25%, $566M
     universities), and private companies partnering with the Labs.




                                                                                                                            ER&N, 16%, $349M



                                                                       NW, 53%, $1,211M                                      HS&D, 6%, $144M



                                                                           NW, Nuclear Weapons; DS&A, Defense Systems and Assessments; ER&N,
                                                                           Energy, Resources and Nonproliferation; HS&D, Homeland Security
                                                                           and Defense.


30
     Another way of looking at the division of Labs revenue is            Although most Sandia employees work at Albuquerque,
to categorize it by () operations and maintenance, (2) capital         New Mexico, or Livermore, California, others are scattered
equipment, and (3) construction. This table shows this divi-            among dozens of sites in the U.S. and abroad.
sion of revenue for the past two fiscal years:
                                                                        FY 2006 Employees by Location
Total Revenue by Category
(Budget Authority in Millions)

  TOTAL REVENUE BY            FY 20O5     FY 20O6             %
      CATEGORY                ACTUAL      ACTUAL            CHANGE
     Operations &
                              $2,1000.1   $2,124.3                1.2
     Maintenance
   Capital Equipment           $76.4       $54.4              -28.9
      Construction             $152.1      $91.2              -40.0
  Total SNL Revenue           $2,328.6    $2,269.8             -2.5

     Capital equipment declined in FY 2006 to normal equip-
ment funding levels following completion of major com-
puter acquisitions in FY 200. The decrease in construction
revenue is due to the completion of two construction projects
in FY 2006, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies and
the Exterior Communications Infrastructure Modernization
projects. Further, funding for the Microsystems Engineering
and Science Applications Facility is decreasing as the project
nears completion over the next two years.
     Sandia’s total full-time equivalent employees climbed
from ,60 in FY 200 to ,62, an increase of 6 employ-
ees. Sandia’s Human Resources group continues to work
                                                                                   Albuquerque, NM   Livermore, CA   Other Locations
with line organizations to ensure a stable and sustainable
                                                                                        7,624             862             236
work force, with highly qualified staff for Sandia’s future.
     Here’s a look at Sandia’s regular workforce by education
level. These numbers show the Labs’ commitment to continu-
ing education and to hiring the best and brightest engineers
and scientists available for the national challenges we face.


SNL’s FY 2006 Workforce by Degree Level
Ph.D. 18%                                      Master’s
                                               31%




Other 22%

            Associate’s 12%                          Bachelor’s
                                                         17%
                                                                                                                                       3
     Community Outreach
 Serving where we live
          Sandia’s long history of service             In an effort to better
     to our communities continues with            prepare students for the
     programs in education, a spectrum of         workforce, our STAR
     volunteer activities, employee participa-    student intern program
     tion in civic efforts, and contributions     provides an intensive sum-
     from employees and Lockheed Martin           mer research experience for
     Corporation to United Way and similar        2 top-notch high school
     programs.                                    students. The Write Thing
          Sandia’s long-standing involvement      To Do essay program links                      ees and delivered to appropriate agen-
     in education aims to improve oppor-          literacy and science and awards five high      cies in time for the holiday season.
     tunities for students in kindergarten        school winners for their thoughtful            The “grocery” portion of the campaign
     through college. Family Science Nights       response to a current scientific issue.        provides nonperishable food to support
     provided hands-on science evenings for            Professional development programs         the Family Crisis Center in Livermore
     more than 6,000 elementary students          recognize excellent science and math           and San Joaquin County Food Bank in
     and their families in New Mexico and         teachers and fund continuing education         Manteca.
     California during 2006. More than            in New Mexico and California.                       Lockheed Martin, on behalf of
     00 Sandia employees volunteered to               Sandia logged more than 00,000           Sandia, has donated more than $ mil-
     teach science, judge science fairs, tutor,   volunteer hours in its database. Volun-        lion to nonprofit organizations in the
     or help with academic competitions           teerism includes participation in activi-      Middle Rio Grande communities since
     like Science Bowls for middle and high       ties like Make a Difference Day, where         3. The focus is on projects that
     school students.                             200 volunteers worked on more than a           encourage the development of youth
          In Albuquerque, School to World,        dozen projects; Habitat for Humanity,          to foster a next-generation workforce
     New Mexico’s largest career exploration      with 200 volunteers and seven houses           that is skilled, educated, and maintains
     event, provided 2,000 eighth- and ninth-     built; Roadrunner Food Bank, for the           community values. Recipients include
     grade students information on some           sorting of food from the biannual Mail         museums, literacy programs, music in
     0 careers and a chance to meet a           Carrier Drives in November and May;            schools, the Albuquerque Tricenten-
     variety of professionals. Sandia outreach    and other causes.                              nial celebration, and service awards for
     groups promoted science and engineer-             Sandians in New Mexico pitch in           Sandia volunteers.
     ing careers to underrepresented youth:       on corporate drives to gather books                 Finally, 2006 figures show that
     Manos, for Hispanic students; Dream          (more than ,000 last April) and school        Sandia employees gave more than $3
     Catchers, for American Indian students;      supplies (more than 2,000 items in            million to the United Way of Central
     and HM Tech, celebrating its 20th year,      July) for low-income students. Dur-            New Mexico and provided $223,600 to
     for African-American students.               ing the year-end holidays, employees           the SHARE Program in the Livermore,
                                                        donated more than 30,000 pounds          California, area. The average individual
                                                          of food to needy families and          gift of the participating employees is
                                                           funding for 00 pairs of shoes        $0 per year. Lockheed Martin pro-
                                                            for low-income students.             vides an additional $0,000 in New
                                                             In California, the Holiday          Mexico and $,000 in California.
                                                              Spirit Gift & Grocery Cam-
                                                                paign is held during De-         Shoes for Kids recipients (left) admire new footwear.
                                                                 cember each year as an          Student (above) poses for infrared camera at
                                                                   opportunity for Sandians      Livermore, California, Science Night event.
                                                                   and contractors to give to
                                                                   those less fortunate in our
                                                                   local communities. Gifts
                                                                  are wrapped by the employ-     www.
                                                                                                 sandia.gov/about/community
32
 Sandia Corporation
Board of Directors
Michael F. Camardo, Chairman              Robert B. Coutts                           James R. Schlesinger
(Until 4/1/2007)                          Executive Vice President                   Senior Advisor, Lehman Brothers
Executive Vice President                  Lockheed Martin Electronic Systems         Chairman of the Board of Trustees, The
Lockheed Martin Information                                                          MITRE Corporation
Technology & Global Services              Larry R. Faulkner
                                          President                                  General Larry D. Welch
Linda Gooden, Chairman                    Houston Endowment Inc.                     (USAF Retired)
(Effective 4/1/2007)                                                                 President, Institute for Defense
Executive Vice President                  David A. Grzyb                             Analyses (IDA)
Lockheed Martin Information               Vice President, Finance
Technology & Global Services              Lockheed Martin Information
                                          Technology & Global Services
Thomas O. Hunter, Vice Chairman
President                                 William G. Howard, Jr.
Sandia Corporation                        Scottsdale, AZ                             Sandia Corporation
                                                                                     Elizabeth D. Krauss
Edward J. Bergin, Vice Chairman           Ray O. Johnson
                                                                                     Vice President, General Counsel
(Effective 1/24/2007)                     Vice President and Chief Technology
                                                                                     and Corporate Secretary
President, Lockheed Martin Energy &       Officer
Homeland Security Services                Lockheed Martin Corporation                Sharla G. Haley
                                                                                     Assistant Corporate Secretary
General Lew Allen, Jr.                    Neal J. Murray
(USAF Retired)                            Vice President and General Counsel         Charles Pechewlys
Potomac Falls, VA                         Lockheed Martin Information                Assistant Corporate Secretary
                                          Technology & Global Services
Donna F. Bethell
President and CEO                         Diana S. Natalicio
Radiance Services Company                 President
Bethesda, MD                              University of Texas at El Paso
                                          El Paso, TX
Stephen W. Brinch
Vice President, Human Resources                                            Sandia Corporation
Lockheed Martin Information                                                 Board of Directors
Technology & Global Services




                                                             Governance
                           Missions                          Committee                            Investment
                          Committee                                                               Committee




Credits: A special thanks to the many Sandians who prvoided information, suggestions, and support for
this publication. Editor: Will Keener, Sandia National Laboratories; Writing, John German, Noel Fletcher, Sandia National
Laboratories; Technical Editor, Margaret Lovell, The Plus Group; Design/Layout, Doug Prout, Technically Write; Photography,
Randy J. Montoya, Sandia National Laboratories, Bill Doty, Bill Doty Photoimaging, Jeff Shaw Photography. To request
additional copies, contact us at 505-844-4902, rwkeene@sandia.gov. For more information about Sandia, please visit our
website at:
           www.
            sandia.gov

				
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