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SEI_Urine_Pretreatment_Spring_2009

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					    Urine Pretreatment
for Wastewater Recovery

  Space Engineering Institute
      Final Presentation
         2008-2009
                   Overview
–   Background
–   Previous Work
–   Objectives
–   Task 1: Laboratory Tests
–   Task 2: Distillation Simulation
–   Future Tasks: UV Urine Pretreatment
                     Team Structure

Name                Major             Year   Position
Moriah Thompson     Biomedical Eng.     4    Transitional Team Lead
Julianne Larson     Aerospace Eng.      4    Project Lead
Elizabeth Joachim   Biomedical Eng.     3    Lab Lead
Marco Cienega       Mechanical Eng.     3    UV Lead
David Moore         Civil Eng.          1    Assistant Lab Lead
Sandhya Ramesh      Biomedical Eng.     1    Logistics Lead
Blesson John        Biomedical Eng.     1    Webmaster
         Vision for Space Exploration
• Retire shuttle

• Explore the Moon

• Build lunar habitat

• Explore Mars

• Build Martian habitat

• Explore other destinations
           Human Habitation Challenges
Source: NASA




                    Not economical or practical to re-supply
                    basic life support elements from Earth
What Part Do We Focus On?




Specifically urine pretreatment
      Why Urine Pretreatment?
• Protect hardware and plumbing system
  form clogging
   – Solids precipitation
   – Biofilm formation
       Current Urine Pretreatment



    “String of Pearls”


  Oxone is toxic!!
    Not good for
astronauts or water
reclamation system            Urine and fecal
                              collection unit
       Problem Statement


The current pretreatment method utilizes
a toxic chemical that may be detrimental
     to astronaut and system health.
                Previous Work
• Urine Pretreatment for Biological
  Reclamation
• Supernatant Characterization from urine
  MAP precipitation

    Work presented in the 11th International Conference on Engineering,
    Science, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environments
                     (2008 Earth & Space Conference)
   Urine Pretreatment for Biological
           Water Recovery

          Objective:
Identify a non-toxic pretreatment
alternative that is compatible with
  a biological water reclamation
              system.


                                      Test stand for biological water
                                      recovery (JSC)
Urine Pretreatment for Biological
        Water Recovery
    pH Results                      Ammonia Results




          Glycolic   Acetic   Sulfuric
    Urine Pretreatment for Biological
            Water Recovery

     Chemicals Tested:
•   Sulfuric Acid
•   Sodium Benzoate
•   Acetic Acid
•   Glycolic Acid
•   Sodium Permanganate
•   Phosphoric Acid
                          Test stand for biological water
                          recovery (JSC)
Supernatant Characterization from
    Urine MAP Precipitation

         Objectives:
• Determine the composition and
  buffer capacity of supernatant
• Identify uses of supernatant
• Determine treatment process
  necessary for water recovery

                                   SEM micrograph of MAP
                                   precipitates produced by Zhao
Supernatant Characterization from
    Urine MAP Precipitation
   TOC Results     Buffer Capacity
Supernatant Characterization from
    Urine MAP Precipitation

         Conclusions:
• TOC > EPA drinking water limit
• Removal of inorganics is needed
• Buffer at high pH values
• Optimization of precipitation
  process is needed
                                    SEM micrograph of MAP
                                    precipitates produced by Zhao
      Current Project Objective


Identify a non-toxic pretreatment alternative
 that is compatible with a distillation based
          water reclamation system.
Proposed Water Reclamation System




   Orion Crew Module   Cascade Distillation Subsystem
                 Project Tasks
• Task 1- Laboratory tests
   – Select pretreatment chemicals
      • Toxicity data, HMIS, pKa, Volatility
   – Test chemicals’ pretreatment ability

• Task 2- Distillation simulation (Aspen)
   – Determine simulation operation conditions
   – Simulate chemicals tested in Task 1
   Task 1-Laboratory Tests
Objective: Compare pretreatment chemicals
to sulfuric acid in stored urine (1g/L)

    – Chemical: pH
    – Physical: TSS, Turbidity
    – Biological: Protein, Ammonia, DO
              Chemicals Selected
• Chosen based on         Sulfuric Acid
  –   Solubility
  –   pKa                 Fumaric Acid
  –   Toxicity
                           Sorbic Acid
  –   HMIS
• Considerations           Boric Acid
  – Delivery system
                           Lactic Acid
  – Astronaut health
  – System health         Phthalic Acid
             Experimental Methods
Urine collected




                            Samples are taken at
                            predetermined times
Analytical Lab Methods
    pH             Dissolved
                   Oxygen


   Total           Phenate
   Suspended       Method
   Solids          (Ammonia)



                   Protein
   Turbidity       Assay
                                 Chemical Tests
 14                                                            14

 12                                                            12

 10                                                            10

     8                                                          8
pH




                                                          pH
     6                                                          6

     4                                                          4

     2                                                          2

     0                                                          0
         0   20   40   60    80   100   120   140   160             0   0.5    1       1.5   2   2.5
                        Time (hours)                                          Time (hours)
                                            Physical Tests
                               Turbidity                                                     Total Suspended Solids
        350                                                                         6

        300                                                                         5

        250




                                                                   (g-L )/(g-L )0
                                                                                    4




                                                                   -1
NTU/NTU 0




        200
                                                                                    3




                                                                   -1
        150
                                                                                    2
        100

            50                                                                      1

             0                                                                      0
                 0   20   40    60   80    100   120   140   160                        0   20   40   60   80   100   120   140   160
                                Time (hours)                                                          Time (hours)
                                                     Biological Tests
                                Dissolved Oxygen                                                     Protein Concentration
                    1.2                                                                     2
                                                                                        1.8
                     1
                                                                                        1.6
 (mg-L )/(mg-L )0




                                                                     (mg-L )/(mg-L )0
-1




                                                                                        1.4




                                                                 -1
                    0.8
                                                                                        1.2
                    0.6                                                                     1
-1




                                                                 -1
                                                                                        0.8
                    0.4
                                                                                        0.6
                    0.2                                                                 0.4
                                                                                        0.2
                     0
                                                                                            0
                          0     0.5     1       1.5    2   2.5
                                                                                                0        0.5     1      1.5           2         2.5
                                      Time (hours)                                                             Time (hours)


                 2.5
                              Ammonia Concentration                                                 Ammonia Concentration
                                                                                10
                     2
                                                                                        8
                                                                 (g-L-1)/(g-L-1)0
(g-L )/(g-L )0
-1




                 1.5
                                                                                        6
-1




                     1
                                                                                        4

                 0.5
                                                                                        2

                     0                                                                  0
                          0     0.5    1        1.5    2   2.5                              0       20   40    60   80    100   120       140   160
                                       Time (hours)                                                            Time (hours)
        Task 2- Simulation
Objective: Determine % water recovery at
proposed operating conditions
       Simulation Conditions
     Feed Conditions           One stage flash
  Temperature                (worst case scenario)
      (°C)          40
 Pressure (psi)   14.69                     VAPOR

 Vapor Fraction      0
Volume Fraction
    Chemical       0.04
     Water         0.96
                          FEED                FLASH

    Flash Operating
       Conditions
Temperature (°C) 25-50
  Pressure (psi)    0
                                           LIQUID
           Simulation Results

              % Water Recovery % Chemical Recovery
Fumaric Acid       98.49             99.59
Sulfuric Acid      96.94             99.98
 Boric Acid        99.97             81.97
                      Summary
• Laboratory tests results:
   – Chemicals tested do meet pretreatment requirements for
     short term storage
   – Chemicals tested do not meet pretreatment requirements
     for long term storage

• Distillation results:
   – Chemicals are separable from water in the flash operating
     range of 25-50°C.
   – Preliminary simulations indicate that high % chemical
     removal is possible.
   – Determine operating conditions to achieve >99%
     pretreatment agent removal by volume
   – Add ionic strengths to mimic influent urine stream
   Future Tasks:
UV Urine Pretreatment
 Characteristics of UV Disinfection
• Germicidal or UV-C range: 200 – 280nm
• UV light rearranges DNA
   • Thymine dimers formation
   • Replication is prevented
                     Accomplished Tasks
• Developed work plan
• Determined absorbance of untreated urine
   1.E+07




   1.E+06
                                    Germicidal range
   1.E+05
                                    Urine
   1.E+04

                                             Day 0
                                             Day 1

   1.E+03                                    Day 6




   1.E+02




   1.E+01




   1.E+00
            1   10     100   1000    10000




                                    Water
                      Future Tasks
•   Task 1- Determine preliminary apparatus design
    –   Housing unit design
    –   Light intensity          W  sec 
                           Dose 
                                                         W 
                                              Intensity 2   Time sec
                                           
                                 cm                    cm 
                                       2
    –   Distance
    –   Exposure time
    –   Others

•   Task 2- Analyze performance of preliminary
    design
    –   Determine changes needed for next design
  2008-09 Team Accomplishments
• Publications
   – AIAA Regional Conference proceedings
   – 2nd Civil Engineering Student Research Symposium proceedings
   – TAMU Undergraduate Journal
• Presentations
   –   AIAA Regional Conference, San Antonio, TX
   –   2nd Civil Engineering Student Research Symposium, TAMU
   –   Student Research Week, TAMU
   –   SEDS Space Vision Conference, TAMU
• Awards
   – 2nd place: TAMU Student Research Week
   – Only undergraduate presentation at the 2nd CESRS, AceDocs
          Past Team Accomplishments
2007-2008                                 2006-2007
Publications                              Presentations
• AIAA Regional Conference proceedings    • TAMU Student Research Week
• ASCE Earth and Space proceedings (1)    • Prairie View A&M Undergraduate
• ASCE Earth and Space proceedings (2)      Research
Presentations                             Awards
• AIAA Regional Conference, Houston, TX   • 2nd Place: TAMU Student Research Week
                                          • 3rd Place: TAMU Student Research Week
• 2008 ASCE Earth and Space Conference,
  Long Beach, CA (1)
• 2008 ASCE Earth and Space Conference,   2005-2006
  Long Beach, CA (2)                      Presentations
• TAMU Student Research Week              • TAMU Student Research Week
Awards                                    Awards
• 2nd Place: Weirdest Job on Campus       • 2nd Place: Weirdest Job on Campus
Acknowledgements
– Dr. Pickering (JSC)
– Dr. Muirhead (JSC)
– Dr. Boulanger (TAMU)
– Dr. Autenreith (TAMU)
– Dr. Miskevich (TAMU-Commerce)
– Ms. Lagoudas (TAMU-SEI)
Questions?

				
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posted:10/1/2011
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