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					    ICTs and Millenium Development
      Goals: Uganda’s Experience


                              by
                 Johnson Nkuuhe
           jnkuuhe@parliament.go.ug or
               jnkuuhe@yahoo.com
               www.I-network.or.ug

        Slides courtesy of APC, CTO, and I-Network Uganda

1
    On the menu …

       ICT – what, found everywhere?
       Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
       How ICT can help in achieving 7 of 8 MDGs
        ICT policy formulation in Uganda
       Lessons from Uganda
       Recommendations and way forward
       I-Network and partnerships in EA.

2
    ICT is not only computers,
    knowledge (content) is critical




3
    Development through the ages:
    Information, wealth and power

        Age                 Basis of wealth & power
       Feudal              Land

       Industrial          ‘means of production’

       Informational ‘Intellectual property’
                             & controlling
                             communications
4
    ICTs everywhere…

       Tele-Health – WebMD and AIDS awareness
       Local Tele-Medicine – connecting village general
        practitioners to urban specialists
       Low-cost Customisable Hardware – e.g. Simputer
       Digital Money – smartcards and ATMs, smart fuel
       Digital Books – one eBook to replace all textbooks
       eMarketPlaces – entrepreneurial clusters
       Power Line Communications – for the last mile


5
    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

        Millennium Summit – Sept 2000 leaders
         agreed to set goals to guide development in
         21 century. Kofi Anan obliged.
        Political will needed to invest to achieve
         MDGs (politicians, business leaders, CSO).
        WSIS (World Summit on Information Society)
         has set targets for countries to achieve
         MDGs
        Many countries are off track… on the MDGs
6
    Millennium Development Goals
    (MDGs) and WSIS Targets: Kenya

       The Hon John Michuki on return from WSIS declared:
        –   1. All 389 post offices to have Internet by 2004
        –   2. All primary schools to be connected by 2006
        –   3. All district capitals to have Internet point of presence (POP)
            and ICT to reach 50% of population in rural areas
       We say “ Congrats and good luck Hon JM”
       Civil society and business community to hold him
        accountable. Fellow MPs too!
       Parliament committee on assurance (Uganda)
       Judiciary Commission of Assurance (India)
7
           Millennium Dev Goals(MDGs)
    By 2015, we [189] leaders pledge to..

    1. Eradicate        Village phones (Bangladesh),
    extreme poverty     Banana & charcoal sellers using
    and hunger (by ½)   mobile phones (Uganda)
    2. Achive primary   Teachers trained in ICT, ICT-
    education           based content, Schoolnet and
                        Junior I-Network (Uganda);
    3. Promote gender   Many NGOs use ICT, I-Network
    equity – school,    promotes affirmative action in ICT, eg
    society             computer repair workshops for female
                        teachers
    4. Reduce child     Telemedicine (USA), telehealth
8   mortality           (UG/Ke/Gh, eg Sattelife project)
           Millenium Dev Goals(MDGs)
    By 2015, we [189] leaders pledge to…

    5. Improve maternal Health information system
    health              telehealth (Uganda)
    6. Combat           Radio and other media used,
    HIV/AIDS, Malaria & openness, prevalence now 6%
    other diseases
    7. Ensure             Ug env agency uses GPS, GIS for
    environmental         env monitoring, Min of Lands for
    sustainability        land surveys, land use planning.
    8. Develop a global   ICTs powerful tool for global
    partnership for       lobbying – if you know how to
9   development           use them!
         Uganda’s ICT policy design process

        Key players – Council for S & T; Ministries responsible for
         Communication, Information; UNESCO; Makerere University,
         Parliament, ICT champions, ICT businesspeople, Ugandans in the
         Diaspora
        1998 – Field survey by Min of Information. Two stakeholder
         workshops, draft white paper written.
        1999 – Multidisciplinary National ICT Policy Task Force set up.
         Consulted, held 2 stakeholder workshops, produced draft
         document.
        2000-2001 - Other studies and reports by Makerere (World Bank);
         Uganda Communication Commission; Perwit International
         (private Canadian company)
        May 2002 – Council for S &T submitted Draft National ICT Policy
         Framework to Cabinet
10      Dec 2003 – Cabinet approves ICT policy, UNDP funds strategy
                                  President


     Parliament                                               Donors
                          Cabinet Sub-Committee



 Uganda Computer                                         Enterprise Sector
     Society              ICT Coordinating Agency


     Sub-Committee                                   Agriculture
         CIOs         Education       Health




           ICT coordination: Proposals: Best Practices/First Movers
11
             6 lessons from Uganda
     1. Good policies yield good results

     Service       Before           After     % change
                   Liberalisation
     Fixed lines   46,000           61,000    25

     Mobiles       3,500            500,000   99
     ISPs          2                9         78
     Internet      500              11,000    95
     users
     FM stations   14               150       91
     TV stations   4                20        80
12
     2. Policy design best if participatory

                         Partners participate
                         Partnership needs equity,
                          transparency and mutual
                          benefit
                         Often Government tells
                          partners (stakeholders)
                          what to do. Disaster!


13
     3. Policy reform needs clear vision,
     objectives and strategies

                   Develop vision, objectives, strategy
                    –   Shared, realistic vision
                    –   Ugandan minister died, ICT policy
                        delayed 10 years!
                   Advocacy – market policy reforms
                   Set up institution(s)
                    –   Fund the institution
                    –   Respect partnership
                   Implement
                   Constantly review
                   Changes are normal
14                 Most ICT projects end in failure!
     Marketing: every idea, including policy
     needs good salespersons

        Policy Makers in Mainstreaming
         ICT in Governance in Uganda
        A Presentation to The Committee on Works, Housing,
         Transport and Communication
        By
        Johnson Nkuuhe , Kisamba Mugerwa
        Daniel Kakinda, Edward Mukooyo
        Vincent Musubire, Kakembo-Ntambi, Michael Galiwango, Samwiri
         Katunguka, Lilian Tibatemwa, Nora Mulira

        Parliament of Uganda, 03 May 2001

15      What is KIF doing?
     4. ICT policy, like all policies, have need
     for champions, disciples

                      Best if champions are influential or
                       rich
                      Most ICT champions intimidate
                       novices, or promote selfish agenda
                      What are you championing -
                      Policy, strategy, plan? Roadmap?
                      Remember: technology leapfrogs,
                       sociology does not.
                      ICT before fixing corrupt
                       procedures could make corruption
                       worse
16
     5. Expect resistance … so lobby hard!

                      Humans by nature resist new
                       things.
                      Develop your message –
                       accurate, timely, targeted,
                       consistent
                      Know your allies, support them
                      Know your enemies, “encircle”
                       them.
                      Set realistic costed goals, not
                       myths or wish lists
                      Celebrate each success,
17                     strengthen networks, plan, plan
     6. Financing, monitoring and evaluation
     often neglected

                        Policy reforms have financial
                         implications – beware
                        Develop smart monitorable
                         indicators
                        Constantly monitor and
                         review regularly
                        Involve stakeholders in these
                         processes



18
         More lessons from Uganda
         - donor dependence, ambivalence about/fear of EAC

        Public Sector
          –   Listens, but with one ear, often “slow” to act.
          –   Supports/neglects/competes with the private sector
          –   Poor info flow, little knowledge management
          –   The “hidden hand of corruption” under-estimated
                  Like AIDS, you hear, “they have it, we don’t” – denial 3.1.1
                  Paralysis analysis – decisions delayed, or bad ones made
                  Bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, cronyism (do you
                   remember these?). Mediocre results or none.
                  Procurement – even of paper clips is controversial!
19                Nobody wins in this game of corruption, even the corrupt!
         More lessons from Uganda:
         Private & Civil Society sectors

        Private Sector
         –   Small, still growing and organising
         –   Dominated by “VIPs”
         –   Many see EAC (Kenya) as a threat. Not me!
        Civil Society (NGO) Sector
         –   Donor dependent & focused,
         –   Dynamic ones tend to be women NGOs
         –   ICT-based ones few, urban, elitist, timid.
         –   Many are single-issue, kiosk type operations
         –   EAC not yet on the radar screen of many!
20       –   I-Network Uganda not one of these!
         Some suggestions

        Functional ports, roads, railways etc benefit all, not
         Kenya alone. MDG fund should support these.
        Let us harmonise policies in EA – telecom, transport,
         trade, investment, research and development
        People-people networks more important than leader-
         leader ones
         –   Individuals, companies, CSOs, academia, parliaments etc
        Let us think big, not kiosk mentality, Beyond EAC
        I-Network ready for mutual partnership with KIF and
         Kenya. We need many more such partnerships
21      Knowledge sharing – knowledge is like smile/fertiliser
        Founded in 2001 with seed capital from IICD of
         Netherlands. Raises 50% of operational budget.
        A knowledge sharing network. ICT seen as tools
        Has 7-9 building blocks
         –   Monthly seminar at low cost (<50 dollars) for 70+ persons
         –   Quarterly newsletter (4, then 8, now 12 pages)
         –   Website (www.I-network.or.ug)
         –   Discussion list,
         –   Advocacy and lobbying (Govt bureaucrats, Ministers,
             Parliament, Donors),
         –   Nodes – techie (biz), junior, media. Planned – CSO, Research
         –   Special events in Kampala and upcountry – eg Retreat for
22           Perm Secret’s, Ministers, Parl’ment committees
     I love Uganda, at times it amazes me!
       I thank you, I-Network salutes you.
                       Johnson Nkuuhe
                    jnkuuhe@parliament.go.ug or
                        jnkuuhe@yahoo.com
                        www.I-network.or.ug

                MP-x-y-z-etc@parliament.go.ug but…

        Minister@hotmail.com, Minister-of-State@yahoo.co.uk;
          PermSec@netzero.com; Commissioner@mtn.co.ug;
                    Director@ugandaonline.co.ug

                And this is one ministry of one country!
23         Ministry mandate – to implement the ICT policy!

				
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posted:9/30/2011
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