ICTs and Millenium Development Goals: Uganda’s Experience by Johnson Nkuuhe firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com www.I-network.or.ug Slides courtesy of APC, CTO, and I-Network Uganda 1 On the menu … ICT – what, found everywhere? Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) How ICT can help in achieving 7 of 8 MDGs ICT policy formulation in Uganda Lessons from Uganda Recommendations and way forward I-Network and partnerships in EA. 2 ICT is not only computers, knowledge (content) is critical 3 Development through the ages: Information, wealth and power Age Basis of wealth & power Feudal Land Industrial ‘means of production’ Informational ‘Intellectual property’ & controlling communications 4 ICTs everywhere… Tele-Health – WebMD and AIDS awareness Local Tele-Medicine – connecting village general practitioners to urban specialists Low-cost Customisable Hardware – e.g. Simputer Digital Money – smartcards and ATMs, smart fuel Digital Books – one eBook to replace all textbooks eMarketPlaces – entrepreneurial clusters Power Line Communications – for the last mile 5 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Millennium Summit – Sept 2000 leaders agreed to set goals to guide development in 21 century. Kofi Anan obliged. Political will needed to invest to achieve MDGs (politicians, business leaders, CSO). WSIS (World Summit on Information Society) has set targets for countries to achieve MDGs Many countries are off track… on the MDGs 6 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and WSIS Targets: Kenya The Hon John Michuki on return from WSIS declared: – 1. All 389 post offices to have Internet by 2004 – 2. All primary schools to be connected by 2006 – 3. All district capitals to have Internet point of presence (POP) and ICT to reach 50% of population in rural areas We say “ Congrats and good luck Hon JM” Civil society and business community to hold him accountable. Fellow MPs too! Parliament committee on assurance (Uganda) Judiciary Commission of Assurance (India) 7 Millennium Dev Goals(MDGs) By 2015, we  leaders pledge to.. 1. Eradicate Village phones (Bangladesh), extreme poverty Banana & charcoal sellers using and hunger (by ½) mobile phones (Uganda) 2. Achive primary Teachers trained in ICT, ICT- education based content, Schoolnet and Junior I-Network (Uganda); 3. Promote gender Many NGOs use ICT, I-Network equity – school, promotes affirmative action in ICT, eg society computer repair workshops for female teachers 4. Reduce child Telemedicine (USA), telehealth 8 mortality (UG/Ke/Gh, eg Sattelife project) Millenium Dev Goals(MDGs) By 2015, we  leaders pledge to… 5. Improve maternal Health information system health telehealth (Uganda) 6. Combat Radio and other media used, HIV/AIDS, Malaria & openness, prevalence now 6% other diseases 7. Ensure Ug env agency uses GPS, GIS for environmental env monitoring, Min of Lands for sustainability land surveys, land use planning. 8. Develop a global ICTs powerful tool for global partnership for lobbying – if you know how to 9 development use them! Uganda’s ICT policy design process Key players – Council for S & T; Ministries responsible for Communication, Information; UNESCO; Makerere University, Parliament, ICT champions, ICT businesspeople, Ugandans in the Diaspora 1998 – Field survey by Min of Information. Two stakeholder workshops, draft white paper written. 1999 – Multidisciplinary National ICT Policy Task Force set up. Consulted, held 2 stakeholder workshops, produced draft document. 2000-2001 - Other studies and reports by Makerere (World Bank); Uganda Communication Commission; Perwit International (private Canadian company) May 2002 – Council for S &T submitted Draft National ICT Policy Framework to Cabinet 10 Dec 2003 – Cabinet approves ICT policy, UNDP funds strategy President Parliament Donors Cabinet Sub-Committee Uganda Computer Enterprise Sector Society ICT Coordinating Agency Sub-Committee Agriculture CIOs Education Health ICT coordination: Proposals: Best Practices/First Movers 11 6 lessons from Uganda 1. Good policies yield good results Service Before After % change Liberalisation Fixed lines 46,000 61,000 25 Mobiles 3,500 500,000 99 ISPs 2 9 78 Internet 500 11,000 95 users FM stations 14 150 91 TV stations 4 20 80 12 2. Policy design best if participatory Partners participate Partnership needs equity, transparency and mutual benefit Often Government tells partners (stakeholders) what to do. Disaster! 13 3. Policy reform needs clear vision, objectives and strategies Develop vision, objectives, strategy – Shared, realistic vision – Ugandan minister died, ICT policy delayed 10 years! Advocacy – market policy reforms Set up institution(s) – Fund the institution – Respect partnership Implement Constantly review Changes are normal 14 Most ICT projects end in failure! Marketing: every idea, including policy needs good salespersons Policy Makers in Mainstreaming ICT in Governance in Uganda A Presentation to The Committee on Works, Housing, Transport and Communication By Johnson Nkuuhe , Kisamba Mugerwa Daniel Kakinda, Edward Mukooyo Vincent Musubire, Kakembo-Ntambi, Michael Galiwango, Samwiri Katunguka, Lilian Tibatemwa, Nora Mulira Parliament of Uganda, 03 May 2001 15 What is KIF doing? 4. ICT policy, like all policies, have need for champions, disciples Best if champions are influential or rich Most ICT champions intimidate novices, or promote selfish agenda What are you championing - Policy, strategy, plan? Roadmap? Remember: technology leapfrogs, sociology does not. ICT before fixing corrupt procedures could make corruption worse 16 5. Expect resistance … so lobby hard! Humans by nature resist new things. Develop your message – accurate, timely, targeted, consistent Know your allies, support them Know your enemies, “encircle” them. Set realistic costed goals, not myths or wish lists Celebrate each success, 17 strengthen networks, plan, plan 6. Financing, monitoring and evaluation often neglected Policy reforms have financial implications – beware Develop smart monitorable indicators Constantly monitor and review regularly Involve stakeholders in these processes 18 More lessons from Uganda - donor dependence, ambivalence about/fear of EAC Public Sector – Listens, but with one ear, often “slow” to act. – Supports/neglects/competes with the private sector – Poor info flow, little knowledge management – The “hidden hand of corruption” under-estimated Like AIDS, you hear, “they have it, we don’t” – denial 3.1.1 Paralysis analysis – decisions delayed, or bad ones made Bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, cronyism (do you remember these?). Mediocre results or none. Procurement – even of paper clips is controversial! 19 Nobody wins in this game of corruption, even the corrupt! More lessons from Uganda: Private & Civil Society sectors Private Sector – Small, still growing and organising – Dominated by “VIPs” – Many see EAC (Kenya) as a threat. Not me! Civil Society (NGO) Sector – Donor dependent & focused, – Dynamic ones tend to be women NGOs – ICT-based ones few, urban, elitist, timid. – Many are single-issue, kiosk type operations – EAC not yet on the radar screen of many! 20 – I-Network Uganda not one of these! Some suggestions Functional ports, roads, railways etc benefit all, not Kenya alone. MDG fund should support these. Let us harmonise policies in EA – telecom, transport, trade, investment, research and development People-people networks more important than leader- leader ones – Individuals, companies, CSOs, academia, parliaments etc Let us think big, not kiosk mentality, Beyond EAC I-Network ready for mutual partnership with KIF and Kenya. We need many more such partnerships 21 Knowledge sharing – knowledge is like smile/fertiliser Founded in 2001 with seed capital from IICD of Netherlands. Raises 50% of operational budget. A knowledge sharing network. ICT seen as tools Has 7-9 building blocks – Monthly seminar at low cost (<50 dollars) for 70+ persons – Quarterly newsletter (4, then 8, now 12 pages) – Website (www.I-network.or.ug) – Discussion list, – Advocacy and lobbying (Govt bureaucrats, Ministers, Parliament, Donors), – Nodes – techie (biz), junior, media. Planned – CSO, Research – Special events in Kampala and upcountry – eg Retreat for 22 Perm Secret’s, Ministers, Parl’ment committees I love Uganda, at times it amazes me! I thank you, I-Network salutes you. Johnson Nkuuhe firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com www.I-network.or.ug MPfirstname.lastname@example.org but… Minister@hotmail.com, Minister-of-State@yahoo.co.uk; PermSec@netzero.com; Commissioner@mtn.co.ug; Director@ugandaonline.co.ug And this is one ministry of one country! 23 Ministry mandate – to implement the ICT policy!
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