ICTs and Millenium Development
Goals: Uganda’s Experience
Slides courtesy of APC, CTO, and I-Network Uganda
On the menu …
ICT – what, found everywhere?
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
How ICT can help in achieving 7 of 8 MDGs
ICT policy formulation in Uganda
Lessons from Uganda
Recommendations and way forward
I-Network and partnerships in EA.
ICT is not only computers,
knowledge (content) is critical
Development through the ages:
Information, wealth and power
Age Basis of wealth & power
Industrial ‘means of production’
Informational ‘Intellectual property’
Tele-Health – WebMD and AIDS awareness
Local Tele-Medicine – connecting village general
practitioners to urban specialists
Low-cost Customisable Hardware – e.g. Simputer
Digital Money – smartcards and ATMs, smart fuel
Digital Books – one eBook to replace all textbooks
eMarketPlaces – entrepreneurial clusters
Power Line Communications – for the last mile
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Millennium Summit – Sept 2000 leaders
agreed to set goals to guide development in
21 century. Kofi Anan obliged.
Political will needed to invest to achieve
MDGs (politicians, business leaders, CSO).
WSIS (World Summit on Information Society)
has set targets for countries to achieve
Many countries are off track… on the MDGs
Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) and WSIS Targets: Kenya
The Hon John Michuki on return from WSIS declared:
– 1. All 389 post offices to have Internet by 2004
– 2. All primary schools to be connected by 2006
– 3. All district capitals to have Internet point of presence (POP)
and ICT to reach 50% of population in rural areas
We say “ Congrats and good luck Hon JM”
Civil society and business community to hold him
accountable. Fellow MPs too!
Parliament committee on assurance (Uganda)
Judiciary Commission of Assurance (India)
Millennium Dev Goals(MDGs)
By 2015, we  leaders pledge to..
1. Eradicate Village phones (Bangladesh),
extreme poverty Banana & charcoal sellers using
and hunger (by ½) mobile phones (Uganda)
2. Achive primary Teachers trained in ICT, ICT-
education based content, Schoolnet and
Junior I-Network (Uganda);
3. Promote gender Many NGOs use ICT, I-Network
equity – school, promotes affirmative action in ICT, eg
society computer repair workshops for female
4. Reduce child Telemedicine (USA), telehealth
8 mortality (UG/Ke/Gh, eg Sattelife project)
Millenium Dev Goals(MDGs)
By 2015, we  leaders pledge to…
5. Improve maternal Health information system
health telehealth (Uganda)
6. Combat Radio and other media used,
HIV/AIDS, Malaria & openness, prevalence now 6%
7. Ensure Ug env agency uses GPS, GIS for
environmental env monitoring, Min of Lands for
sustainability land surveys, land use planning.
8. Develop a global ICTs powerful tool for global
partnership for lobbying – if you know how to
9 development use them!
Uganda’s ICT policy design process
Key players – Council for S & T; Ministries responsible for
Communication, Information; UNESCO; Makerere University,
Parliament, ICT champions, ICT businesspeople, Ugandans in the
1998 – Field survey by Min of Information. Two stakeholder
workshops, draft white paper written.
1999 – Multidisciplinary National ICT Policy Task Force set up.
Consulted, held 2 stakeholder workshops, produced draft
2000-2001 - Other studies and reports by Makerere (World Bank);
Uganda Communication Commission; Perwit International
(private Canadian company)
May 2002 – Council for S &T submitted Draft National ICT Policy
Framework to Cabinet
10 Dec 2003 – Cabinet approves ICT policy, UNDP funds strategy
Uganda Computer Enterprise Sector
Society ICT Coordinating Agency
CIOs Education Health
ICT coordination: Proposals: Best Practices/First Movers
6 lessons from Uganda
1. Good policies yield good results
Service Before After % change
Fixed lines 46,000 61,000 25
Mobiles 3,500 500,000 99
ISPs 2 9 78
Internet 500 11,000 95
FM stations 14 150 91
TV stations 4 20 80
2. Policy design best if participatory
Partnership needs equity,
transparency and mutual
Often Government tells
what to do. Disaster!
3. Policy reform needs clear vision,
objectives and strategies
Develop vision, objectives, strategy
– Shared, realistic vision
– Ugandan minister died, ICT policy
delayed 10 years!
Advocacy – market policy reforms
Set up institution(s)
– Fund the institution
– Respect partnership
Changes are normal
14 Most ICT projects end in failure!
Marketing: every idea, including policy
needs good salespersons
Policy Makers in Mainstreaming
ICT in Governance in Uganda
A Presentation to The Committee on Works, Housing,
Transport and Communication
Johnson Nkuuhe , Kisamba Mugerwa
Daniel Kakinda, Edward Mukooyo
Vincent Musubire, Kakembo-Ntambi, Michael Galiwango, Samwiri
Katunguka, Lilian Tibatemwa, Nora Mulira
Parliament of Uganda, 03 May 2001
15 What is KIF doing?
4. ICT policy, like all policies, have need
for champions, disciples
Best if champions are influential or
Most ICT champions intimidate
novices, or promote selfish agenda
What are you championing -
Policy, strategy, plan? Roadmap?
Remember: technology leapfrogs,
sociology does not.
ICT before fixing corrupt
procedures could make corruption
5. Expect resistance … so lobby hard!
Humans by nature resist new
Develop your message –
accurate, timely, targeted,
Know your allies, support them
Know your enemies, “encircle”
Set realistic costed goals, not
myths or wish lists
Celebrate each success,
17 strengthen networks, plan, plan
6. Financing, monitoring and evaluation
Policy reforms have financial
implications – beware
Develop smart monitorable
Constantly monitor and
Involve stakeholders in these
More lessons from Uganda
- donor dependence, ambivalence about/fear of EAC
– Listens, but with one ear, often “slow” to act.
– Supports/neglects/competes with the private sector
– Poor info flow, little knowledge management
– The “hidden hand of corruption” under-estimated
Like AIDS, you hear, “they have it, we don’t” – denial 3.1.1
Paralysis analysis – decisions delayed, or bad ones made
Bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, cronyism (do you
remember these?). Mediocre results or none.
Procurement – even of paper clips is controversial!
19 Nobody wins in this game of corruption, even the corrupt!
More lessons from Uganda:
Private & Civil Society sectors
– Small, still growing and organising
– Dominated by “VIPs”
– Many see EAC (Kenya) as a threat. Not me!
Civil Society (NGO) Sector
– Donor dependent & focused,
– Dynamic ones tend to be women NGOs
– ICT-based ones few, urban, elitist, timid.
– Many are single-issue, kiosk type operations
– EAC not yet on the radar screen of many!
20 – I-Network Uganda not one of these!
Functional ports, roads, railways etc benefit all, not
Kenya alone. MDG fund should support these.
Let us harmonise policies in EA – telecom, transport,
trade, investment, research and development
People-people networks more important than leader-
– Individuals, companies, CSOs, academia, parliaments etc
Let us think big, not kiosk mentality, Beyond EAC
I-Network ready for mutual partnership with KIF and
Kenya. We need many more such partnerships
21 Knowledge sharing – knowledge is like smile/fertiliser
Founded in 2001 with seed capital from IICD of
Netherlands. Raises 50% of operational budget.
A knowledge sharing network. ICT seen as tools
Has 7-9 building blocks
– Monthly seminar at low cost (<50 dollars) for 70+ persons
– Quarterly newsletter (4, then 8, now 12 pages)
– Website (www.I-network.or.ug)
– Discussion list,
– Advocacy and lobbying (Govt bureaucrats, Ministers,
– Nodes – techie (biz), junior, media. Planned – CSO, Research
– Special events in Kampala and upcountry – eg Retreat for
22 Perm Secret’s, Ministers, Parl’ment committees
I love Uganda, at times it amazes me!
I thank you, I-Network salutes you.
And this is one ministry of one country!
23 Ministry mandate – to implement the ICT policy!