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					               Media Representation of Combating Domestic Violence in Georgia

                                       Nino Javakhishvili

                                     Tbilisi State University




The research of Georgian print media and TV on combating domestic violence in the country
was carried out in the frames of the project “Interagency United Efforts to Combat Domestic
Violence in Georgia: Local or Western Agenda?” supported by ASCN.


According to social constructionist position, on which the present study is based, media is one of
the major actors in shaping the views and activities of population; therefore, the construct of
domestic violence existing with Georgian citizens to certain extent depends on how it is
represented in media.


Research of 6 major Georgian newspapers and four major TV channels (years 2006-2010)
showed that there is no public discourse on combating DV in Georgia. Some activity appeared in
Spring-Summer 2006 on Georgian TV at the time of approving anti-violence law by the
Parliament. Since then, except of sporadic articles and TV programs it has stayed quiet on the
topic. At the same time, local and international non-government organizations and the state
bodies responsible are working on the problem. Based on the production of national TV
channels, newspapers and magazines, these organizations are very passive. Media representation
of the problem and combating it in Georgia is not adequate.
                      ojaxSi ZaladobasTan brZolis media reprezentacia saqarTveloSi

                                                  nino javaxiSvili1

                                         Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti



saqarTvelos presisa da televiziis kvleva Catarda ASCNN–is mxardaWeriT mimdinare proeqtis:
“ojaxSi ZaladobasTan brZola saqarTveloSi. organizaciebis erToblivi Zalisxmeva: adgilobrivi,
Tu dasavluri dRis wesrigi?” farglebSi.


warmodgenili kvleva eyrdnoba socialuri konstruqtivizmis principebs, romelTa mixedviT, media
erT-erTi mTavari aqtoria mosaxleobis Sexedulebebis da warmodgenebis CamoyalibebaSi,
Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebSi arsebuli ojaxSi Zaladobis konstruqti garkveulwilad
damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor aris is warmodgenili mediaSi (Holstein, 2009; Исавеев, 2004;
Дъякова, Трахтенберг, 2003; Best, 1987; Braiant, Thompson, 2004).

qvemoT moyvanilia 2006 wlidan dRemde presis da televiziis ZiriTad produqciaSi warmodgenili
statiebi da gadacemebi ojaxSi ZaladobasTan brZolis Temaze. teleprogramebis SerCeva ar
gakeTebula, imdenad mcire raodenobiT gadacemebia miZRvnili ojaxSi Zaladobis Temas, rom
yvela maTgani ganvixileT. Jurnalebis da gazeTebis SerCeva gavakeTeT2 ramdenime
maxasiaTeblis mixedviT3: presa vrceldeboda mTeli qveynis masStabiT, iolad xelmisawvdomi
iyo da popularuli, anu kargad iyideboda4. Tu ramdenime Jurnal/gazeTi msgavs produqcias
gvawvdis da msgavsi saredaqcio politika aqvs, erT maTgans virCevdiT SemTxveviTad, rogorc
reprezentaciuls, mag: Jurnali karibWe warmoadgens sapatriarqos egidiT gamocemul xuTive mas
media saSualebas.


1
 monacemebi Seagroves proeqtis monawile studentebma: nana Wabukianma, magda javaxiSvilma, ida baxturiZem,
dariko baxturiZem da gvanca jiblaZem.
2
    lia wulaZe, Tamar sabedaSvili da nino javaxiSvili
3
    tiraJi maxasiaTeblad ver gamoviyeneT, radgan xSirad am informaciis mopoveba SeuZlebeli xdeboda
4
  proeqtis monawile studentebma uSualod gazeTebis da Jurnalebis redaqciebSi gaarkvies, ramdenad kargd
iyideboda esa Tu is media saSualeba
presa

3 gazeTis da 4 Jurnalis (axali Taoba, Tbiliselebi, 24 saaTi; cxeli Sokoladi, praim taimi, liberali,
karibWe) 350 gamoSveba SeviswavleT 2006 wlidan dRemde, radgan 2006 wels miiRes kanoni
ojaxSi Zaladobis Sesaxeb. Sesabamisad, presis TiToeuli saSualebis 50 gamoSveba ganvixileT5.

ojaxSi Zaladobis Temas sul 11 statia eZRvneba. anu, saSualod, TiTo gazeTSi an JurnalSi
erTnaxevari statiaa CvenTvis saintereso Temaze. rac, Zalian cotaa da aCvenebs imas, rom sajaro
diskursi am sakiTxze ar arsebobs, anu, sazogadoebas es sakiTxi naklebad aRelvebs:

                           gazeTi/Jurnali                                         statiebis raodenoba

                           “24 “ - gazeTi                                                   2
                    “cxeli Sokoladi” - Jurnali                                              0
                      “praim taimi” - Jurnali                                               0
                        “liberali” - Jurnali                                                3
                      “Tbiliselebi “ - gazeTi                                               1
                      “axali Taoba” - gazeTi                                                3
                       “karibWe” – Jurnali                                                  2
                     7 - 3 gazeTi da 4 Jurnali                                              11



“cxeli Sokoladi” da “praim taimi” gasarTobi tipis Jurnalebia da amdenad arcaa gasakviri, rom aq
ar aris informacia ojaxSi Zaladobis Sesaxeb.

radgan statiebis raodenoba amdenad mcirea, maT ufro detalurad ganvixilav:

                         saTauri                        Sinaarsi




5
    Seswavlis procesis dros Jurnal “liberalis” 50 nomeri iyo gamosuli, amitom, aTvlis wertilad es raodenoba aviReT.
“24          saaTi” “bavSvTa mimarT               iunisefis   kvlevis    prezentacia,        sadac   gamoiTqva
gazeTi               Zaladobis Sesaxeb            mosazreba, rom         sazogadoebrivi cnobiereba unda
                     kvlevis prezentacia”.        amaRldes da rom problemasTan brZolaSi iuristebi da
2008                                              fsiqologebi unda CavrToT.
“24          saaTi” “Zaladobis msxverpli          saxalxo damcvelis warmomadgenlebi daexmarnen
gazeTi               bavSvTa saxlSi               msxverpls
                     gadaiyvanes”
2007
“liberali”           „msxverplis              da saubrobs ojaxSi Zaladobis Sedegebze, imaze, rom is
Jurnali              moZaladis           Caketili socialurad miRebuli qecvaa; aRwers, ra mdgomareobaa
                     wre,”                        qveyanaSi am problemasTan brZolis kuTxiT: kanoni,
2010                                              saxelmwifo strqutura, TavSesafrebi.


“liberali” Jurnali   “gcems        ese       igi 2009 wels Catarebuli “qalTa mimarT Zaladobis
                     uyvarxar,”                   sakiTxebis” erovnuli kvlevis monacemebis prezentacia.
2010                                              avtori xazs usvams imas, rom es monacemebi
                                                  samTavrobo da saknanomdeblo organoebisaTvisaa
                                                  sayuradRebo.
                                                  “sakiTxiT zedapirulad dainteresebuli deputati xSirad
                                                  ricxvebis iqiT verafers xedavs da aseT SemTxvevaSi
                                                  SeiZleba isic Tqvas, rom fizikuri Zaladobis msxverpli -
                                                  7%- umniSvnelo maCvenebelia”.
“liberali” Jurnali   “qalebi televizorSi”         avtori, ninia kakabaZe saubrobs imaze, rom xSirad
                                                  araprofesiulad gakeTebuli gadacema sagreblis nacvlad
2010                                              zians moitans. GgamoTqvams survils, rom am Temaze
                                                  statiebi regularulad unda iwerebodes.
“Tbiliselebi”        “rogor              axdenen arasamTavrobo           organizaciis          warmomadgeneli
Jurnali              mamakacebi                   seqsualur Zaladobaze saubrobs, maTD Soris col-mqars
2007                 samsaxurSi                   Soris   seqsualur      Zaladobaze      da     ambobs,      rom
                     TanamSromel         qalebze kanonmdebloba          saTanadod       ar     aregulirebs   am
                     seqsualur zewolas da problemas da, rom jandacvis saministro, socialuri
                   ratom “ylapaven” amas muSakebi da ganaTlebis saministro kompleqsurad ar
                   qalebi”                   muSaoben, rogor unda miewodos informacia bavSvebs
                                             am sakiTxebze.
“axali Taoba”      “bavSvze        Zaladoba ”bavSvi da garemos”, da rusTavis dRis centri
gazeTi             dauSvebelia”              sapovnelas aqtivobas eZRvneba, rogor exmarebian
                                             isini bavSvebs
2007

“axali Taoba”      ”moZaladeebs              gogonam mimarTa Zaladobis dacvis erovnuli qselis
gazeTi             sasamarTlom ganaCeni      direqtors, romelic mas daexmara.

                   gamoutana ”
2010
“24       saaTi” ”ojaxuri Zaladobis          saxalxo damcvelis aparatis bavSvisa da qalis uflebaTa
gazeTi             Temaze Sexvedra           centris organizebiTa da gaeros ganviTarebis programis

                   gaimarTa”                 mxardaWeriT gamarTuli Sexvedris mizani iyo ojaxuri
2010                                         Zaladobis fenomenis ganxilva, ojaxuri Zaladobis
                                             msxverplTa dacvis da ojaxuri Zaladobis damarcxebis
                                             strategiebis dasaxva.
“karibWe”          “genderuli Tanasworoba marTlmadideblobaSi gatarebulia qalisa da mamakacis
Jurnali            pirvel qristianul         Tanasworobis idea da Tu meuRleebi icxovreben
2007               sazogadoebaSi”            religiurad, maT ojaxSi ver iqneba Zaladoba



calke aRniSvnis Rirsia Jurnali Lliberali, romelSic, marTalia, arc Tu ise bevri, anu sami statiaa
am Temaze, magram es statiebi Sinaarsobrivad gansxvavebulia presis sxva saSualebebSi
moTavsebuli produqciisagan. statiis avtori Jurnalistebi ufro seriozulad ekidebian sakiTxs. aq ama
Tu im movlenis mxolod aRwera ki ar aris, aramed, sakiTxis ufro farTo ganxilva da globaluri
midgoma Cans. avtorebisaTvis faqtia, rom am problemas unda vebrZoloT da fiqroben imaze, Tu
rogor, ra gziT?. maT Soris, gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa Jurnalist ninia kakabaZis statia “qalebi
televizorSi”, sadac ganxilulia eka xoferias mier wayvanili gadacema “auditoria” da
gamoTqmulia ramdenime kritikuli mosazreba:
ojaxSi Zaladobis da genderuli Tanasworobis Temebi erTad ar unda ganixilebodes: “msxverpli
qalebis istoriebis Semdeg ar unda vismendeT saubars imis Sesaxeb, Tu cnobili ojaxis romel
wevrs gaaqvs nagavi saxlidan”.

bevri mosazreba iyo gamoTqmuli, romelic genderul stereotipebs mxolod amyarebda, saWiro iyo
maTi dabalanseba.

aseve, calke saubris Rirsia saeklesio gamocemebis analizis Sedgeebi. am publikaciebSi
gatarebuli mTavari idea isaa, rom Tu col-qmari eklesiuri cxovrebiT cxovrobs, Zaladoba ar
xdeba. Mmagram araferia naTqvami imaze, rogor vebrZoloT Zaladobas.




televizia

televiziiT gadmoicema parlamentis sxdomebi, Sesabamisad, 2006 wels parlamentis is sxdomebi,
romlebic ojaxSi Zaladobis kanonis proeqts ganixilavda, kvlevis miznebisaTvis sainteresoa,
Tumca, uSualod kvlevis kiTxvas ar pasuxobs, radgan es ar aris Jurnalistis mier momzadebuli
gadacema, an, Tundac, axali ambavi/informacia. bunebrivia, amgvar reportaJSi arc Jurnalistis
damokidebuleba      Cans.   Tumca,     maSindeli      deputatebis   sakiTxisadmi   damokidebuleba
sagangaSoa. marTalia, evrokavSirTan integraciis survilis gamo deputatebi am kanonis miRebas
ar SewinaaRmdegebian, magram mravali maTganis uaryofiTi damokidebuleba aSkara iyo,
gansakuTrebiT, seqsualuri Zaladobis cnebis mimarT.

es damokidebuleba gamoCnda, agreTve, am sakiTxisadmi miZRvnil specialur gadacemaSi
“Tavisufali   Tema”,    romelic      eka   xoferias    miyavda.     Canda   samTavrobo    seqtoris
warmomadgenlebis araseriozuli damokidebuleba problemisadmi, maT ar esmodaT seqsualuri
Zaladobis arsi, ratomRac daakavSires Zaladoba homoseqsualizmTan, xolo ojaxSi ZaladobasTan
brZola tradiciebis rRvevis safrTxesTan.

eka xoferiam kidev ori gadacema miuZRvna ojaxSi Zaladobis Temas 2010 wels, gaeros proeqtis
farglebSi da misi dakveTiT. maTgan, erTi exeboda uSualod problemas, roca studiaSi Zaladobis
msxverplebic moiwvies da ZaladobasTan mebrZoli samTavrobo da arsamTavrobo organizaciebi,
xolo meore – seqsualur ganaTlebas skolaSi, saTanado eqspertebis mowveviT.
telekompania “mzes” eTerSi 2006-2008 wlebSi gadioda “Toq-Sou” tabu, romlis erT-erTi
gamoSveba ojaxSi Zaladobis sakiTxs mieZRvna. arasamTavrobo organizaciebi aRwerdnen
TavianT saqmianobas ojaxSi ZaladobasTan brZolis kuTxiT. aq CvenTvis sayuradRebo isaa, rom
samTavrobo da arasamTavrobo organizaciebi praqtikulad ar saubroben erTmaneTTan
TanamSromlobaze, gamonaklisia nato SavlayaZis gancxadeba sapatrulo policiasTan erTad
muSaobis Sesaxeb.

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ganxiluli masala gvaCvenebs Semdegs: sazogadoebas es problema
naklebad aRelvebs da Sesabamisad, ar ainteresebs, ra gzebiT unda vebrZoloT mas. arc media da
arc eklesia am sakiTxebis gadaWraSi CarTuli ar arian. arsadaa reportaJi an raime saxis aRwera
imisa, ra gaakeTa eklesiam am sakiTxTan mimarTebiT.

saxelmwifos rac Seexeba, aq ganxilul statiebSi laparakia mxolod problemebze da ara
miRwevebze: TavSesafrebi jer ver aSenda, sabWo ar Seqmnila, ojaxSi Zaladobis sakiTxebze
momuSave mxolod erTi samTavrobo organizacia arsebobs. amave dros, es organizacia
namdvilad muSaobs da Sedegianadac, ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia. magram misi aqtivoba
presaSi da televiziaSi asaxuli ar aris, sainteresoa, ratom? ganxiluli masalebis mixedviTYyvelaze
aqtiuri am kuTxiT Cans saxalxo damcveli, mis saqmianobebs ori statia exeba, erT SemTxevaSi
isini bavSvebs daexmarnen, meoreSi – zogadad problemis daZlevaze fiqroben, Tumca, am
pulbikaciaSi ar Cans, ra gamovida Sedegad, anu, raime dokumenti, rogorc Cans, ar Seqmnila.

arasamTavrobo organizaciebi or statiaSia naxsenebi, erTgan, “ZaladobasTan brZolis erovnuli
qseli,” romelic msxverpls daexmara, meoregan organizacia “bavSvi da garemo”, romelic
bavSvebs exmareba da dRis centri aqvs, aseTive dRis centri aqvs rusTavis centr “sapovnelas”.
erT statiSi Cans gaeros warmomadgeneli, joana barberisi, romelic ubralod komentars
gamoTqvams.

araferia naTqvami yvela zemoTCamoTvlili organizaciis erTmaneTTan TanamSromlobaze.
Sesabamisad, presis da telegadacemebis mixedviT gamodis, rom ojaxSi Zaladobis problema
qveyanaSi aris, magram mxolod mcire raodenobiT arasamTavrobo organizaciebi da erTi
samTavrobo organizacia muSaobs am sakiTxze, Tumca, maTi muSaoba arc Tu ise nayofieri da
Sedegiania. ismis kiTxva, namdvilad asea? vfiqrobT, rom ara, da Cveni proeqtis kvleva
Seecdeba amoavsos es naprali.
Tumca, ganxilul masalaSi mainc SeiZleba davinaxoT dadebiTi mxareebi: arasamTavrobo
organizaciebi Tu arian warmoCenili, arian warmoCenili dadebiTad da qmedunarianad. isini,
ZiriTadad, saqmes akeTeben da ara mxolod laprakoben.

mediaSi ojaxSi Zaladobis Temis gaSuqebis eqspertuli Sefasebaa warmodgenili saxalxo
damcvelis ofisis mier gamocemul JurnalSi “solidaroba”,               sadac Semdegi saintereso
mosazrebebia gamoTqmuli:

      Jurnalistebi ar interesdebian am TemiT, Tu cema, an kriminali ar aris

      msxverplis Sesaxeb konfindencialuri informacia gauciaT;

      xSirad socialuri reklamebic isea momzadebuli, rom Zneli gasagebia, risi Tqma undaT.




saqarTvelos mediis sxva mkvlevrebma msgavsi problemebi warmoaCines mediis mier bavSvTa
sakiTxebis gaSuqebis ganxilvisas (qoriZe, 2008; osefaSvili, 2008).

2009 wels Catarebulma         “qalTa mimarT Zaladobis sakiTxebis erovnulma kvlevam
saqarTveloSi” Cveni kvlevisTvis saintereso ramdenime Sedegi aCvena, kerZod:

gamokiTxvam aCvena, rom msxverplebi daxmarebisaTvis arasamTavrobo an samTavrobo
dawesebulebebs sakmaod iSviaTad mimarTaven. ra SeiZleba iyos mizezi? kvlevam aCvena,
rom mosaxleobam metwilad icis, ra aris ojaxSi Zaladoba, magram, qalebis 63.4% ar pasuxobs
maT mimarT ganxorcielebul Zaladobas. maT miaCniaT, rom qalma maqsimalurad unda
moiTminos da iyos qmris morCili (javaxiSvili, 2010).

CarRmavebuli intervius respondentTa umravlesoba Zaladobis mizezad socialur faqtorebs
asaxelebs da miiCnevs, rom umuSevroba, siRaribe, omis gamocdileba, simTvrale, narkomania
rom ara, Zaladobriv qmedebas adgili ar eqneboda. faqtobrivad, respondentebs Zaladobis
mizezebi gareT gaaqvT. respondentebi TiTqos cdiloben, Zaladoba maTgan damoukidebel
faqtorebs, makro faqtorebs, daabralon – mag.: materialur problemebs, Tumca, kvlevebi
aCvenebs, rom maRali Semosavali da uzrunvelyofili cxovreba ar aris gamosavali, aseT fenebSic
aris gavrcelebuli Zaladoba. garemo pirobebi yvelasaTvis mZimea, magram yvela ar mimarTavs
Zaladobas.
es yvelaferi ki niSnavs, rom Zaladoba socialurad misaRebi fenomenia – sazogadoebaSi
gavrcelebulia azri, rom ojaxSi Zaladoba mxolod ojaxSi unda ganixilebodes; Zaladoba, xSirad
orive meuRlis mridan normad aRiqmeba; garda amisa, msxverplebs mcire informacia aqvT
TavSesafrebis da saerTod, ZaladobasTan brZolis gzebis Sesaxeb.                 savaraudod, radgan
Zaladoba socialurad misaRebia, is arc aRiqmeba problemad sazogadoebis da Jurnalistebis
mxridan da ar iRebs saTanado yuradRebas.




gamoyenebuli masala:

   1. babuaZe, T. CaCua d. (2010) “erTi qali-ori cxovreba” Jurnali „liberali“, #53, gv. 15

   2. guliaSvili, n. (2010) „msxverplis da moZaladis Caketili wre” Jurnali „liberali“, #17, gv.
      50
   3. guliaSvili, n. (2010) „gcems, ese igi uyvarxar“ Jurnali „liberali“, #38, gv. 38

   4. maTeSvili, l. (2007) “qristianobaSia daculi sruli sisavsiT qalisa da kacis uflebebi.
      genderuli Tanasworoba pirvel qristianul sazogadoebaSi” Jurnali “karibWe” , #25, gv. 12-
      13

   5. namoraZe, m. (2007) “bavSvze Zaladoba dauSvebelia” gazeTi “axali Taoba” # 336,
      gverdi 10
   6. osefaSvili, d. (2008) “bavSvebis Tema da Jurnalisturi eTikis problemebi qarTul mediaSi”
      “kavkasiis macne” # 17, gv.171-177
   7. osefaSvili, d. (2009) “bavSvebisa da danaSaulis Temis gaSuqeba qarTul mediaSi” -
      “inteleqtuali”, #8, gv. 83-90.
   8. qoriZe, z. (2008) Jurnalistebi bavSvebisa da eTikis Sesaxeb. saqarTvelos situaciis analizi,
      UNICEF. Tbilisi

   9. CaCua, d. (2010 ) “mSvidobiT siyvarulo!” Jurnali „liberali“, #52, gv. 34

   10. CxartiSvili, l. (2008) “ras gulisxmobs qorwninebisas dadebuli aRTqma?”Jurnali
      “karibWe”, #2, gv. 14-15
11. xaCiZe, n. (2007) “rogor axdenen mamakacebi samsaxurSi TanamSromel qalebze
   seqsualur zewolas da ratom ylapaven amas qalebi” Jurnali “Tbiliselebi”, #17, gv. 18-19

12. javaxiSvili, n. (2010) “qalTa mimarT Zaladobis gavrceleba” qalTa mimarT ojaxSi
   Zaladobis sakiTxebis erovnuli kvleva saqarTveloSi. saboloo angariSi, Tbilisi, Tavi IV,
   gv.39-49

13. “Zaladobis msxverpli bavSvTa saxlSi gadaiyvanes” (2007) gazeTi ” 24 saaTi”, #168-a4.

14. “bavSvTa mimarT Zaladobis Sesaxeb kvlevis prezentacia” (2009) gazeTi ” 24 saaTi”
   #61, gv. 20

15. “300 dolarad gayiduli coli” (2007) gazeTi “24 saaTi”, #33

16. sasamarTlos qronikebi (2010) “moZaladeebs sasamarTlom ganaCeni gamoutana”, gazeTi
   ”axali Taoba” # 40, gv. 7
17. interpresniusi (2010) “ojaxuri Zaladobis Temaze Sexvedra gaimarTa” gazeTi ”axali
   Taoba”#172 , gv 16,
18. telegadacemebis Canawerebi:
   tele-gadacema “Tavisufali Tema”
   tele-gadacema “tabu”
   tele-gadacema “Cai da Tavisufleba”
   parlamentis sxdomebis Canawerebi ojaxSi Zaladobis winaaRmdeg kanonis miRebis
           Taobaze, 2006 w.

19. Дъякова, И. Трахтенберг, А. (2003) Массовая коммуникация и проблема
   конструирования реальности: анализ основных теоретических подходов.
20. Исавеев, И. (2004) конструкционисткий пoдход к социалным проблемам
   Казанский государственный университет
21. Best, J. (1987) “Rhetoric in Claims-Making: Constructing the Missing Children
   Problem.”In: Social Problems, vol.34, No.2, pp. 101-121
22. Braiant, J., Thompson, S. (2004) Fundamentals of Media Effects. McGraw Hill
23. Holstein J. (2009) “Defining Deviance: John Kitsuse’s Modest Agenda.” American
   Sociologist”, No 40, pp.51-60

24. Osepashvili, D. (2010) Georgian Media Coverage of Children and Crime. Proceedings of
   the Emotion, Media and Crime conference. Denmark, Aarhus University

				
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