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Learner Differences

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					         Learner Differences
• Labels
  – Can stigmatize
     • Self-fulfilling prophecies
  – Can help
     • Special Education
        – Classes
        – Identification Placement Review Committee
          (IPRC)
        – Individual Education Plan (IEP)
          Special Education

•   Mainstreaming
•   Integration
•   Segregation
•   Inclusion
                IPRC - Steps
• Referral by Principal (after talking w/
  teacher)
• Assessment (based on years)
• Exceptional label assigned
  – (9.3% in ON, see handout)
• Placement recommended – sometimes
  necessary
• Parents informed
• Implementation
• Review after 12 months
                                 IEP
• Written special education plan
• NOT a daily lesson plan
• Content:
   –   Strengths & weaknesses
   –   Medical info.
   –   Current level of education achievement in each area
   –   Goals
   –   Accommodations
   –   Spec. Ed. Services  resources needed
   –   Assessment tools
   –   Regular updates
   –   Transition plan
               Intelligence
• What is intelligence?
       Measuring Intelligence
• Stanford-Binet
   5 factors:
      • Fluid reasoning
      • Knowledge
      • Quantitative processing
      • Visual-spatial processing
      • Working memory
       Measuring Intelligence
• Stanford-Binet

IQ = mental age/chronological age x 100

Mental age = # items passed in relation to age
 or score based on average abilities for an
 age group
      Measuring Intelligence
• Wechsler Scales (WISC-IV, WAIS)
  4 scales:
     • Verbal comprehension
     • Perceptual reasoning
     • Working memory
     • Performance
            Measuring Intelligence
• Wechsler Scales (WISC-IV, WAIS)
  Deviation IQ – score identifying where a person’s score
   lies in the distribution of scores for that age group
             = mental age/chronological age x 100
   where: mean = 100, sd = 15
  Average range: within +/- 1sd
  Above/below average: within +/- 2 sd
  Superior/mental retardation: >/< 2sd
   (see normal distribution curve)
        Measuring Intelligence
Correlation with academic performance:
r = 0.65 (text)
r = 0.5 (more realistic value)
higher IQ = better grades, stay in school
                  Controversy
• Intelligence:

  Heredity or Environment? Both

• Using IQ to determine ability
         Ability Differences
1. Ability groupings
  – Between-class ability grouping
  – Within-class ability grouping
    • High & low groups
         Ability Differences
2. Developmental Disabilities
• Mental Retardation: Deviation IQ  70
  – Guidelines for instruction
    • Transition Programming/Life Skills
       – Functional curriculum
       – Community-based education
         Ability Differences
3. Gifted and Talented
Deviation IQ  130 (some say 140)
Characteristics & problems
         Ability Differences
3. Creativity
  – Rich store of knowledge
  – Cognitive flexibility
  – Continual reorganization of ideas
  – Encouraging creativity and different
     solutions to problems
               Learning Problems
•    Learning challenges/disabilities (refer to handout)
    – Cerebral Palsy
       • Varying degrees of problems
    – Hearing impairments
    – Vision impairments
    – Speech impairments/communication disorders
       • Articulation disorder/phonological disorder
       • Stuttering- boys more than girls
       • Selective mutism
            Learning Problems
•  Learning disorders
  – Reading (dyslexia)
  – Writing
  – Math
• Learning disabilities/problems often co-
   morbid with emotional & behavioural
   problems in school
          Emotional & Behavioural
                 Problems
•   ADHD
    –   Identified only by characteristics of behavior
    –   Age-inappropriate inattention
    –   Difficult time focusing or finishing task,
        especially at school
    –   Poor concentration
         Emotional & Behavioural
                Problems
•    ADHD
    – Types of attention deficits
      • selective attention (distractibility)
         – How you deal with distractions
      • attentional capacity (short-term
        memory)
         – Remember someone’s name
      • sustained attention (attention over time)
Emotional & Behavioural Problems
•    ADHD
    – Hyperactivity
    – Impulsivity
    – Associated features
      • Metacognitive & executive function deficits
      • Intellectual deficits
      • Academic functioning
      • Learning, speech & language
      • Health, accidents, interpersonal
    – Treatment & educational interventions
Emotional & Behavioural Problems
•    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct
     Disorder (CD)
    – Age-inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate
       societal norms & personal property of others
    – Losing temper, arguing with adults (teachers)
    – Refusal to comply, deliberately annoying others,
       blaming others
    – Angry, resentful. vindictive
    – Aggressive, criminal behaviour (CD)
    – Ontario Schools Code of Conduct

				
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posted:9/30/2011
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