Marketing research by dandanhuanghuang


									Marketing Research   1
   Not measurements, but WORDS!

   Seeking rich data, nuances
    ◦ Avoids reductionism, generalizations

    ◦ Instead of asking how many times someone
     purchased an item, you ask "WHY...?"

    ◦ Typically the samples are small, and not "random"

                                   Marketing Research     2
   Group Interviews
    ◦ Focus Groups
   Individual Interviews
    ◦ Experience Surveys
    ◦ Depth Interviews
      Structured or non-structured
    ◦ Protocol Analysis
    ◦ Projective Techniques
   Case Studies

                                      Marketing Research   3
   Advantages
    ◦   Greater depth
    ◦   People's own words
    ◦   Immediate feedback
    ◦   Insights can come from participants
   Limitations
    ◦   Lots of data
    ◦   Hard to "code"
    ◦   Not enough people to generalize
    ◦   Idiosyncracies of a few people may mislead

                                   Marketing Research   4
   Method:
    ◦ Moderated discussion group

    ◦ 6 to 12 participants

    ◦ Approx. 90 minutes

   Goals:
    ◦ to understand what people have to say, get
      people to talk in detail, develop a synergistic

                                    Marketing Research   5
                 Focus Groups
A loosely structured interview conducted by a trained
moderator among a small number of informants.
   Select a relatively homogenous
    ◦ Hold several to hear from different groups

   Develop protocol in advance
    ◦ Consider length, progression, probes, coverage, and wording

   Assure comfort, appropriate location
   Offer refreshments, compensation
   Determine method of record keeping
    ◦ Agreed to by participants

                                         Marketing Research         7
   Transcription
    ◦ Word for word transcription (best approach)
      All that was said
      Significant facial expressions, gestures
      Long pauses, silences
    ◦ Summary (when resources/time is limited)
      Must listen/view group several times for appropriate emphasis
      May summarize some portions, transcribe others word for word
   Code findings
    ◦ Look for “themes” or topics that emerge.
    ◦ Apply a code each time the identified topics come up.
   Develop conclusions

                                             Marketing Research        8
                   Use of Focus Groups
Buick division of General Motors used focus groups to help
develop the Regal. Buick held 20 focus groups across the
country to determine what features customers wanted in a
car. The focus groups told GM they wanted a stylish car,
legitimate back seat, at least 20 miles per gallon, and 0 to 60
miles per hour acceleration in 11 seconds or less.


                                     Y K 7 49

                                       Marketing Research    9
Based on the results, Buick engineers created clay
models of the car and mock-ups of the interior.
These were shown to other focus groups. The
respondents did not like the oversized bumpers and
the severe slope of the hood, but liked the four-disc
brakes and independent suspension.

                                  Marketing Research    10
Focus groups also helped refine the advertising campaign for
the Regal. Participants were asked which competing cars
most resembled Buick in image and features. The answer was
Oldsmobile, a sister GM division. In an effort to differentiate
the two, Buick was repositioned above Oldsmobile by
focusing on comfort and luxury features.

                                      Marketing Research     11
The tag line for the 1998 Regal, “official car of the
Supercharged family,” was based on focus group findings.

                                  Marketing Research   12
   Rests on reflective thinking
   Not representative or generalizable
   Subjective interpretations
   High cost per participant
   Potential demand effects

                                   Marketing Research   13
Depth Interviews
 one-on-one interview
 Unstructured, semi-structured, or structured

Protocol Analysis
 Verbalization of decision process

Projective Techniques
 For penetrating a person’s defense mechanisms
 Intent: To gathering more revealing information

                          Marketing Research    14
   Encourages respondents to project their feelings
    ◦ to another person
    ◦ or to another situation

   Facilitate deeper examination of feelings and motives
   To overcome embarrassment, shyness, and minimize

                                     Marketing Research     15
1.   Thoughts have emotional and subconscious content.
2.   The emotional and subconscious content is
     important in buying and usage decisions.
3.   This content is not well verbalized by the
     respondent through direct communication.
4.   This content is better verbalized through indirect

                                    Marketing Research    16
   Word Association
   Sentence Completion
   Thematic apperception: Elicits perceived themes.
    ◦ Explain picture
    ◦ Picture frustration: Cartoon/balloon Test
    ◦ Construction techniques: draw pictures, make
      collages, write stories, etc.
   Role-playing Activity

                                    Marketing Research   17
   Also called Thematic
    Apperception Test (TAT).
   Subject writes a story
    describing picture (20 min).
   May report verbally instead.
   What’s happening?
   Why?
   What are the person’s

       Marketing Research      18
            Role-Playing Cartoon Test

Let’s see if we
 can pick up
    some                                         ?
housewares at

                            Marketing Research       19
   Assess experience in situation
   Provides rich data
    ◦ Can observe all variables in play

   Idiosyncracies of their situation may mislead

                                      Marketing Research   20
Marketing Research   21

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