CSIR NET JRF question paper by lostmedal

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									   Questions for CSIR NET JRF Paper—II
1. Compare & contrast : a sodium atom & a sodium ion ; a double bond & a
    triple bond ; an atom of weak & strong electronegativity ; the electron
    distribution around an oxygen atom to another oxygen atom & an oxygen
    atom bound to two H-atoms. (Karp, 36)
2. Why do polar molecules dissolve so readily in water? Why don’t fat droplets
    dissolve in water? What is the concept behind formation of fat droplets in
    water?
3. What do you understand by catenation? Which atom shows catenation? What
    properties of carbon atom are critical to life? Which compound makes the bulk
    of a living organism?
4. If you were to add HCl to water , what effect would this have on the hydrogen
    ion concentration? On the pH? On the ionic charge of any protein in solution?
    What is the relationship between a conjugate acid & its base?
5. What is meant by protein domains & motifs ? How protein folding takes
    place? Where protein folding takes place? Why some proteins are found as
    quaternary structure?
6. How are the properties of an alpha helix different from a beta strand? How are
    they similar? How do each of these secondary structure affect the properties of
    a protein, such as silk?
7. Name two nonpolar amno acids. Sickle cell anaemia results from a
    substitution of a valine for a glutamate. What do you expect the effect might
    be if mutation were to have placed a leucine at that site? Or an aspartate?
    (Karp, 80)
8. Match the following:
               Group—AGroup—B
         a) RNA polymerase                                   i) NADPH formation
         b) Lipids                                            ii) DNA polymerase-I
         c) Sucrose                                          iii)Reducing sugar
         d) Klenow fragment                                iv) A biomolecule
         e) DNA replication                                 v) RNA synthesis
         f) Okazaki fragments                               vi)rDNA
         g) Nucleoli                                       vii) DNA polymerase-III
         h) TCA cycle                                       viii) DNA ligase
         i) Light dependent reaction                         ix) British Biochemist
                                                             x) Fatty acids + Glucose
                                                             xi) Nucleus
                                                             xii) A protein




9. Which of the two photosystems operates at the most negative redox potential?
   Which among them generates the strongest reducing agent? Which among
   them must absorb 4 photons during each round of non cyclic
   photophosphorylation? Name some accessory pigments that surround each
   photosystem?

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  10. Of the following substances PQH2, reduced cytochrome b6, reduced
      feredoxin, NADP+, NADPH, O2, H2O, Tyrz+, Which is the strongest
      reducing agent? Which is the strongest oxidising agent? Which has the
      strongest affinity for electrons? Which has the most energetic electron? (Karp,
      241)
  11. In photosynthesis, the capture of light results in the release & subsequent
      release & transfer of electrons. What is the reaction behind the process of
      photosynthesis? From what molecules are the electrons eventually derived? In
      what molecules do these electrons eventually reside? (Karp, 242)
  12. What is tight junction? How does the structure of tight junction contribute to
      its function? What does freeze fracture analysis tell you about the structure of
      a junction that can’t be learned by the examination of stained tissue sections?
      (Karp, 270)
  13. Describe the components that make up a plant cell wall & the role of each in
      the wall’s structure & function. Distinguish between cellulose &
      hemicellulose, a cellulose molecule & a myofibril, a pprimary cell wall & a
      secondary cell wall. (Karp, 275)
  14. In which part of a cell would you expect the following compounds to be first
      incorporated : 3H leucine , 3H sialic acid, 3H mannose, 3H choline, 3H
      glucuronic acid, 3H pregnenolone, 3H rhamnose. (karp, 331)
  15. Draw a schematic diagram of microtubule. What is myosin & kinesin? Some
      members of kinesin family contain only a single heavy chain. How would you
      expect their activity in an in vitro motility assay to differ from that of kinesin
      itself? (Karp, 394)
  16. Describe the difference between a primary transcript, a transcription unit, a
      mature mRNA & a processing intermediate. (Karp, 471)
  17. Compare the organisation of the genes that code for the large rRNA, 5S RNA,
      & tRNA within the invertebrate genome. What is the relationship between
      hnRNA & mRNA?
  18. What are Barr bodies? Who gave the concept of Barr bodies? How many Barr
      bodies would you expect in a female with 3 X chromosome? Why? (Karp,
      548)
  19. What is cDNA library? How it is different from a genomic DNA library? What
      is the significance of cDNA library over genomic library?
  20. Suppose that Messelson & stahl had carried out their experiment by growing
      cells in medium with 14-N & then transferred the cells to medium containing
      15-N. How would the bands within the centrifuge tubes have appeared if
      replication were semiconservative? If replication were conservative? If
      replication were dispersive?(Karp, 578)
  21. What is autoradiography? Describe how the use of 3-H thymidine &
      autoradiography can be used to determine the length of the various periods of
      the cell cycle (Karp, 590)
  22. What is the effect of fusing a cell in G1 with one in S; of fusing a G1 phase
      cell with one in M; of fusing a G2 or s phase cell with one in M?
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  23. Describe the events that occur in a cell during prometaphaase & during
      anaphase. How do the events of mitotic prophase prepare the chromatids for
      later separation at anaphase? (Karp, 608)
  24. Constrast the overall roles of mitosis & meiosis in the lives of a plant or
      animal. How do the nuclei formed by these two processes differ from one
      another?
  25. What is crossing over? Describe Holliday model of crossing over? Is this a
      type of recombination? How?
  26. How was it demonstrated that genetic recombination took place by a breakage
      & reunion mechanism? In which phase of cell cycle does this happen? What
      are the other events that take place during this phase?
  27. How the Ca2+ concentration of a cell is is maintained? What is the role of
      calcium binding protein in eliciting a response? Why the concentration of
      signal molecule changes during signalling?
  28. Ca2+ , IP3, & cAMP have all been described as secondary messangers. In
      what ways are their mechanism of action similar or different? Suggest some
      primary messangers that transfers their signal to secondary messangers.
  29. describe the two forms of diabetes & the causes of its occurrence. Suggest 3
      molecular abnormalities that results in increase in sugar level in blood & urine
      of an individual
  30. What do you understand by programmed cell death? Why certain cells have
      longer half life than others? What all molecules are involved in this event?
  31. Which type of analytical techniques were used to conclude the structure of
      DNA? Make a list of the various forms of DNA? Which form of DNA is
      mostly found in humid conditions? Why?
  32. emphasize on the composition of plasma membrane. Which component of
      plasma membrane gives flexibility to the membrane? Why some proteins
      reside inside the membrane while others remain as extrinsic protein?
  33. How can one determine a)membrane sidedness; b) the location of
      transmembrane segment in the amino acid sequence; c) the relative location of
      transmembrane segment, d) diversity of integral protein that reside in purified
      membrane fraction? (karp, 139)
  34. what is active transport? Make a list of the active transport going inside a
      living cell. Is always an endergonic reaction coupled with an exergonic
      reaction? What we call the proteins that carry out active transport?
  35. many different types of cells possess receptors that bind steroid hormones.
      Where in the cell do you think these receptors might reside? Name a hormone
      that regulates blood glucose level. Where in the cell the insulin receptor shoule
      reside? & why?
  36. describe the major structural 7 biochemical differences between C3 & C4
      plants. How do these differences affect the ability of these plants to grow in
      hot & dry climates?
  37. Describe the basic plan of TCA cycle, indicating the reactions that require
      energy input. Why it is called as a cycle? Why does energy has to be expended
      in this pathway? What are the eventual products of this pathway?
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        38. What is the relationship between the energy content of a photon & wavelength
            of light? How does the wavelength of light determine whether or not it will
            stimulate photosynthesis? What is the role of accessory pigments in
            photosynthesis?
        39. What are cyclic & non cyclic photophosphorylation? Who discovered the
            cyclic potophosphorylation? Why they are so called? DO the two pathways
            join or not? Why?
        40. Why are catabolic pathways described as convergent and anabolic pathways as
            divergent? Compare the energy obtained by a cell that oxidises glucose
            anaerobically or aerobically.




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