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Simulation of commute patterns and commute exposure to traffic

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					                          Unit Environmental Exposure Sciences




20th IUHPE Conference on Health Promotion 2010



Simulation of commute patterns and
commute exposure to traffic-related
air pollution

Martina Ragettli, Nino Künzli, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, L.J. Sally Liu
Content

Project „TAPAS“
                                                     s
Transportation, Air pollution, and Physical Activities; an
  integrated health risk assessment programme of climate
  change and urban policies




1. International project
2. TAPAS project at the Swiss TPH




July 13, 2010                                                2
The Project TAPAS
Purpose:
Help decision makers design urban policies that address climate change &
promote other health-related outcomes

Focus:
Assessment of conditions and policies that hinder or encourage active travel,
and resulting health impacts

Underlying idea:
Shifting the population towards active modes of transportation is promising
strategy with a potential of
  • public health benefits (increase of physical activity)
  • improvements in environmental quality
  • Improvements in quality of urban life

Objective:
Development of a quantitative model of inter-relationships between active
transportation policies and public health


July 13, 2010                                                                   3
The project TAPAS

Coordination:                            Copenhagen

Centre of Research in
Environmental Epidemiology                                Warsaw
(CREAL) in Barcelona
                                                 Prague

Six TAPAS case study             Paris
areas:
                                                  Basel
Basel: Swiss TPH



                             Barcelona




July 13, 2010                                                      4
The TAPAS project in Basel
Open issues:
1. Air pollution exposure during commuting may be associated with
      adverse health effects
2. Only little is known about the commute exposure to traffic-related
      air pollution of a large population
3. What are the effects on population exposure to traffic-related air
      pollution when travel patterns are changing?




July 13, 2010                                                           5
Objectives:

1. Simulating exposure to traffic-related air pollution (NOx
   and PM) based on commute patterns of the Swiss
   population

2. Test scenarios of change in commute patterns on exposure
   distribution




July 13, 2010                                                 6
                                                      Travel time by purpose of traveling
Study Focus:                                          of participants living in BS and BL
                                                                    (n=670)
Trips undertaken for working                                                  Errands & using
purposes and leisure time activities                                          services; 5.1%
                                                                                                School, education;
                                                                                                      5.6%
Study area:                                                                                        Business
                                                                                                 activities; 2.1%

                                                                                                        Other; 2.2%
Cantons Basel-Stadt (BS) and Basel-
Land (BL) (~550km2)                      Leisure time
                                       activities; 43.7%

Study population:                                                                                      Shopping; 20.4%



~600 persons living in the study area



                                                                              Work; 20.9%


                                                                  Microcensus on Swiss Travel Behavior 2005
                                                                  (Federal Office of Statistics)



July 13, 2010                                                                                                   7
 Study design




  1. Development of a multi-modal commute model to simulate routes
  2. Simulation of commute exposure based on an air pollution dispersion model
  3. Consideration of exposure modification by mode and other parameter

+ Validation of exposure estimates with personal exposure measurements
 July 13, 2010                                                               8
Model 1: Simulation of
commute patterns


GIS based routing analysis
Software:  ArcGIS Network Analyst by ESRI
Modes:     Bus, tram, train, bike, car and walking

GIS data to be used:
  1. TeleAtlas Multinet road network,
  2. Swiss map from Swisstopo (VECTOR25)
  3. public transport network

Travel behavior data source:
Microcensus on Swiss Travel Behavior 2005 (Federal Statistical Office)
 • Information daily travel patterns and habits
 • Information on trips undertaken at the day before the interview




July 13, 2010                                                            9
Example: Simulation of route

    Given:
  • Coordinates of home and work place (start and target)
  • Coordinates of locations where mode of transport is changed (=legs)
  • Mode of transport




    Leg1: Walking
    Leg 2: Tram
    Leg 3: Bus
    Leg 4: Walking




July 13, 2010                                                             10
Example: Simulation of route

  Given:
  • Coordinates of home and work place (start and target)
  • Coordinates of locations where mode of transport is changed (=legs)
  • Mode of transport




Leg 1: Walking
Leg 2: Tram
Leg 3: Bus
Leg 4: Walking




July 13, 2010                                                             11
Implications
Expected results:
1. Estimation of the range of commute exposure to traffic-
      related air pollution in a population with a given commute
      pattern
2. Better understanding of how activity patterns affect
      population exposure



                Valuable for the evaluation and elaboration of urban
                policies that address public health, environmental quality
                and quality of urban living.



July 13, 2010                                                                12
         Unit: Environmental Exposure Scienes




Thank you for your attention




         Contact: Martina.Ragettli@unibas.ch
Additional slides




July 13, 2010       14
TAPAS participants
BARCELONA
 1. CREAL: Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen (PI), Audrey de Nazelle, Michelle Mendez, Judith
 Garcia-Aymerich, Jan-Paul Zock, Josep Maria Anto
PARIS
 1. Institut de Recherche bioMédicale et d'Epidémiologie du Sport (IRMES): Jean-
 François Toussaint
 2. Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Energie (ADEME) : Hélène
 Desqueyroux
 3. ARMINES : Ari Rabl
 4. Observatoire Regional de la Santé: Corine Praznoczy
BASEL
 1. Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute: Nino Kuenzli, Charlotte Braun-
 Fahrländer, Sally Liu
COPENHAGEN
 1. Institute of Cancer Epidemiology: Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Zorana Jovanovic
 Andersen
 2. Department of Cardiology and Respiratory Diseases, Hvidovre University
 Hospital: Peter Lange
PRAGUE
 1. The Kolin Institute of Technology (KIT): Marko Taino, Zbigniew Nahorski The
WARSAW
 1. Systems Research Institute (SRI): Hana Bruhova-Foltynova
     July 13, 2010                                                             15
Model 2, 3 & 4: Simulation of commute exposure
Model 2:
•     Exposure modification by mode of transport
•     Inside/outside ratios reported in literature

Model 3:
• Air pollution dispersion model (PM10, NOx) with high resolution

Model 4:
• Combination of routes, air pollution exposure and modification
  parameters
• Assessment of alternative commute patterns to population
  exposure

    + Validation of exposure estimates with personal exposure
                          measurements


July 13, 2010                                                       16
BASEL - Switzerland

Small city at the border
triangle D – F – CH
 168‘688 Inhabitants




Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer
Mathias Ritter
Martina Ragettli
Sally Liu
Leticia Grize
Nino Künzli
July 13, 2010                17
                         BASEL
–Public transport, cycling
and pedestrian policy, since
many years
–Higher proportion of active                                      17% car /
travel than in total                                              motorbike

Switzerland / other Swiss               Travel to work            10% by foot
                                        mode (2007)               27% bike
cities
                                                                  47% public
                                                                  transport
                               Travel   Ownership of
                                        regional public
                                                                  50%
                                        transport travel
                                        card (2007)
                                        Households                39,6 %
                                        without car(s)            City of Basel:
                                        (2007)                    42.4%
                                            Source: Population Survey 2007, Basel-Stadt

    July 13, 2010                                                                18

				
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