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The Minnesota legislator and the grasshopper

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The Minnesota legislator and the grasshopper Powered By Docstoc
					MR. TRENERRY, o St. Paul lawyer who is associated with the
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company as
attorney for Mr. William L. McKnight, the chairman of its
board, is a member of the society's executive council.




The Minnesota Legislator
    and the Grasshopper, 1873-77
                                 WALTER       N.   TRENERRY




A L O C U S T , according to the Encyclopcedia     M o u n t a i n locust, and much more familiarly
Rritannica, is an insect which at times mul-       and contemptuously called a grasshopper
tiplies greatly and migrates long distances        by the frontiersmen, entered an irritable
in destructive swarms. Entomologists say           and gregarious phase in t h e early 1870s. He
t h a t it has two rather h u m a n sides to its   chose to visit southwestern Minnesota in
character — it is both solitary and gregari-       June, 1873, and ate t h e harvest in parts of
ous. Normafly the solitary outlook prevafls;       thirteen counties. Showing signs of taking
presumably at such times t h e insect goes         up p e r m a n e n t residence, he a t e his way
its ruggedly individualistic way and growls        through twenty-eight counties in 1874,
a t invitations to swarm as distasteful exhi-      nineteen in 1875, and damaged crops in
bitions of mob psychology. When things             varying degrees in about forty in 1876.^
become tough, however, and food is scarce,            T h e outlook was ominous in 1877, when
the gregarious side of the locust's character      Melanoplus     spretus was known to have
takes over, and supposedly he mutters t h a t ,    laid miflions of eggs t h a t were ready to
after afl, there is safety in numbers and a        hatch in warm weather. Governor J o h n S.
long flight somewhere, anywhere, would be          Pfllsbury set aside April 26 as a special day
better t h a n staying where he is.                of prayer, which m a y or m a y not h a v e been
  When he makes this shift in character,           used for t h e purpose intended, b u t which
where he goes and how long he stays until          for the faithful had t h e charm of being a
he moves on remain almost as unforesee-            Biblical way to deal with a plague. I n spite
able as t h e quirks and crotchets of man-         of efforts material and spiritual, t h e eggs
kind. Whenever his mood is gregarious,             hatched. T h e state faced a n o t h e r season of
however, his appetite is boundless. Minne-         gregarious grasshoppers. B u t instead of de-
sota's history and its laws record a lengthy       vouring crops, in July and early August
running fight between this insect in his
gregarious mood and t h e legislator.
                                                      ^William W. Folwell, A History of Minnesota, 3:
  Melanoplus spretus, known as the Rocky           97, 102, 105, and map facing 106 (St, Paul, 1926).

54                                                                            MINNESOTA      History
the insects swarmed and for the most part                 giving money to someone in distress be-
inexplicably flew away. A relatively smafl                cause it might corrupt him and make him
swarm descended in 1887 on Otter Tafl                     degenerate. In the 1870s there was a tend-
County, which had been badly chewed in                    ency to equate riches and freedom from
the earlier years, but experience in control-             trouble with virtue, and to associate ad-
ling grasshoppers paid off; the pests were                verse conditions with moral degeneration.
fought and subjugated.^
                                                          THE VISIT of Melanoplus spretus in 1873
MINNESOTA'S experience in the 1870s                       created some legislative stir, but the result-
was shared by much of the western United                  ing measures provided for immediate relief
States, In 1875 Congress provided unorgan-                only. The legislature of 1874 appropriated
ized areas on the frontier with some relief               the moderate sum of $5,000 "for the relief
under the administration and control of                   of the destitute inhabitants and settlers
that indispensable instrument in the settle-              upon the frontier" and left the distribution
ment of the West, the United States Army.^                of these funds to the governor, Cushman
Nevertheless, on January 17, 1877, the                    K. Davis. During the same session, $25,000
Minnesota legislature adopted a joint reso-               was appropriated for the purchase of seed
lution intended for Congressional reading,                grain for farmers in the locust-ridden areas.
reciting that in 1876 grasshoppers invaded                The distribution of the fund was again left
Arkansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Nevada,                     to the governor, who was to limit to $35.00
Dakota, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota,                   the value of the aid given to any one
Missouri, Montana, Texas, and Wyoming.                    family. Both sums had been spent by No-
Although not unique, Minnesota's diffi-                   vember 30, 1874.*
culties could have been disastrous, since                    If the legislature felt that it could legis-
farming was important in the state from                   late the grasshoppers away, events after
the beginning; it had no gold rush, no sil-               adjournment in 1874 proved that it was
ver rush, no ranches. The grasshoppers ate                wrong. By early July the eggs laid by the
everything in sight, but they had a dainty                visitors in 1873 had hatched and the new
preference for the important grain crops,                 grasshoppers, gregarious from birth, were
particularly wheat. As a result the farmers               eating their way farther into the state. In
of an agricultural commonwealth faced                     an effort to provide some help for the dev-
ruin, and the state faced both the loss of                astated areas, on July 7 Governor Davis
settlers and a severe drop in revenue as                  addressed a general letter to the commis-
taxes of necessity went unpaid.                           sioners of all counties not affected by the
   Although legislative action during the                 grasshoppers, asking them to follow the
grasshopper era shows a somewhat intelli-                 example set earlier by Ramsey County and
gent understanding of the problem, it reflects            appropriate relief funds immediately.°
some uncertainty about how to meet the                       Although it was probably unlawful for
difficulty; and in the background there is                the counties to spend public funds for such
always that puritanical uneasiness about                  a purpose, some of these governmental units
                                                          and numerous individuals responded to the
   •^Folwell, Minnesota, 3: 110, 111. For a more recent   governor's appeal. To administer the funds
account of "Grasshoppers in American Agricultur-
al History," see John T. Schlebecker, in Agricul-         collected, he appointed General Henry H.
tural History, 27: 85-93 (July, 1953). Grasshoppers       Sibley chairman of a state relief committee.
again damaged crops in western Minnesota in 1889,         On January 2, 1875, the latter reported
1929, 1936, 1939, and, to some extent, in other years.
   "Minnesota, Senate Journal, 1875, p. 237-239; Min-     that he had collected $18,959.12 in contri-
nesota, General Laws, 1877, p. 280.                       butions and had spent $15,551.56. He rec-
   'General Laws, 1874, p. 251, 253; "Treasurer's Re-     ommended that the legislature of 1875
port," in General Laws, 1875, p. 263, 264.
   "Senate Journal, 1875, p. 97-99.
                                                          appropriate at least $100,000 for the relief

June 1958                                                                                             55
of about fifteen hundred Minnesota farm-        ternal improvement lands, in such portions
ers who had lost their crops for two years      of the state or belonging to such persons as
in a row as a result of the grasshopper in-     have suffered from ravages of grasshoppers
vasion. Provisions for reimbursing both the     or hail storms if paid prior to" October 1,
counties and the individuals, largely resi-     1875." Such relief plans obviously were
dents of Minneapolis, contributing to the       based on the theory that in 1875 the buy-
relief fund were made in an appropriation       ers would raise crops which would yield
act passed by the legislature and approved      money to pay the interest. Events did not
by the governor on March 4, 1875.''             sustain this hope.

 SINCE the legislature of 1875 had to deal       GRASSHOPPERS were not new to Min-
 with a state which had played host to the      nesota in 1873 and 1874. A swarm was re-
 grasshopper for two successive years, the      ported in 1819 and others had arrived later,
pressure of farm constituents on its mem-       notably in 1856 and 1857, for indefinite
 bers can be imagined. As soon as that body     stays. Since the settlers affected then were
 convened and organized, it set up a special    comparatively few in number, the early
joint committee on frontier relief which        plagues did not attract wide attention.
 continued in one form or another, with         When the 1876 legislature met, however,
 variations in name, membership, and size,      the plagues of the preceding years presented
until after the menace ended. Its first or-     a major problem. The representatives from
ganization was completed on January 14,         the devastated counties had watched their
 1875, and most of the grasshopper laws         own and their neighbors' crops vanish as
stem from its work.''                           millions of insects inexorably ate their way
   During the same legislative session, an      through the fields. Nevertheless, while it
 act was passed appropriating $75,000 for the   continued the special joint committee on
purchase of seed grain for sufferers from       grasshopper relief, the legislature proceeded
grasshopper depredations, but allowing          to treat the question as a series of local
$25,000 for immediate relief, and requir-       problems, disregarding the fact that the
ing the governor to appoint three com-          whole state was affected. Whether or not
missioners to handle the funds. On March        an individual farmer got help depended on
5, the very day the act was signed by the       how politically agile his representative was
governor, the Senate duly confirmed his         in trading with those of other counties.
appointment of R. W. Johnson, David Day,           The legislature of 1876 took its first ac-
and William Lindeke as commissioners.           tion on January 22, when it adopted a joint
During the remaining months of 1875, they       resolution asking the Minnesota Congres-
approved expenditures of $50,000 for seed       sional delegation to push a "liberal" federal
grain, $10,000 for direct relief, and $12,300   bounty for destroying grasshoppers and
to repay moneys advanced in 1874, accord-       their eggs. Shortly thereafter, the Minne-
ing to the state treasurer's report for 1875-   sota lawmakers took steps to "legalize" a
76.«                                            series of local actions designed to meet the
   In the meantime it became obvious that       crisis of 1875. One legislative act related to
grasshopper appetites had eaten into funds      the town of Rapidan in badly affected
important to other state uses. In an at-        Blue Earth County, which had offered
tempt to meet the difficulty, the legislature
                                                   "Senate Journal, 1875, p. 100-107; General Laws,
adopted a joint resolution on March 2,          1875, p. 183.
1875, directing the state auditor to "abate        'Minnesota, Hou.se Journal, 1875, p. 33; Senate
all penalties for non-payment of interest"      Journal, 1875, p. 7, 30.
for 1874 and 1875 "on unpaid purchase              " General Laws, 1875, p. 183; 1876, p. 202; Senate
                                                Journal, 1875, p. 511.
money of school, agricultural, college or in-      " General Laws, 1875, p. 214.

56                                                                          MINNESOTA         History
         A corn field
        stripped by                                                                                   -' ^ O
      grasshoppers
                                                     -i^-'<     .^>i>^



                                              V -
                                         •i   ~^-<



bounties for catching grasshoppers and had                    thority. The session gave its final attention
issued bonds and levied a special tax to                      to the locust menace when it adopted a
pay them. Another applied to simflar meas-                    joint resolution piously exhorting farmers
ures in the counties of Brown, Blue Earth,                    in the affected counties to preserve their
LeSueur, Meeker, Nicollet, Renville, Sibley,                  prairie grass until after the insects hatched
and Todd. Their offers to pay "bounties                       and to set fire to it before they could fly.^^
for the destruction of grasshoppers" were
declared legal, and, with one exception, the                  THIS SUGGESTION did not seem to solve
counties were reimbursed by the state for                     the problem of the locust ravages, for the
the money paid out. Some of the amounts                       plague of 1876 was as bad as those of earlier
are of interest: Blue Earth, $15,627.83;                      seasons. Individuals and organizations had
Nicoflet, $12,526.80; LeSueur, $4,412.22;                     tried to control the pests by using man
Sibley, 4,392.25. McLeod County was au-                       power, animal power, and special machin-
thorized to advance to distressed farmers                     ery, and private charities had furnished
enough seed wheat to sow fifty acres, pro-                    substantial relief, but the lawmakers had
vided certain safeguards for repayment                        given them little encouragement. When the
were taken by the county commissioners.^"                     legislature of 1877 assembled, however,
   Strangely enough, during the session of                    most of its members seemed to recognize
1876 the House flatly refused to join the                     that the grasshopper menace was the num-
Senate in appointing a joint committee to                     ber one problem for the whole state. Never-
consider furnishing seed grain to grasshop-                   theless, eariy in the session. Representative
per sufferers, and it fafled, by a vote of                    William Webb, Jr., whfle speaking against
60 to 41, to pass a bfll providing a state                    direct state relief and in favor of paying
bounty for the destruction of the pests. The                  bounties for destroying locusts and their
vote was recorded only four days after the                    eggs, expressed the belief "that gratuitous
counties noted above had been repaid for                      appropriations from the State Treasury for
similar outlays made without lawful au-                       relief are unwise if not unconstitutional,
                                                              and calculated to undermine the self-respect
   ^^ General Laws, 1876, p. 116, 140; Special Laws,          and independence of the people." ^'-^ Obvi-
1876, p. 260, 261.                                            ously he was convinced that money for aid
   ^^ Senate Journal, 1876, p. 59; House Journal, 1876,       is good only if the battered and exhausted
p. 386; General Laws, 1876, p. 116, 140.                      recipient has to work for it.
   "^ House Journal, 1877, p. 38.

June 1958                                                                                                57
   As the session got under way, however,       peated an earlier action by abating penal-
the legislature began to deal comprehen-        ties for nonpayment of interest on the
sively with the problem, and the resulting      unpaid portion of the purchase price of
grasshopper laws of 1877 represent what         school, agricultural, college, and anternal
was probably the best honest effort for         improvement lands — in this instance, if the
widespread control and relief possible under    buyer paid his interest by December 1. A
the circumstances. Taken as a unit, the         special law passed in 1877 extricated Ster-
series could almost be said to constitute a     ling Township in Blue Earth County from
grasshopper code, ready for insertion in the    the unlawful position in which it found it-
permanent laws of Minnesota. The special        self after appropriating public funds to pay
joint committee on grasshoppers was re-         for destroying grasshopper eggs.^^ As is not
constituted on January 10, and its person-      unusual in the case of municipal organiza-
nel was greatly enlarged to include seven       tions, the township discovered belatedly
senators and fifteen representatives. Igna-     that it had no lawful authority to take such
tius Donnelly, who described himself at         action.
that time as a farmer from Nininger, served
as chairman of the Senate group, and Wil-
                                                THE FIRST general law dealing with the
liam Crooks headed that of the House.
                                                grasshopper menace to be passed in 1877
With an appropriation of two hundred dol-
                                                went into effect on February 21, and set
lars, the committee set out to canvass the
                                                the policy for a good many future measures
affected districts, interview witnesses, and
                                                giving relief from various kinds of agricul-
prepare a thorough-going study. On Janu-
                                                tural catastrophes. The act appropriated
ary 20, the day that the special committee
                                                $75,000 to purchase seed grain for distri-
received its appropriation, an emergency
                                                bution among farmers otherwise unable to
act became effective which made available
                                                buy it, with a limit of $25.00 per person.
for immediate relief five thousand dollars
                                                The auditor and commissioners of each
to be disbursed under the direction of the
                                                county constituted a board of examiners
governor."
                                                with which each applicant had to file an
   Like its predecessors, the legislature of    affidavit stating that "by reason of grass-
1877 hoped for help from Washington. A          hopper ravages he or she is utterly unable,
joint resolution, approved on January 17,       by any resource of their own, to procure
urged the Minnesota Congressional dele-         seed grain." The applicant also had to
gation to press for federal laws setting        agree that the state could levy a tax on his
aside for grasshopper bounties the proceeds     property to the value of the seed grain
of sales of public lands in states and terri-   furnished, and that the amount advanced
tories affected by the insects. The benighted   constituted a first lien on the crop raised.
attitude of the "United States in failing to    Half of the tax would be assessed in each
pay such bounties was contrasted (by in-        of the first two years following receipt of
ference) with that of eight nations, includ-    the seed grain. In case of further locust
ing China and Russia, which were said to        damage, however, the law allowed an ex-
pay them. Another joint resolution, ap-         tension of time until after the applicant
proved on January 23, followed the exam-        had raised a crop. Human nature being
ple of the 1876 session in urging Minnesota     what it is, and profiteering in times of
Congressmen "to secure, without delay,
such legislation by Congress as will furnish
                                                   " House Journal, 1877, p. 32; Senate Journal, 1877,
a liberal bounty" for the destruction of        p. 7, 25; Minnesota, Legislative Manual, 1877, p. 170;
locusts and their eggs."                        General Laws, 1877, p. 177, 243.
                                                   " General Laws, 1877, p. 280-282.
   Since grasshopper damage was as bad in          '" General Laws, 1875, p. 214; 1877, p. 205; Special
1876 as in 1875, the legislature of 1877 re-    Laws, 1877, p. 252.

58                                                                           MINNESOTA          History
shortages being highly lucrative, the law            gaflon for grasshopper eggs, a dollar a
authorized the examiners "to require secu-           bushel for grasshoppers caught before May
rity of any applicant" that he would plant           25, fifty cents for those caught after that
the seed grain advanced and would not deal           date but before June 10, twenty-five cents
in it otherwise.^'' What security he could           between June 10 and July 1, and twenty
give if he made his affidavit in good faith          cents between July 1 and October 1. Each
is questionable.                                     township was to appoint a dignitary knovi^n
   On March 1, 1877, the special joint com-          as a "measurer" of grasshoppers, who would
mittee on grasshoppers filed a comprehen-            receive and destroy the insects and their
sive report which summarized the damage              eggs and certify the amounts of bounty to
and the measures taken to end the plague.            be paid. In case the financial inducements
It stated that locusts had already caused            were insufficient, a draft was imposed. All
the loss of 5,804,000 bushels of wheat in            males between the ages of twenty-one and
Minnesota, representing a monetary loss              sixty in the affected counties were made
 of nearly six miflion dollars if the price of       liable for one day's involuntary grasshopper
 wheat were estimated at a dollar a bushel.          catching each week between the last of
 On the same date Governor Pillsbury ap-             May and July 1. If they wished, however,
 proved a general "act to provide for the            they could commute their duties by paying
 destruction of grasshoppers and their eggs"         a dollar a day. The system was somewhat
 by means of a comprehensive bounty sys-             like that used during the Civil War in ob-
 tem— a measure that the 1876 legislature            taining substitutes for military service,
 had refused to enact-^'                             since the township board of supervisors
    The statute appropriated $100,000 and            was directed to spend the money to hire
 set up a bounty schedule of fifty cents a           people for the work. Failure to report for
                                                      the grasshopper draft was a misdemeanor,
  " General Laws, 1877, p. 246-248.
  ^'House Journal, 1876, p. 386; 1877, p. 515-518;
                                                     for which penalties of from two to ten dol-
General Laics, 1877, p. 171-174.                      lars in fines or ten days in jail were imposed.


                                                                              '.sj..'




              CATCHING
       grasshoppers in
            Minnesota




                                         *^N^^V V




                             ,(^                                                        H-   ,v
                                                 ^^,^,^
                                                        \,H4\-^\^„ ,^^                            '\'^

June 1958                                                                                          59
   In addition to all this, the county com-         lief. Among its members were Donnefly,
missioners were empowered to hire mechan-          J. M. Cole, Sumner Ladd, and C. E. Stacy.
ical contrivances to destroy grasshoppers.         As in 1877, the committee made a thor-
Various machines generally known as                ough study and presented an intelligent
"hopper-dozers" were in use; they may well         and comprehensive report.^" Fundamen-
have been more effective than men trying           tally, the problem had not changed, al-
to fill bushel baskets with frisky locusts. To     though it seemed less intense.
provide money for the bounties, the legis-             The legislature continued the general sys-
lature authorized the issuing of $100,000          tem established in 1877, adding to the
in grasshopper bonds and pledged that the          funds and changing somewhat the method
revenues of the state would be used for the        used in furnishing seed grain to distressed
payment of principal and interest.                 farmers. The law of 1878, anticipating pres-
   The last general measure relating to            ent practices in crop allotments, required
grasshoppers to be passed by the 1877 legis-       the applicant for seed grain to submit his
lature explicitly allowed the boards of su-        specific planting plans for the year in addi-
pervisors of townships and the councils of         tion to stating that he needed aid. The
organized municipalities to levy, with the         board of examiners and the lien and tax
voters' approval, special taxes to pay for         system were continued. Some irregularities
local grasshopper bounties in addition to          in disposing of the seed grain furnished un-
those of the state. It must be said that           der the 1877 act must have come to light,
state appropriations to provide relief and         since that of February 12, 1878, made any
to encourage destruction of the pests were         diversion from crop sowing a misdemeanor
generous, for they completely emptied the          punishable by a fine of from ten to a hun-
state treasury. Because there was not              dred dollars and imprisonment in the coun-
enough money in the general revenue fund           ty jafl for "not less than 90 days." An
to pay grasshopper bounties and relief, a          appropriation of $150,000 accompanied the
joint resolution was passed on March 5,            seed grain act. As in 1877, the cost of imme-
 1877, authorizing the state treasurer to bor-     diate relief exhausted the general revenue
row $175,000 from St. Paul banks.^*                fund; in this instance the state treasurer
   The 1877 legislature provided for a boun-       was authorized to borrow $50,000 from
ty system, forced labor when needed, seed          St. Paul banks to take care of short-term
for unlucky farmers, relief funds, and bonds       needs.-"
to furnish money for immediate indebted-          Other grasshopper legislation of 1878
ness, and it authorized the men nearest the consisted of miscellaneous remedial meas-
menace to take such financial measures as ures, several of which dealt with situations
they deemed advisable. The resulting joint that had arisen under earlier grasshopper
state and county effort, combining induce- laws. For the third time the penalties for
ment and coercion, followed a pattern that nonpayment of interest connected with
has long proved workable.                      buying school, agricultural, coflege, and in-
                                               ternal improvement lands were remitted,
AFTER 1877, a decade was to pass be- this time for 1877 and 1878 if the buyer
fore locusts again did serious damage in paid the former year's interest by Decem-
Minnesota. Although the season's loss was ber 1, 1878, and the latter's by December
substantially smaller than that of the pre- 1, 1879. Complete failure of crops in many
ceding years, it was extensive enough to counties caused the state to abate, through
call for further aid and additional laws.
Very early in the session of 1878, the legis-    '^General Lau-s. 1877, p. 174, 207, 272.
                                                 ''"Senate Journal, 1878, p. 14; House Journal, 1878,
lature found it necessary to continue the p. 30, 460-462.
special joint committee on grasshopper re-       "'General Laws, 1878, p. 157-161, 174, 183.

60                                                                            MINNESOTA       History
December 1, 1878, all penalties and inter-                  on grasshoppers disappeared in 1879, the
est on 1876 and 1877 real property taxes                    legislature of that year, apparently because
on 160 acres of land. Because some crops                    of crop failures, found it necessary to grant
planted with seed grain furnished by the                    another extension of time on the collection
state failed, it was not always possible to                 of the special seed grain tax. That tax con-
collect the special seed grain tax, and the                 tinued to receive attention in 1881, when
county commissioners were authorized to                     the legislature again extended the time for
postpone its collection for one year.^"^                    "payment of the seed grain personal prop-
   As had happened earlier, a municipal sub-                erty tax . . without interest, costs or pen-
division had acted unlawfully in the heat of                alties," and directed that half was to be
emergency. This time the village of Wash-                   paid on November 1, 1881, and half on
ington Lake in Sibley County received re-                   October 1, 1882. The same law provided
troactive legislative approval for spending                 that the payment of half of the "seed grain
public funds in destroying grasshoppers in                  real estate tax" could be postponed until
July, 1877. Other governmental subdivi-                     June 1, 1882.==
sions which asked for and received legisla-                    By 1885 the grasshoppers had become a
tive authority to borrow money and issue                    memory, although probably a vivid one.
bonds to buy seed grain for 1877 grasshop-                  The state was changing; so were its resi-
per sufferers were McLeod County, to                        dents. The special seed grain tax, however,
the extent of $12,000; Otter Tafl County,                   still presented a collection problem for the
$5,000; and the towns of Spring Hifl, Lake                  state treasurer. The legislature of 1885
Henry, and Lake George in Stearns County,                   finally ordered a complete examination of
$6,000 each. Those receiving seed grain                     its status, with a report on recipients of
from McLeod County were expected to pay                     seed grain who had died, left the state, or
ten per cent interest on the amount ad-                     lost their lands in foreclosure sales. If the
vanced.^^                                                   tax seemed uncollectable for any of these
                                                            reasons, complete abatement was author-
T H E ACTS of 1878 conclude for the most                    ized. The examination must have been
part Minnesota's extensive grasshopper leg-                 conducted somewhat sluggishly, for the
islation of the 1870s. The frequency and                    legislature of 1887 found it necessary to ex-
the provisions of the laws on the subject                   tend the time untfl the end of 1889.-* This
passed in the course of the decade reflect                  must have settled the matter, since the ses-
the rise and decline of the menace. Little,                  sion of 1889 failed to deal with the pests.
however, that has once been the subject of                  Thus the subject was not dropped by the
legislative attention seems to be free of                   legislature untfl some twelve years after
later action, and the grasshoppers had a                    the last Minnesota locust of the 1870s took
somewhat longer life in law than they did                   his gregariousness to other parts.
while chewing their way through Minne-                         Although Melanoplus spretus is, rela-
sota crops. Although the special committee                  tively speaking, of insignificant size, his
                                                            running fight with Minnesota farmers and
  ^ General Laws, 1878, p. 125-127, 128.                    legislators occupied a significant amount
  '"Special Laws, 1878, p. 365, 402-403, 405-408, 466.      of time and used vast sums of the state's
  ^ General Laws, 1879, p. 71; 1881, p. 199.                revenues; he looms large in the law; and
  ^ General Laws, 1885, p. 299; 1887, p. 309.
                                                            the representative statutes summarized
THE PHOTOGRAPH reproduced on page 57 was                    above, with the records of the executive
taken near Montrose, South Dakota, in 1939. The il-
lustration on page 59 is from Franlc Leslie's Illustrated   and legislative proceedings that accom-
Newspaper of September 1, 1888. The former is from          panied them, serve as reminders of his
the files of the St. Paul Dispatch-Pioneer Press; the       abflity to create worry and cause destitu-
latter is used through the courtesy of the Library of
                                                            tion.
Congress.

June 1958                                                                                             61
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