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UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

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UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING WORKPLACE VIOLENCE Powered By Docstoc
					UNDERSTANDING AND
PREVENTING VIOLENCE
     at UC Davis

     Beth Cohen, Academic & Staff Assistance Program
Emil Rodolfa, Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS)‫‏‬
          Jeanne Wilson, Student Judicial Affairs
            Mary Garcia, UC Davis Police Dept


                                                              1
What is our goal?


   UC Davis Violence Prevention Systems
   Threatening/Disruptive Behaviors
   Campus Safety Strategies
   When and How to Access Campus VP
    Systems

                                           2
Can We Predict
  Violence?


      ?
                 3
          Campus Threat
        Assessment Teams

   Threat Assessment Process
   Multi-disciplinary Expertise for Problem
    Resolution
   Recommendations vs. Mandates
   Campus Safety vs. Individual Rights

                                               4
Violence Prevention
at UC Davis

   Staff & Faculty Crisis Response Team

   Student Crisis Response Team

   UC Davis Police

                                           5
Staff and Faculty
Crisis Response Team
   Police
    – 752-1230 or 911
   Academic and Staff Assistance Program (ASAP)‫‏‬
    – 752-2727
   Employee & Labor Relations
    – 754-8892
   Employee‫‏‬Health/Worker’s‫‏‬Comp
    – 757-3262
   Faculty Relations
    – 752-0963
   Other University resources (i.e., Legal Counsel)‫‏‬
                                                        6
Student Crisis Response Team

   Student Judicial Affairs (SJA)
     – 752-1128         sja@ucdavis.edu
   Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS)‫‏‬
     – 752-0872
   UC Davis Police
     – 752-3278 or 754-1230 or 911
   Student Housing
     – 752-1736
   Other University resources (i.e., Legal Counsel, ASAP,
    Student Disability Center, Campus Violence Prevention)‫‏‬
                                                       7
Student Crisis Response Team

Established in 1992, the Student Crisis Response Team
(SCRT) combines the expertise of several campus units
to manage crisis situations involving students. Contact
the Team if you have concerns about a student who
 – Appears to pose a threat to him/herself or to
   others;
 – Makes implicit or explicit threats of harm
 – Engages in disruptive, bizarre, or bullying
   behavior
 – Otherwise causes you concern for his/her welfare
   or that of others
                                                     8
           UC Davis Police

   Call police for imminent threat/concerns

   Campus Police vs. Local Police

   Information Integration and Response



                                           9
UC Davis Policies

   PPM 290-09 II Definitions: "Workplace
    violence," as used in this section, includes
    both violence and disruptive or threatening
    acts that can lead to violence
   Standards of Conduct for Students prohibit
    “assault,‫‏‬threats‫‏‬of‫‏‬violence,‫‏‬or‫‏‬conduct‫‏‬that‫‏‬
    threatens‫‏‬health‫‏‬or‫‏‬safety”
   Updating Policies 2009
                                                   10
Other Prohibited Behavior

Includes:
   Bullying
   Threats or obscene phone calls
   Harassment of any nature
   Following someone/stalking
   Swearing/shouting at someone


                                     11
Warning Signs that
Increase or Decrease Risk
   Threatening/Disruptive/Violent Behavior
   Substance Abuse
   Irrational Behavior/Paranoia
   Fascination/Owns Weapons/Violence History
   Situational Factors (personal & professional)‫‏‬
   Emotional Instability
   Defiance/Demands/Intimidation
   Threats to harm self, other, or property
   Others express FEAR and CONCERN
                                                12
         Academic and Staff
         Assistance Program
                ASAP
   Counseling Center for Faculty, Staff and
    Their Immediate Family Members
   Individual, Couples and Group
    Counseling
   Violence Prevention Consultations
   Departmental Consultations
   Debriefings
   Presentations
                                          13
Counseling and Psychological
Services (CAPS)‫‏‬
   LOCATION
     –   2nd Floor-North Hall
   WEBSITE
    www.caps.ucdavis.edu/resources/staff/index.htm
   COUNSELING SERVICES
     – Crisis Assessment & Intervention
     – Individual and Group Counseling
   WORKSHOPS & PROGRAMS
   CONSULTATION
   STAFFING
   ELIGIBILITY
   CONFIDENTIALITY

                                                     14
College Student Stressors:
ACHA UC Davis Survey

Random Sample, survey, 836 respondents
Affected Academic Performance
   Cold/flu             38.2%
   Stress               36.6%
   Sleep                29.2%
   Internet/computer    25.5%
   Concern for friend   24.0%
   Relationship         18.4%
   Depression/Anxiety   16.1%
                                         15
                             0
                             5
                            10
                            15
                            20
                            25
                            30
                            35
                            40
                            45
      Co Anx
          nt        ie
     In      ro        ty
       ti       l
         m Em
           at          ot
               e
                  R
                    el
                       at
       Sa Sc
          d/ ho
             D         o
       Se       ep l
          ns re
             e         s
                of s
                    Se
                        l
               Fa f
        Ad         m
            ju        ily
                                      UC Davis Student




               st
                  m
                     en
               Ca t
          G        re
           ri
              ef er
                  /L
                     os
                        s
                                      Mental Health: CAPS Data



                            Student




16
CAPS USAGE:

   Students treated at CAPS:
   7/1 to 12/1   Number Change from 07 Change from 01
   2008          1,968     16.3%          89.9%
   2007          1,693                       63.4%
   2001          1,036




                                                         17
 College
 Student
 Challenges
Three basic questions:                     Three basic activities:
    Who am I?                                       Study
    Who will I be with?                             Socialize
    What am I going to do?                          Sleep




                                                 Self
Cognitive Triad = Negative/distorted feelings
about self
about environment
about the future


                         Environment                                 Future
                                                                       18
                                      A Word about Suicide
                                      Problem-solving, Manipulative, Impulsive

   8
   7
   6
   5
   4                                                                                                                  TOTAL
   3                                                                                                                  Davis

   2
   1
   0
          2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
NOTE: These data represent suicides as determined by the coroner and reported to UC officials. They do not
reflect attempted suicides, deaths not specifically confirmed as suicide by the coroner, or suicides of individuals
who were not registered at UC at the time of their death. Ref: UC Student Mental Health Report, September 2006           19
A Word about Danger to Others

1966 -- University of Texas


2007 -- Virginia Tech

                                           Anxiety
                                              Fear
                                          Caution
                                       Frustration
                              Attempt to see signs
                                   No real profile
                                    Tell someone
                                                     20
Emergencies

Clear and Imminent Danger
   • Notify UC Davis Police - on campus call 911
   • Stay Calm
   • Know you and the student are not alone
   • Notify supervisor
   • Can Consult with CAPS if Needed
   • UC Davis Student Affairs Crisis Team will discuss
     as appropriate


                                                     21
Emergencies
(continued)‫‏‬

Ambiguous or Unclear Danger (cry for help)‫‏‬
  Discuss with Supervisor/Department Chair/Dean
  Contact CAPS to consult and develop a plan to
   intervene
    •   Assist faculty/staff to discuss the concern with the student
    •   Plan for future contact with the student
    •   Involve other campus units (residence life, judicial affairs)‫‏‬
    •   Initiate a welfare check on the student
    •   Contact the student directly to conduct an assessment
  Call police (campus or city)‫‏‬
  Call Community Mental Health After Hours Crisis Line
  Wait until 8 a.m. and contact CAPS
                                                                         22
Tips for Responding to
Distressed or Distressing Students

   Pay attention to what you see
   Initiate contact
   Listen objectively
   Offer support and assistance
   Help problem solve
   Clarify your role
   Know your limits
   Refer when needed
                                     23
Tips for Responding to
Distressed or Distressing Students (continued)

 Offer Support and Assistance
  Among the most important helping tools are interest, concern,
   and attentive listening
  Avoid criticism or judgmental comments
  Summarize the essence of what the student has told you as a
   way to clarify the situation
  Encourage positive action by helping the student define the
   problem and generate coping strategies
  Suggest other resources that the student has: friends, family
   clergy, or professionals on campus
                                                                   24
Tips for Responding to
Distressed or Distressing Students (continued)

Help Develop Support Systems

 Inquire about friends/contact friends
 Regular contact daily if needed
 Help the student get active
 Attach them to things to live for
 Referral for medicine/therapy

                                            25
 Tips for Responding to
 Distressed or Distressing Students (continued)

Solving Problems

 Listen to total communication and point out positives
 Reflect feelings first before problem solving
 Point out masteries/coping skills
 Focus on motivation
 Assess‫‏‬alternatives‫(‏‬what‫‏‬other‫‏‬ways‫‏‬can‫‏‬you….)
 Make a plan to work on problem
 Make a plan to relieve difficult times (nights/when alone)‫‏‬
 Offer hope
                                                                26
Responding to Students Who Act Out

   Breathe
   Don’t‫‏‬ignore‫‏‬the‫‏‬situation
   Set Limits - don’t‫‏‬get‫‏‬distracted
   Focus‫‏‬on‫‏‬the‫‏‬student’s‫‏‬behavior;‫‏‬don’t‫‏‬press‫‏‬for‫‏‬
    explanations for their behavior
   Don’t‫‏‬respond‫‏‬to‫‏‬personal‫‏‬attacks
   Don’t‫‏‬get‫‏‬into‫‏‬an‫‏‬argument‫‏‬or‫‏‬shouting‫‏‬match.
   Don’t‫‏‬touch‫‏‬the‫‏‬student
   Listen,‫‏‬respond‫‏‬to‫‏‬student’s‫‏‬feelings‫‏‬focusing‫‏‬on‫‏‬behavior
   Reduce stimulation: but stay and feel safe
   Be direct, honest, genuine
   Problem solve if appropriate
   Balance student needs with class needs
   Offer hope                                                   27
Tips for Writing in the Margins
(When Students Self-Disclose)‫‏‬

Responding to comments
   Use reflective statements: That must have been difficult
   Don’t‫‏‬just‫‏‬focus‫‏‬on‫‏‬the‫‏‬assignment:‫‏‏‬Good‫‏‬organization‫‏‬of‫‏‬ideas
   Open the door to discussing: How can you gain control? See
    me
   Suggest resources
   Know your limits

A General Framework:
 Assume Nothing: Ask Questions
   – What would you like me to do with this information
 Don’t‫‏‬Keep‫‏‬It‫‏‬a‫‏‬Secret
 Keep Professional Distance and Set Limits
 Make a Contract for Academic Work: Clarify responsibilities
                                                                28
     Signs that Suggest Referral
     May Be Warranted

 You feel responsible for the student
 You feel pressure to solve their problem
 You are over-extending yourself to help the student
 You see a behavioral pattern in your interactions with
  the student
 The problems a student brings to you are more than
  you can handle
 You feel anxious when the student approaches you
                                                        29
      Take Care of Yourself

 Consult: share the responsibility
   • Staff and Faculty Crisis Response Team
   • Student Crisis Response Team
 Be aware of your own response
 Know when to refer
 Know who to refer to - many campus resources
 Know limits of confidentiality
 Don’t‫‏‬promise‫‏‬something‫‏‬you‫‏‬can’t‫‏‬deliver!

                                                 30
The Angry Client

 Observe: when there are outward signs of
  intoxication, hallucinations, or bizarre speech,
  contact the Police Department immediately. After
  doing so, simply listen to the complaint until
  assistance arrives.
 Listen: Listen‫‏‬to‫‏‬the‫‏‬client’s‫‏‬complaint.‫‏‏‬They‫‏‬need‫‏‬
  to know not only that you are willing to help them,
  but that they are top priority to you.
 Avoid defensiveness: Do not defend the action of
  your department when the client complains.
                                                     31
The Angry Client continued

 Acknowledge their emotions through support: This
  will‫‏‬reduce‫‏‬the‫‏‬client’s‫‏‬fear‫‏‬and‫‏‬hostility.‫‏‏‬For‫‏‬example,‫‏‬say‫“‏‬I‫‏‬
  can understand how you would be upset. Please tell me
  how‫‏‬we‫‏‬can‫‏‬help‫‏‬you.”‫‏‬Non-support will only fuel their
  emotions.
 Speak slowly, softly, and clearly: It will help to reduce
  their anxiety.
 Ask questions: Ask questions that are relevant to the
  client’s‫‏‬problem‫‏‬and‫‏‬repeat‫‏‬what‫‏‬you‫‏‬hear‫‏‬so‫‏‬they‫‏‬know‫‏‬
  they‫‏‬are‫‏‬being‫‏‬understood.‫“‏‏‬Mr.‫‏‬Jones,‫‏‬I‫‏‬can‫‏‬understand‫‏‬
  why‫‏‬you‫‏‬feel‫‏‬angry.‫‏‬How‫‏‬can‫‏‬we‫‏‬best‫‏‬help‫‏‬you?”‫‏‬
 State consequences: If the person persists with threats,
  inform them that you will notify the police department
  unless they calm down.                                       32
Additional Tips

 Do not allow the person to sit between you and the door.
  You must have ability to exit first and last.
 Remain seated 2-3 arm lengths away. This gives
  adequate distance from the person, yet provides for
  effective communication. Don’t turn your back to the
  person.
 Don’t‫‏‬have‫‏‬scissors‫‏‬or‫‏‬sharp‫‏‬or‫‏‬unsecured‫‏‬heavy‫‏‬objects‫‏‬
  on your desk or within reach during the incident; these
  could potentially be used as weapons.
 If possible, have another person of the opposite sex in
  the room when speaking with the client. Two males may
  create‫‏‬a‫“‏‬macho”‫‏‬atmosphere.‫‏‏‬The‫‏‬third‫‏‬person‫‏‬can‫‏‬also‫‏‬
  provide solutions or alternatives to the problem.
                                                        33
If the Client
Doesn’t Calm Down

 Describe the consequences of violent behavior.
  For‫‏‬example,‫“‏‬I‫‏‬understand‫‏‬that‫‏‬you‫‏‬are‫‏‬angry,‫‏‬
  but‫‏‬violence‫‏‬will‫‏‬only‫‏‬lead‫‏‬to‫‏‬jail.”
 If you feel you are in danger, alert the police
  department immediately. Human resources
  should then be notified as soon as it is safe to do
  so.
 If you see a weapon, immediately call 9-1-1 and
  then leave the area as soon as it is safe for you to
  do so.
                                                         34
How to Contact the Police

   Sergeant Paul Henoch (Student Crisis Response Team)‫‏‬
     – 530-752-3278
   Non-emergency calls/security concerns
     – 530-752-1230
   Emergency/crimes in progress
     – 9-1-1
   Crime Prevention
     – 530-752-6589
   Campus Violence Prevention Program
     – 530-752-3299
                                                       35
When in Doubt …
Consult, Consult, Consult!
    If you have concerns, tell someone – make sure others know about
    problem behaviors. Most situations can be handled without Crisis
    Team involvement, but some cases
   may demand urgent action and a coordinated response
   require gathering information and developing immediate and ongoing
    response strategies to deal with safety concerns and complex legal, policy,
    and strategic issues
   require continued monitoring and repeated interventions by a variety of
    campus resources
   are emotionally charged; reporting parties and others may need guidance,
    support, counseling (e.g., ASAP) and reassurance (witnesses often fear
    going‫“‏‬on‫‏‬the‫‏‬record”)‫‏‏‬
   may pose a risk of harm to the individual him/herself and/or others

                                                                          36
SJA & the Student Conduct Process

   Student Judicial Affairs (SJA) administers the conduct process for
    on/off-campus student violations
   Contact SJA for questions about dealing with disruptive students or
    other concerns about student behavior
        Address: 3200 Dutton Hall        email: sja@ucdavis.edu
        (530) 752-1128 (phone) (530) 754-6195 (fax)
        Report suspected violations in writing (form on SJA website)‫‏‬
        Consultation/reports may be confidential
   Students who commit crimes are subject to both student discipline and
    criminal prosecution
   Student conduct records are protected by privacy laws/policies
   ALWAYS treat students with respect -- even if they act inappropriately
    toward you
   A health condition does not excuse misconduct


                                                                          37
Student Social Misconduct Cases
(in order of most frequent to least frequent)‫‏‬


   Misuse of electronic communications (infringing copyright by illegally
    downloading/distributing music, movies, games, or software)‫‏‬
   Use/possession of alcohol (or drugs)‫‏‬
   Disruption (e.g., dorm noise violations)
   Theft, misuse of ID or documents, unauthorized entry
   Providing false information
   Failure to comply with directions of staff or faculty
   Conduct that threatens health or safety of the student or others;
    includes threats
   Stalking
   Harassment and/or sexual harassment
   Weapons possession
   Physical assault
                                                                             38
Examples of When to Call SJA

Disruption: conduct that disturbs, interferes with or
prevents normal campus functions/activities (teaching,
administration, or research)‫‏‬
Examples of classroom misbehavior/disruption:
 – Failing to turn off cell phones or other devices, listening to iPod
 – Cheating
 – Talking in class/using phone, moving around or leaving room during
   class without permission, taking pictures/movies without permission
 – Monopolizing discussion, interrupting, asking constant questions
 – Verbal abuse, name-calling, arguing, swearing, intimidation, bullying
Other disruptive behavior:
 – Demands‫‏‬for‫‏‬immediate‫‏‬response,‫‏‬action‫‏‏‬or‫‏‬appointment‫(‏‬e.g.,‫“‏‬I’m‫‏‬
   not‫‏‬leaving‫‏‬until‫‏‬you‫‏‬change‫‏‬my‫‏‬grade‫‏‬to‫‏‬an‫‏‬A!”)‫‏‬
 – Creating a commotion (e.g., arguing, yelling, intimidating, etc.)‫‏‬
 – Excessive emails, phone calls, etc. that interfere with normal functions
   and unfairly consume resources
 – Threatening words or behavior, threats of violence                    39
The Student Conduct Process

   SJA contacts the student who meets with SJA staff
   Students have the right to a fair process: notice of
    charges and an opportunity to be heard
   If a student admits responsibility, options are
    discussed with the student and the referring party
   Most cases are resolved informally (no formal
    hearing)‫‏‬
   Students usually sign a contract admitting a violation
    and accepting sanctions and educational assignments
   If no agreement can be reached, a formal fact-
    finding hearing is held
                                                        40
Disabilities and Student Conduct

   Disabled students are held to the same behavioral
    standards as other students
   Disruptive, threatening, violent behavior may be
    disciplined, even if related to a student's disability
   Accommodations are appropriate to ensure that
    “otherwise‫‏‬qualified”‫‏‬individuals‫‏‬have‫‏‬a‫‏‬fair‫‏‬opportunity‫‏‬to‫‏‬
    pursue their education
   Students must be informed of where they can receive
    accommodations for disabilities, and of campus grievance
    processes
   Contact the Student Disability Center, 752-3184, for
    questions re: academic accommodations for students
                                                              41
Discipline vs. Other Interventions

   Mental health professionals do not have the authority to
    compel compliance – and counseling is of little benefit to
    those‫‏‬who‫‏‬don’t‫‏‬want‫‏‬it
   Usually,‫‏‬no‫‏‬crime‫‏‬has‫‏‬been‫‏‬committed,‫‏‬so‫‏‬police‫‏‬can’t‫‏‬arrest‫‏‬
   Involuntary 5150 evaluation occurs only if a student poses
    an imminent threat to self or others or is unable to care for
    him/herself – this is a difficult standard to meet
   Academic‫“‏‬consequences”‫ --‏‏‬failing grades or dismissal
    from college based on poor performance -- don’t‫‏‬address‫‏‬
    crises or immediate concerns
   Generally, discipline is a flexible and effective tool for
    addressing behaviors that violate conduct standards, and
    may provide leverage to get student to seek help
                                                             42
A Note About Confidentiality …
    Student records may be disclosed as necessary to facilitate
    students’‫‏‬education,‫‏‬provide‫‏‬student‫‏‬services,‫‏&‏‬protect‫‏‬safety
   Student records may be disclosed without prior consent to
    “campus‫‏‬officials”‫‏‬having‫‏‬a‫“‏‬legitimate‫‏‬educational‫‏‬interest,” if
    the information is relevant/necessary to
     – perform a task or make a determination within official duties or
       responsibilities (e.g., to campus police investigating crime);
     – perform a task specifically related to participation in the student's
       education (e.g., a faculty advisor)‫‏‬
     – perform task related to the discipline of the student; or
     – provide a service or benefit relating to the student or student's
       family, such as health care, counseling, or job placement
   In an emergency, student records may be disclosed to
    appropriate‫‏‬parties,‫‏‬including‫‏‬outside‫‏‬parties‫(‏‬e.g.,‫‏‬the‫‏‬student’s‫‏‬
    parents), if knowledge of the information is necessary to protect
    the health and safety of the student or others                   43
            CONCLUSION


   You are not expected to assess threat
   When in doubt, CONSULT
   When it comes to threats, no question
    is silly
   You are not alone!

                                            44

				
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