Presentation SOCIOLINGUISTICS

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					     Key terms

Sociolect or “social dialect”: linguistic differentiation based upon on membership
in a longstanding socially-demarcated group

Regional dialect: linguistic differentiation based upon on
membership in a longstanding geographically-demarcated group

Codification: development of inner form: phonology, lexicon, grammar

Elaboration: development of a set of social functions

Acceptance: lay loyalty

Selection: language is chosen to serve particular functions (approved)



                                                                                     1
Language or Dialect?




 Functional concerns: the descriptive study of social
  of language in communication.

 Structural concerns: variation in the structural system
   of language.


                                                           2
                                                         L1


                                                              L1 (D4)/L2(Div)




                                                                                L2




http://italian.about.com/gi/dy namic/offsite.htm?zi=1/
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ai.it%2Fprincipali%2Flingua%2Fbruni%2Fmappe%2
Fmappe%2Ff_dialetti.htm
                                                                                     3
  Language or Dialect?




--What are the causes of language differentiation?

--Types of dialects:
(1) sociolects or “social dialects”: linguistic differentiation based upon on
membership in a longstanding socially-demarcated group

(2) regional dialects: linguistic differentiation based upon on membership in a
longstanding geographically-demarcated group


                                                                                  4
Language or Dialect?

•Mutual intelligibility

•Evaluative (attitudinal) response

•Regional differentiation

•Existence of a writing system or literature




                                               5
Haugen (1966)

Ferguson:

Writing dimension             Standard dimension
W0 none                       St0 no appreciable
                              standardization
W1 normal purposes            St1 2 versions of language
                              with own standards
W2 original research          St2 single widely accepted
 in the physical sciences     norm
W3 translations and resumes




                                                           6
Haugen (1966)

Typical steps toward standardization or internationalization:

Codification -- development of inner form: phonology,
                   lexicon, grammar
Elaboration -- development of a set of social functions
Acceptance -- lay loyalty
Selection --     language is chosen to serve particular
                  functions (approved)




                                                                7
Bello, Andrés (1847) “Grammar of the Spanish
Language”, Selected Writings of Andrés Bello

Intersection of Bello’s concerns with Haugen’s formalization
of the process of standardization:

-- concerns regarding the writing of grammars :
        1. inadequate definitions
        2. badly-made classifications
        3. application of the rules of Latin
--enumeration of forms as if there were “no other language
in the world but Spanish”

--appeal to logic

-- linguistic purity

                                                               8
Bello, Andrés (1847) “Grammar of the Spanish
Language”, Selected Writings of Andrés Bello

Intersection of Bello’s concerns with Haugen’s formalization
of the process of standardization:

--variation: voseo
Y eso era, cachai?            “And that’s how it was, you know?”
Cómo estai?                   “How ya doing?”
Si necesitaí diez lucas...     “If you need twenty bucks...”

Bello:
 “One should not use the pronoun vos because if one is talking about only
one person, one should say usted or tú depending on the level of familiarity
that we have with said person...But not only does one sin against good use
 by using vos...but what is even more repugnant and vulgar is using it with
    the second person singular with verbs...In Chile, the infamous plebes
   always change the -eis verb endings to -is saying vís, comís, senís...”

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