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State of Wisconsin/Department of Transportation RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE QUARTER ENDING: June 30, 2005 Program: SPR-0010(36) FFY99 Part: II Research and Development Project Title: Effects of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Project ID: 0092-05-01 Slag in Portland Cement Concrete – Expanded Study Administrative Contact: Nina McLawhorn Sponsor: WHRP WisDOT Technical Contact: Jim Parry Approved Starting Date: 7/1/2004 Approved by COR/Steering Committee: $110,068 Approved Ending Date: 12/30/2005 Project Investigator (agency & contact): Steven M Cramer (UW-Madison) Percent Complete: 40% for both phase I and phase II Project Description: This project examines the performance of portland cement concrete where portions of the cement are replaced with grade 120 ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). While ordinary portland cement concrete is a robust material that provides the necessary performance subject to a variety of mixing materials and conditions, the record suggests that GGBFS concrete may not be as robust. This project considers the strength development and deicer scaling resistance of GGBFS and ordinary concrete using 4 different brands of cement, 3 levels GGBFS, two aggregates and 4 different curing regimes. Progress This Quarter: (Includes project committee mtgs, work plan status, contract status, significant progress, etc.) This project consists of 3 tasks: 1. Monitoring GGBFS variability 2. Strength and air void development 3. Deicer scaling resistance The research team meets every two weeks to keep the project on track. Progress on Task 1: Monitor GGBFS Variability We have now received and analyzed eight monthly GGBFS samples. As in previous months, any variability in chemical composition and fineness has been small. ASTM C114 (Chemical Analysis of Cement) has been performed for one of the four cement brands. The remaining three cements will be sent to a commercial laboratory for chemical analysis. Variability of GGBFS fineness has also been small. Blaine fineness tests yielded values between 5000 and 5500 cm2/gram (0.500 and 0.550 m2/g) for monthly GGBFS samples. Blaine fineness tests for the first cement brand yielded a value of 3900 cm2/gram (0.390 m2/g). In-house fineness tests will be performed on the remaining three cements during the month of July. Progress on Task 2: Strength and air void development Eight mixes were completed this quarter for a total of twenty-four, leaving six left to complete. The remaining six mixes will be done in the fall of the year because they have to be mixed in temperatures at or near 40 degrees. These mixes will begin in October and be finished by December. Strength testing is proceeding. To date, 1140 of 1740 strength tests have been completed. By the end of July, all 24 completed mixes will have strength results through 56-days. Only one year strength tests and tests for the 40 degree mixes will remain. All strength testing will be complete by 6/1/06. This is within the revised timeline for the strength testing portion of the project. The results of the strength tests have shown some definite trends. Cement brand and type of aggregate seem to have a significant impact on concrete strength. Also of interest is whether the GGBFS concretes will have improved tensile to compressive ratios compared to OPC mixes. Extensive literature reviews and microscopic analysis of the bonding between the aggregates and the paste are underway and may provide more insight on these issues. Shrinkage testing is continuing as planned. Results for the first 11 mixes are complete. Hardened air void tests will begin next quarter. Progress on Task 3: Deicer scaling resistance Mixing Ten mixes were completed in April, May and June, and therefore all 20 of the originally scheduled mixes are finished. The final mix was completed on June 6th. Freeze-thaw cycling and scaling tests Scaling tests have continued smoothly through June. All ten limestone mixes have completed freeze-thaw cycle tests. The remaining ten igneous mixes are currently in the freeze-thaw phase or will begin before July 7th. Scaling tests will be completed in early September. Preliminary scaling test data All data has been collected for mixes with limestone coarse aggregate. The following general observations have been made: 1. As expected, surface scaling worsened as concentration of GGBFS increased. However, the increase between 0%, 30%, and 50% was not linear. Cements brands have responded differently as to the time when which the greatest scaling occurs. 2. Wet cured samples displayed the worst scaling resistance with two exceptions. 3. Samples cured in plastic wrap and with soda lime pellets on the surface performed very well in all 30% and 50% GGBFS replacement cases. Carbonation depth tests Generally, measured carbonation depths have continued to show correlation to scaling washoff. However, several methods are being considered to obtain a more accurate measure of carbonation depth. These methods include infrared microscopy and a more high-powered microscope. Depending on the feasibility and reliability of these methods, a quantitative correlation between carbonation and scaling will be made. Otherwise, the correlation may have to remain qualitative. Work Next Quarter: Work next quarter will include sample testing from the previously prepared samples and we will proceed with data analysis. Circumstances Affecting Progress/Budget: We fell behind schedule as part of the challenge of starting a large project. Work is proceeding but strength testing is behind schedule. We anticipate completing strength testing within the overall timeframe of the project. Gantt Chart: ID Tas k Nam e Duration Start 2005 2006 2007 2nd Half 1st Half 2nd Half 1st Half 2nd Half 1st Half Qtr 3 Qtr 4 Qtr 1 Qtr 2 Qtr 3 Qtr 4 Qtr 1 Qtr 2 Qtr 3 Qtr 4 Qtr 1 Qtr 2 1 Overall Project Status 649 days Thu 7/1/04 40% 2 Task 1: Monitor GGBFS Variability 362 days Thu 7/1/04 44% 3 Obtain GGBFS s amples 327 days Thu 7/1/04 80% 4 Send out for finenes s and chemical tests - Phas e I 320 days Mon 7/12/04 60% 5 Send out for finenes s and chemical tests - Phas e II 30 days Mon 10/3/05 Phase II 6 Conduct activation tests - Phas e I 317 days Thu 7/15/04 0% 7 Conduct activation tests - Phas e II 35 days Mon 10/3/05 Phase II 8 Task 2: Strength & Air Void Development 388 days Mon 7/19/04 52% 9 Obtain materials 75 days Mon 7/19/04 100% 10 Prepare and check m ix des igns 15 days Tue 8/10/04 100% 11 Prepare s pecimens - Phas e I 238 days Tue 11/2/04 100% 12 Prepare s pecimens - Phas e II 25 days Mon 10/3/05 Phase II 13 Curing, shrinkage and s trength tes ting - Phase I 225 days Thu 11/18/04 70% 14 Curing, shrinkage and s trength tes ting - Phase II 60 days Thu 9/29/05 Phase II 15 Air void tes ts - Phas e I 213 days Wed 12/8/04 0% 16 Air void tes ts - Phas e II 21 days Mon 10/3/05 Phase II 17 Analyze res ults - Phase II 55 days Thu 10/27/05 0% Phase II 18 Task 3: Deicer scaling tests 282 days Thu 3/17/05 26% 19 Scaling tes ts - series 1 110 days Thu 3/17/05 100% 20 Scaling tes ts - series 2 110 days Thu 3/31/05 35% 21 Scaling tes ts - series 3 - Phas e II 110 days Mon 10/3/05 0% Phase II 22 Scaling tes ts - series 4 - Phas e II 110 days Mon 10/3/05 0% Phase II 23 Analyze res ults 130 days Mon 10/17/05 0% Phase II 24 Reporting 605 days Wed 9/1/04 30% 25 Interim Quarterly Reports -Phase I 280 days Wed 9/1/04 80% 26 Interim Quarterly Reports -Phase II 315 days Mon 10/3/05 Phase II 27 Prepare interim report & TOC meeting 10 days Wed 10/12/05 100% Phase II 28 TOC Meeting #1 2 days Tue 1/4/05 100% Phase II 29 TOC Meeting #2 2 days Mon 5/1/06 0% Phase II 30 Prepare draft final report 50 days Wed 5/3/06 0% Phase II 31 Review/Revis e/Subm it final report 70 days Wed 7/12/06 0% Phase II 32 Contingency 50 days Wed 10/18/06 0% Phase II
"State of Wisconsin Department of Transportation"