Done by: Lee Jin Loong 4P3 Howard Liu 4P3 Li Han YI 4S2 Kok Xuan Liang 4S2 The Korean War (25 June 1950 – armistice signed 27 July 1953) was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China (PRC), with military material aid from the Soviet Union. The war was a result of the physical division of Korea by an agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War at the end of World War II. The Korean peninsula was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the end of World War II. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, American administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th Parallel, with United States troops occupying the southern part and Soviet troops occupying the northern part. The failure to hold free elections throughout the Korean Peninsula in 1948 deepened the division between the two sides, and the North established a Communist government. The 38th Parallel increasingly became a political border between the two Koreas. Although reunification negotiations continued in the months preceding the war, tension intensified. Cross-border skirmishes and raids at the 38th Parallel persisted. The situation escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950. It was the first significant armed conflict of the Cold War. The United Nations, particularly the United States, came to the aid of South Korea in repelling the invasion, but within two months the defenders were pushed back to the Pusan perimeter, a small area in the south of the country, before the North Koreans were stopped. A rapid UN counter-offensive then drove the North Koreans past the 38th Parallel and almost to the Yalu River, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) entered the war on the side of the North. The Chinese launched a counter-offensive that pushed the United Nations forces back across the 38th Parallel. The Soviet Union materially aided the North Korean and Chinese armies. In 1953, the war ceased with an armistice that restored the border between the Koreas near the 38th Parallel and created the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), a 2.5-mile (4.0 km) wide buffer zone between the two Koreas. Minor outbreaks of fighting continue to the present day With both North and South Korea sponsored by external powers, the Korean War was a proxy war From a military science perspective, it combined strategies and tactics of World War I and World War II: it began with a mobile campaign of swift infantry attacks followed by airbombing raids, but became a static trench war by July 1951. The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975 This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist nations The Viet Cong, a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist-controlled common front, largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region. TheVietnam People's Army (North Vietnamese Army) engaged in a more conventional war, at times committing large units into battle U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces,artillery and airstrikes The U.S. government viewed involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment The North Vietnamese government viewed the war as a colonial war, fought initially against France, backed by the U.S., and later against South Vietnam, which it regarded as a U.S. puppet state. U.S. military advisors arrived beginning in 1950. U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with U.S. troop levels tripling in 1961 and tripling again in 1962. U.S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965. Operations spanned borders, with Laos and Cambodia heavily bombed. Involvement peaked in 1968 at the time of the Tet Offensive. After this, U.S. ground forces were withdrawn as part of a policy called Vietnamization. Despite the Paris Peace Accords, signed by all parties in January 1973, fighting continued. China involvement in Korean War * On 20 August 1950, Premier Zhou Enlai warned the US they would intervene against the UN Command in Korea to safeguard their own interests * China joined in the war on the side of the North Koreans in 25 October 1950 with 200 thousand troops * Chinese troops pushed the UN troops back to the south, but was pushed up again to the 38th parallel, causing a stalemate * On April 1950 Stalin's support for Kim Il-Sung’s policy to unify Korea under his authority was secured when the latter travelled to Moscow. * Stalin only agreed to the invasion in principle but would not be directly involved, instead suggesting Kim Il-Sung to seek Chinese assistance. * The USSR, a veto-wielding power, had boycotted the Council meetings since January 1950, allowing the United Nations Security Council to unanimously condemn the North Korean invasion of the Republic of Korea on 25 June 1950 * Stalin initially agreed to send military equipment and ammunition after being approached by Zhou Enlai but warned that the USSR's air force needed two or three months to prepare. * Afterwards, Stalin told Zhou that he would only provide China with equipment on a credit basis, and that the Soviet air force would only operate over Chinese airspace, and only after an undisclosed period of time. * Stalin did not agree to send either military equipment or air support until March 1951. * Soviet shipments consisted of small quantities of trucks, grenades, machine guns, and the like. * 1962 - Mao Zedong agreed to supply Hanoi with 90,000 rifles and guns free of charge. * 1965 - China sent anti-aircraft units and engineering battalions to North Vietnam to repair the damage caused by American bombing, rebuild roads and railroads, and to perform other engineering works. This freed North Vietnamese army units for combat in the South. * October 1968 - the Chinese demanded North Vietnam cut relations with Moscow, but Hanoi refused as Sino-Soviet relations had worsened * July 1970 – China withdrew all support from Vietnam * Soviet ships in the South China Sea gave warnings of American bombers to Viet Cong forces in South Vietnam * Supplied North Vietnam with medical supplies, arms, tanks, planes, helicopters, artillery, anti- aircraft missiles and other military equipment * Stationed 3000 troops in Vietnam and had less than a dozen losses * Soviet crews fired USSR-made surface- to-air missiles at the B-52 bombers * Military schools and academies of the USSR began training Vietnamese soldiers — more than 10 thousand people. * 2 million dollars Soviet money donated to war effort During Vietnam War Both countries supported the Communists (North Vietnam) and provided great amounts of material and military support USSR CHINA Sent intelligence ships for Supplied 90,000 guns detection of USA B-52 and rifles bombers Supplied anti-aircraft Supplied medical supplies, units arms, tanks, planes, Sent engineering helicopters, artillery, anti- battalions to free North aircraft missiles and other Vietnamese troops of military equipment engineering works for Donated money of more war than 2 million dollars a day Supplied rice to free Supplied upper-rank farmers for war manpower from the USSR Sent military advisors Armed Forces Provided training for North Vietnamese soldiers During Korean War Both countries supported the Communists China USSR Full military Supported China’s intervention to aid intervention North Korea (Stalin’s verbal claim) Provided China with scarce amounts of resources – guns, grenades, trucks, 3 anti-aircraft divisions, 2 air force divisions (resources came rather late) The Soviet Union (USSR) and Hence the USSR was different People’s Republic of China than the PRC in that the (PRC) had different roles USSR was first to occupy during the Korean War North Korea It was the USSR who first PRC only entered the war occupied the Northern part when USA begin to invade of Korea and the USA the South Korea South Also, while the USSR only The USSR provided financial provide financial support support for North Korea and towards North Korea and both the USSR and PRC refuses to clash with the encouraged North Korea to USA’s army, the PRC army occupy South Korea. helped the North Korea army to push back the USA’s troops The USA was very worried The PRC had provided more about this and sent its troops military support for North across the 38th parallel to Korea than the USSR during invade North Korea. It was the Korean War. then that the PRC felt threatened and enters the war. During the Vietnam war, both However, the Soviet Union PRC and USSR provided was too trapped in its support towards Ho Chi Minh competition with the Chinese and his communist ideologies and preconcepts with the US However, the communist that they provided support to party in Vietnam is a closer North Vietnam nonetheless. match to Soviet communism During the war, China sent than Chinese communism much military support The USSR was not towards the North Vietnam particularly eager for North army, with nearly $20million Vietnam to battle against the worth of military aid- almost USA’s armies- it was China ¾ of the total military aid role that encouraged given. Vietnam to engage in a battle The USSR provided mostly against the USA. military equipment as opposed to China who contributed much larger in their support of Vietnam with vast amount of troops and funds.
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