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					               RESEAU INTERNATIONAL / INTERNATIONAL NETWORK
                          DE DIPLOMES EN SANTE ANIMALE TROPICALE /
                           OF TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH GRADUATES

              DÉPARTEMENT VÉTÉRINAIRE DE L’INSTITUT DE MÉDECINE TROPICALE
              VETERINARY DEPARTMENT OF THE INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL MEDICINE

                                 Nationalestraat 155, B-2.000 Antwerpen, België

                        Tel. : 32/3/247.62.66 - Fax. : 32/3/247.62.68 - E-mail : rdeken@itg.be



                         Douzième lettre - juillet 2005
                          Newsletter 12 - July 2005




BUZKASHI : strange mortality among calves in Afghanistan (for further information see "Nouvelles")
                                                              Table des matières
Préface / Foreword..............................................................................................................................4
   Le déces du professeur Dirk Beke.............................................................................................................. 5
   Dernier message de Jos Mortelmans ......................................................................................................... 5
   Quelques nouvelles sur la Formation......................................................................................................... 7
   Quelques nouvelles sur le staff départemental.......................................................................................... 7
   Qu'est ce qui se passe avec le forum de discussion? ................................................................................. 8
   Les représentants nationaux / régionaux de notre réseau ....................................................................... 9
Documentation ..................................................................................................................................11
   Atelier de diffusion des Résultats acquis en Recherche-Développement sur l’Élevage des Petits
   Ruminants et l’Aviculture Traditionnelle en Afrique de l’Ouest ......................................................... 11
   The LEAD Photo Gallery. ........................................................................................................................ 12
   Rassemblement Mondial des Eleveurs (Ethiopie - Janvier 2005) ......................................................... 13
   Projet de Promotion des Exportations Agro-Pastorales (PPEAP)........................................................ 13
   Newsletters of / Lettres de African Indaba ............................................................................................ 13
   Développement du réseau Billital Maroobe ............................................................................................ 14
   La fabrication de la paille à urée et de blocs à lécher sur internet. ...................................................... 14
   Un CD-rom sur l’agriculture urbaine de nos jours ! ............................................................................. 14
   Post-conflict land tenure - Using a Sustainable Livelihoods Approach................................................ 16
   Après conflits fonciers – Pour une approche par les moyens d'existence durables............................. 16
   Livelihood diversification and natural resource access ......................................................................... 17
   Diversification des moyens d'existence et accès aux ressources naturelles .......................................... 17
   Le foncier et la décentralisation au Niger - programme Sahel.............................................................. 18
   La gestion décentralisée des ressources pastorales de la commune de Kouri...................................... 18
   Bulletin de liaison du Groupe de recherche et d’action sur le foncier N° 17 ....................................... 19
   Contribution des éleveurs de Tahoua-nord au processus d'élaboration des textes complementaires
   du Code rural sur l'élevage et le pastoralisme ........................................................................................ 19
   Bulletin d’information SIM BETAIL ...................................................................................................... 20
   Rapport sur le Forum annuel du Conseil Mondial des Éleveurs 2004 ................................................. 20
Le nouveau site du EasyPol / EASYPOL web site – FAO...............................................................26
Bureau pour l'Echange et la Distribution de l'Information sur le Mini-Elevage..........................27
Bureau for Exchange and Distribution of Information on Minilivestock .....................................27
Prix Armand Féron 2004..................................................................................................................28
Armand Féron price 2004.................................................................................................................28
The surprises of extension work .......................................................................................................29
Fellowships........................................................................................................................................30
   A. Fellowships for MSC studies or other................................................................................................. 30
     DGDC Fellowships ................................................................................................................................. 30
     International or bilateral projects............................................................................................................. 30
     The Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program ................................................................. 30

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      The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) M.Sc Scholarship Programme................................................... 31
      The Flemish Community ......................................................................................................................... 31
      The Programme AlBan (European Commission).................................................................................... 31
      The Ford Foundation International Fellowships Programme (IFP)......................................................... 32
      The International Development Research Centre (IDRC)....................................................................... 32
      The Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan (CSFP) .............................................................. 32
      The Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship Program (HHH) .......................................................................... 33
   B. Fellowships for PhD studies, post-doctoral research or other .......................................................... 33
     The Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM) ............................................................................................... 33
     The International Foundation for Science (IFS)...................................................................................... 34
     The Islamic Development Bank Merit Scholarship Programme ............................................................. 34
     The Wellcome Trust’s Research Training / Career Development Fellowship in Tropical Medicine ..... 35
     Ghent University’s Doctoral grants for candidates from developing countries ...................................... 35
     The Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation.............................................................................................. 35
     The Visiting Fulbright Scholar Program ................................................................................................. 36
     The IIE Scholar Rescue Fund (SRF) ....................................................................................................... 36
     The Kellogg Foundation.......................................................................................................................... 36
Conférences / Conferences ...............................................................................................................38
   The 4th World Conference on Mobile Learning, mLearn 2005............................................................ 38
   The Internet Conferences on Biotechnology and Bioengineering......................................................... 38
   The 6th Global Conference on the Conservation of Domestic Animal Genetic Resources.................. 39
   4th Latin American Congress on Agroforestry for Sustainable Animal Production.......................... 39
   The First International Conference on Desert Animals (Sheep, Goats, Camels, Horses and Ostrich)
   Production in Hot Climates ...................................................................................................................... 39
   The 20th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary
   Parasitology................................................................................................................................................ 40
   Atelier international sur la « Diversité des Fabacées Fourragères et de leurs Symbiotes » ............... 40
Annual Report of the Department of Animal Health ......................................................................41
   Unit of Protozoology.................................................................................................................................. 42
   Unit of Helminthology............................................................................................................................... 42
   Projects ....................................................................................................................................................... 43
   Publications in international peer-reviewed journals ............................................................................ 53
   Other publications ..................................................................................................................................... 55
   Abstracts..................................................................................................................................................... 56
Science sans rigueur, ça vous ruine la grandeur ............................................................................57
Résumés de thèses / Abstracts of thesis ............................................................................................58
   The impact of land use and environmental change on the prevalence and incidence of bovine
   trypanosomosis in Northern Ghana (PhD-thesis)................................................................................... 58
   Improved diagnosis of trypanosome infections and drug resistant T.congolense in livestock ........... 60
   Amélioration du diagnostic des infections trypanosomiales et des souches de T. congolense
   résistantes aux trypanocides chez le bétail. ............................................................................................. 60
Des Nouvelles de la part des membres / News from fellow members..............................................61
Les photos ..........................................................................................................................................63




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PREFACE / FOREWORD
Chers amis,

Je me réjouis de pouvoir renouer le contact avec vous à travers la lettre du RIPROSAT, mais cette fois-ci
j’ai malheureusement quelques fâcheuses nouvelles à vous annoncer

La nouvelle la plus importante attristera beaucoup parmi nous. Avec beaucoup de chagrin je vous annonce
LE DECES DU PROFESSEUR JOS MORTELMANS. Le cancer, contre lequel il s’est battu
                                 avec acharnement pendant les dernières années de sa vie, l’a enfin emporté
                                 sur lui.

                                   Les anciens des promotions sorties avant 1990, ont connu et apprécié ses
                                   capacités pédagogiques, son raisonnement clair, son dynamisme
                                   contagieux, et ses connaissances étendues en santé animale tropicale.
                                   Cependant, c’est probablement d’avantage son humanité et sincérité qui
                                   resteront gravées dans notre mémoire. Le professeur Mortelmans est une
                                   de ces rares personnes, pour qui tout le monde avait du respect, même
                                   ceux qui n’étaient pas toujours d’accord avec ses visions. Tous, qui l’ont
                                   connu, peuvent témoigner de sa simplicité, sa franchise et son ouverture
                                   d’esprit, caractéristiques propres aux véritables hommes grands.
                                   C’est grâce aux professeurs P.G. Janssens et Mortelmans que le
                                   département vétérinaire a vu le jour en 1958 et qu’il existe toujours au sein
                                   de l’Institut de Médecine Tropicale.

De 1958 jusqu‘en 1972 le département était installé dans les laboratoires du jardin zoologique d’Anvers.
Ceux qui ont suivi les cours pendant cette période se rappellent probablement que le professeur Mortelmans
arrêtait ses cours lorsque parmi les bêtes sauvages une pathologie intéressante se présentait.
En 1964 le conseil d’administration de l’IMT décidait d’établir au sein de l’institut une chaire en médecine
vétérinaire tropicale et le Prof. Mortelmans était le premier titulaire de cette chaire. Un assistant, le regretté
Dr Pasteur Kageruka, dont l’année passée Mortelmans a encore assisté à l’enterrement, lui était désigné
comme assistant. Enfin, en 1972 le département vétérinaire était transféré vers des nouveaux bâtiments dans
la Rue Saint Rochus, où le professeur Mortelmans a mené le département jusqu’au moment de sa retraite en
1989.

Avant de nous quitter Jos Mortelmans nous a laissé une lettre, que nous avons repris dans ce journal et qui
attire notre attention sur une chose essentielle; l’entente entre toutes les personnes de bonne volonté au-
dessus de toute barrière religieuse, culturelle ou linguistique.

Je suis content d’avoir connu le professeur Mortelmans et fier d’avoir été son disciple et ami. Au cas où il y
aurait un paradis et qu’un jour j’y serais admis, j’espère que je trouverai une petite place près de lui.

                                                                                                            RDD




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LE DECES DU PROFESSEUR DIRK BEKE

                                     Ceux, qui pendant les dix dernières années ont participé au CIPSAT ou
                                     MSTAH et ont eu cours en droit foncier, se souviennent certainement
                                     du professeur Beke, professeur à la Faculté de Droits de l’Université
                                     de Gand, à l’Institut de Politique et de Gestion du Développement de
                                     l’Université d’Anvers et au Département Vétérinaire de l’IMT.
                                     Son énergie, son éternel souci pour les moins privilégiés au tiers
                                     monde et son vif intérêt pour les cultures africaines ont inspiré pas mal
                                     d’étudiants.
                                     De retour d’un voyage en Afrique Dirk a développé une pneumonie et
                                     il est décédé après une courte maladie le 6 avril 2005 à l’âge de 58 ans.
                                     Dirk, nous allons toujours nous souvenir de ta serviabilité, ton
                                     désintéressement et de ton sens pour la justice sociale.

                                     RDD




Dear Friends,

On one hand it is a pleasure for me to be able to renew the contact with our small group of English-speaking
alumni on the other hand I have some sad news to tell you.

Most of you haven’t had the pleasure of meeting Professor Mortelmans, as he retired in 1989 long before the
first English-speaking students did their appearance in the Veterinary Department. However, it is thanks to
Professor Mortelmans and a former director of ITMA Prof. P.G.Janssens that within the Institute of Tropical
Medicine of Antwerp a veterinary department was established and still is part of this institute.

The death of professor Dirk Beke
Those, who during the ten last years participated in the CIPSAT or MSTAH training and had course in “land
ownership”, certainly remember professor Beke, who was professor with the Faculty of Law of the
University of Ghent, at the Institute of Policy and Development Management of the University of Antwerp
and with the Veterinary Department of ITMA. His energy, his eternal concern for the poor in the Third
World and his keen interest for African cultures inspired many students. On return of a voyage in Africa Dirk
developed pneumonia and it died after a short disease on April 6, 2005 at the age of 58.
Dirk, we will always remember your altruism and of your sense for social justice.



DERNIER MESSAGE DE JOS MORTELMANS

Chers Famille, Amis et Connaissances,
A l’occasion de ce moment ultime de ma vie, je voudrais remercier ma chère épouse, mes enfants, mes
petits-enfants et toute ma famille pour ce qu’ils ont représenté et, surtout, ce qu’ils ont fait pour moi. Ma
gratitude est immense, mais je tiens également à leur demander de bien vouloir pardonner les défauts que
j’ai, sans conteste, eu comme tout être humain.
Mes remerciements vont également à mes collègues et collaborateurs, ici en Europe mais également en
Afrique. Nous pouvons regarder ensemble en arrière vers des temps heureux et une contribution positive au

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bien-être de nos prochains. A eux également, je souhaite de me pardonner mes réactions parfois
désagréables ; elles partaient, néanmoins, d’un bon sentiment.
Mes pensées se tournent également vers mes parents, à qui je dois non seulement la vie mais qui ont su me
donner soutien et encouragements durant mes études et qui ont su approuver, sans doute avec un pincement
au cœur, mon choix de carrière coloniale. Je leur en suis éternellement reconnaissant.
J’ai eu l’opportunité de pouvoir admirer la beauté de la nature et expérimenter la bonté de gens de différentes
cultures. C’est ainsi que je pense toujours avec émotion à mon chauffeur au Cameroun, qui soudain s’est
arrêté dans la brousse ténébreuse et me demanda si je voulais, en tant que Chrétien, me reposer un peu : il
pourrait ainsi faire sa prière du soir et demander à Allah de nous faire parvenir en toute sécurité à bon port
après un voyage mouvementé. Ceci fut pour nous deux « Paix sur la terre pour les hommes de bonne
volonté ».
Mon vœu le plus vif est « Que la paix nous envahisse tous et dure pour l’éternité ».
                                                                                              Jos Mortelmans




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QUELQUES NOUVELLES SUR LA FORMATION
Au niveau du département tout se passe relativement bien. Le travail avance et les participants au MSSAT
viennent de remettre leurs travaux de thèse. Ils ont encore quelques semaines pour préparer
leur présentation et la défense et puis l'année académique arrivera de nouveau à sa fin.
Entre-Temps les nouvelles inscriptions pour l'année académique 2005-06 rentrent de tous
côtés. De nouveau plusieurs participants originaires de pays partenaires, où la Belgique
veut concentrer sa coopération au développement, ont reçu une bourse de la part de la
Coopération Technique Belge. Ces bourses sont en supplément des 16 bourses offertes par
le DGCD. Pour les candidats originaires de ces pays à la recherche d'une bourse, cela vaut
donc vraiment la peine d'aller voir l'attaché à la coopération au niveau de l'ambassade afin
de doubler leurs chances de recevoir la bourse.
Les pays se trouvant actuellement sur la liste des "pays partenaires" sont :

        R.D.Congo                              Mozambique                                Sénégal
          Rwanda                                Palestine                                  Mali
          Burundi                                Maroc                                   Vietnam
          Uganda                                 Algérie                                  Pérou
          Tanzanie                               Bénin                                   Equateur
       Afrique du Sud                             Niger                                   Bolivie

SOME NEWS ON THE TRAINING
At the veterinary department, all goes relatively well. The MSSAT participants have just submitted their
theses. There are now a couple of weeks left for them to prepare their presentations and defenses, before the
academic year comes to an end again! Meanwhile, the enrollments for the academic year 2005-06 are in full
swing. Again, several participants from countries where Belgium wants to concentrate its development
cooperation, have received a scholarship from the Belgian Technical Cooperation. As these scholarships
come on top of the 16 scholarships offered by the DGDC, candidates from these countries who are
attempting to obtain a scholarship, should certainly make the effort to go and see the cooperation attaché at
the embassy; this way they double their chances of obtaining a scholarship. The countries that are currently
on the list of ‘partner countries’ are mentioned above.

QUELQUES NOUVELLES SUR LE STAFF DEPARTEMENTAL
Au niveau du corps enseignant du département quelques changements se sont déroulés ou sont imminents.
Els Ducheyne, une spécialiste en télédétection et Systèmes d'Information Géographiques travaillant au
Département sur le projet "Blue Tongue", nous a quitté pour prendre un emploi au sein de la firme AVIA-
GIS. Nous lui souhaitons bonne chance et espèrons de pouvoir continuer à la consulter. Els a déjà été
remplacée par une nouvelle employée, Stephanie Bécu, qui continue à essayer de prédire les épidémies de
Blue Tongue à partir de facteurs climatiques. Kiresi Kanobana, la collaboratrice de Pierre Dorny dans l'unité
d'Heminthologie, est la deuxième personne qui quittera le Département. Tout comme Els, Kiresi est
accouchée d'une fille et simultanémént a décidé de changer de lieu de travail. Kiresi travaillera pour une
firme pharmaceutique. Ce sera dur de trouver une collaboratrice aussi professionnelle , aimable et dévouée
que Kiresi.
Un autre problèe grave, auquel le Département sera bientôt confronté,
est la retraite imminente de Jef Brandt. En effet, vers la fin de cette
année Jef prendra sa retraite anticipée. Peut-être que ses maintes tâches
pourront être partagées entre les autres memebres du Département,
mais nous nous réalisons très bien que nous arriverons jamais à
accomplir ses tâches avec la même vigeur et précision. Heureusement,
les dernières années Jef a pu passer une partie de ses connaissances au
nouveaux laborantins, mais une grand partie de son expérience en
matière de diagnostic sera perdue pour le Département. Toutefois, malgré cette retraite nous espèrons que
nous pourrions régulièrement encore profiter des ses conseils et de son expertise.



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Vu que le Département désire étendre ses compétences un spécialiste en contrôle des maladies animales est
actuellement recherché pour reprendre la place de Jef Brandt.

SOME NEWS ON THE DEPARTMENTAL STAFF
Concerning the departmental teaching staff, several changes have occurred or are about to occur. Els
Ducheyne, an expert in teledetection and Geographical Information Systems working on the “Blue Tongue”
project, has left us. She now works at the AVIA-GIS firm. We wish her good luck and hope we can still
consult her from time to time! Els has already been replaced by a new employee, Stéphanie Bécu, who
continues to predict the Blue Tongue epidemics on the basis of climatic factors.

Kiresi Kanobana, Pierre Dorny’s co-worker at the Helminthology Unit, is the second person to leave the
department. Just like Els, Kiresi gave birth to a daughter, Mila, and simultaneously decided to change job.
She’s going to work at a pharmaceutical farm. Ill will be difficult to find a co-worker as professional,
devoted and pleasant as Kiresi.

Soon the department will have to deal with another problem, i.e. Jef Brandt’s approaching retirement.
Indeed, at the end of this year Jef will take early retirement. Maybe his many tasks can be divided between
the other members of the department, but we realize very well we will never be able to fulfill his tasks with
the same strength and precision. Luckily, Jef could pass on some of his knowledge on to new laboratory
assistants the last few years, but a big part of his experience in diagnostics will be lost to the Department.
However, in spite of this retirement we are hoping we’ll still be able to make an appeal to his advice and
expertise… As the Department wishes to extend its competences, an expert in animal disease control is
currently being sought to replace Jef Brandt.


QU'EST CE QUI SE PASSE AVEC LE FORUM DE DISCUSSION?
Au cours des mois passés les responsables des différents réseaux alumni en collaboration avec le service
informatique de l'IMT ont développé un forum de discussion pour les alumni afin de faciliter les échanges et
la communication entre les alumni d'une part et entre le staff de l’IMT et les alumni d'autre part.
Dans la précédente lettre nous avons déjà expliqué que le forum de discussion est uniquement accessible aux
alumni et au staff IMTA et qu'il faut donc s’inscrire pour pouvoir y accéder. Parmi nos anciens peu se sont
inscrits jusqu'à ce jour et les messages, que je reçois actuellement via le forum, proviennent essentiellement
de hackers qui ont réussi à entrer dans le système. Je ne m'en plains pas car lors de notre symposium
international à Cotonou nous avions décidé que le forum serait utilisé essentiellement pour organiser des
conférences bien coordonnées sur des sujets bien précis et pendant une période bien définie. Le forum, ce
sont les alumni qui ont décidé de son utilité et ce seront donc les alumni qui le géreront.


         Que les personnes, qui à l'occasion de notre symposium à Cotonou, se sont déclarées
         être prêtes à modérer une de ces conférences, contactent le Département afin de
         préparer son organisation. Sachez cependant que, comme convenu, ces personnes
         seront entièrement responsables pour la proposition du sujet, pour la rédaction de
         l'invitation à participer, l'introduction du sujet, l'acceptation ou le refus des
         différentes contributions à la discussion et pour la modération des débats.



Je rappelle nos lecteurs qu'il faut d'abord s'enregistrer pour faire partie du forum. C’est
à dire que vous devrez donner votre nom, prénom et un mot de passe et qu'il faut
remplir une petite fiche comportant les informations utiles pour vous contacter. A la fin
du remplissage de cette fiche, il faut préciser si vous autorisez ou non de rendre ces
informations disponibles aux personnes accédant au forum c'est-à-dire alumni et staff
IMTA. Ensuite votre demande d'accès est remise à Noor, qui vérifie son authenticité et
décide si vous avez droit à l'accès au forum ou non. Si tout se passe bien vous recevrez
après un court délai la notification que vous êtes bien enregistré et que vous pouvez

                                                                                                            8
entrer dans le forum.

WHAT IS HAPPENING TO THE DISCUSSION FORUM?
During the last couple of months the persons in charge of the different alumni networks, in association with
the IT service of the ITM, have developed a discussion forum for our former students, in order to facilitate
the exchanges and communication between the alumni on the one hand, and the ITM staff and the alumni on
the other side.




In the previous letter we’ve already explained that the discussion forum is open only to former students and
members of the ITM staff; therefore one has to register before entering the forum. So far few of our former
students have registered, and the messages which I receive through the forum come primarily from hackers
who have succeeded in entering the system. I’m not complaining, since during our international symposium
in Cotonou last year, we decided that the forum would be used primarily to organize well coordinated
conferences on quite precise subjects and for a defined period of time. The alumni have decided on the
forum’s utility and therefore the alumni will manage it.

I remind our readers that one has to register before entering the forum. You will have to give your first name,
last name and a password, and you will have to fill out a little form with useful contact information. After
filling out this form, you will have to decide whether you want the other participants – i.e. ITM alumni and
staff – to be given this information or not. Then your request to access the forum is passed on to Noor, who
will verify its authenticity and decides whether you have a right to access the forum or not. If all goes well,
you will receive the notice after a little while that you are well registered and that you can access the forum.


LES REPRÉSENTANTS NATIONAUX / RÉGIONAUX DE NOTRE RÉSEAU
Certains membres m'ont demandé de donner une liste des représentants nationaux ou régionaux appartenant
au RIPROSAT. Vous trouverez une liste avec seize réseaux connus ci-dessous.
Vu que notre réseau s'étend de plus en plus, je voudrais une fois de plus insister sur l'intérêt de réseaux
régionaux. Un réseau régional a un impact supérieur à un réseau national et sera dans l'avenir prioritaire pour
l'obtention d'un soutien financier permettant d'organiser sur le plan régional un séminaire ou autre activité.
D'ailleurs pour certains pays le nombre de membres nationaux est insuffisant pour former un réseau national
vivable.
Pour les pays d'Afrique anglophone ou les anciens originaires de l'Amérique du Sud l'établissement de
réseaux régionaux serait également une solution élégante afin de pouvoir organiser sous peu une activité
commune.



   Un représentant national nous a fait savoir qu'il voulait faire la restitution du séminaire international
   avec les autres membres de son réseau national. Cependant les moyens pour avertir les membres et
   pour louer une salle et un écran projecteur lui manquaient. D'un part ces dépenses ne sont pas assez
   importantes pour justifier un virement bancaire, d'autre part nous ne pouvons pas imposer ces frais aux
   représentants. Nous proposons donc que le représentant se charge de préfinancer ces frais et qu'il les
   récupère via un transfert Western Union, via un participant qui retourne vers son pays ou lors du
   prochain séminaire international.


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Les représentants nationaux sont également priés d'informer le bureau central à l'IMTA de toute activité
organisée dans le cadre de leur réseau. Un petit rapport de ces activités intéressera et inspirera certainement
les collègues dans les autres réseaux.


       ID                 Pays                            Représentant RIPROSAT
        1                Algérie                                 Amel ADEL
        2                 Bénin                            Kokou Emmanuel DEKA
        3             Burkina Faso                        Rahamané Marcel SANFO
        4          Burundi + Rwanda                      Jean-Berchmas BERAHINO
        5              Cameroun                            Nicolas KAMENI DJIELE
        6          Congo Brazzaville                     André Mfoukou NTSAKALA
        7              Congo RD                      Symphorien MBAITWIRALO RUHIMBA
        8             Côte d'Ivoire                         Louis KETREMINDIE
        9                Gabon                                 Calixte MBENG
       10        Guinée + Guinée-Bissau                        Saïdou TRAORE
       11                  Mali                               Boucader DIARRA
       12                 Niger                             Abdoul Malick HAIDO
       13               Sénégal                              Abdou Khadre FALL
       14                Tchad                                Mahamat OUAGAL
       15                 Togo                            Komla Batassé BATAWUI
       16                Tunisie                            Hammed BOUSSELMI




THE NATIONAL/REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES OF OUR NETWORK

Above are the names of the representatives of the national networks that our
French-speaking alumni have formed. We encourage our English-speaking
former students to form networks like these as well, but since numbers of
students in these countries are small, it seems more apropriate for them to form
regional instead of national networks. Small expenses, made to gather together
the members of the network (e.g. invitations, renting of a hall and projector), will
be reimbursed.




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DOCUMENTATION

ATELIER DE DIFFUSION DES RESULTATS
ACQUIS EN RECHERCHE-DEVELOPPEMENT
SUR L’ELEVAGE DES PETITS RUMINANTS ET
L’AVICULTURE TRADITIONNELLE EN AFRIQUE
DE L’OUEST
Le Procordel est un programme exécuté par deux centres régionaux : le
CIRDES (avec Bénin, Togo, Côte d’Ivoire, Burkina Mali et un pays
associé, le Ghana) et l’ITC (avec la Gambie, le Sénégal, la Guinée
Bissau, la Guinée Conakry et le Liberia). Le programme vise à renforcer les capacités de recherche des
SNRA de ces différents pays à travers des actions communes, des formations et un dialogue régional
régulier.
Dans le cadre de ces dialogues régionaux le CIRDES a organisé un premier atelier de dialogue régional en
juillet 2002 qui a essentiellement été consacré à la coordination des activités collaboratives entre le CIRDES
et les SNRA des pays partenaires et associés dans le cadre du Procordel. Un second atelier de dialogue
régional a été tenuen décembre 2003 à Cotonou sur les races trypanotolérantes. Un troisième atelier de
dialogue régional s’est tenu au CIRDES, à Bobo-Dioulasso, du 23 au 25 mars 2004, et a porté sur la
restitution des synthèses des recherches sur l’élevage des petits ruminants et sur l’aviculture traditionnelle en
Afrique de l’Ouest. Ce dernier séminaire, dont le résumé a été repris en-dessous, a été présidé par Mamadou
Sangaré, un membre du RIPROSAT. Mamadou nous a autorisé de polycopier le rapport du troisième atelier
et de le distrbuer parmi nos membres.

   Ceux, qui désirent recevoir ce rapport n'ont qu'à en faire la demande auprès de noor
   (ngoemaere@itg.be) . Veuillez préciser le format que vous désirez recevoir (une copie imprimée ou
   une copie électronique).

RÉSUMÉ
Cet atelier de restitution des synthèses réalisées par le PROCORDEL sur les recherches relatives à l’élevage
des petits ruminants et à l’aviculture traditionnelle en Afrique de l’Ouest, fait partie des moyens d’échange
d’informations techniques et scientifiques, mis en place par le CIRDES pour valoriser les acquis du
PROCORDEL. Il s’est tenu du 23 au 25 mars 2004 au CIRDES Bobo-Dioulasso.
Il a regroupé des chercheurs du CIRDES / PROCORDEL et les chefs des Programmes Petits Ruminants et
Aviculture ou leurs représentants des SNRA des pays Membres et Associés du CIRDES (Bénin, Burkina
Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger et Togo), dans le but de faire l’état des lieux des recherches sur ces espèces à
cycles courts et d’identifier les axes de recherches futures pour un développement durable de leurs
productions.
Ce volume rassemble les résumés des documents de synthèse, les communications des participants sur l’état
des lieux et les politiques de développement de l’élevage des petits ruminants et de la volaille locale dans les
différents pays, les discussions et les recommandations formulées à l’issu de cette réunion.

ABSTRACT
This workshop on the restitution of the results of research on small ruminants and traditional poultry farming
carried out by Procordel, is part of the technical and scientific information exchange set up by CIRDES to
valorise the assets of Procordel. The workshop took place from March 23 to 25 in Bobo-Dioulasso.
The meeting gathered leaders of small ruminant and poultry research programmes, representatives from
NARS belonging to CIRDES Member and Associate countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger et
Togo) as well as CIRDES / Procordel scientists. The objective of the workshop was to draw up the state of
knowledge on small ruminants and poultry farming in the respective countries, and to identify future
research axes for a sustainable production of these animals in West African production systems.



                                                                                                              11
This volume contains the abstracts of the synthesis document on local small ruminant and poultry husbandry
in West Africa, and the contributions of participants on the research and development policy of small
ruminants and poultry production in each country.

   Those, who wish to receive this report, may order it at Noor (ngoemaere@itg.be). However, we
   inform you that solely the contribution of Ghana is written down in English! Please specify the format
   you wishes to receive (printed copy or electronic copy).

THE LEAD PHOTO GALLERY.
In a previous letter, we examined the possibility to set up a photo database among our alumni. Obviously
someone at FAO found this a good idea and LEAD started the LEAD Photo Gallery, which can be consulted
at the following site : http://www.virtualcentre.org/en/frame.htm.

The purpose of the Photo Gallery is to illustrate the Livestock, Environment and Development interactions
across the globe. The photographs are classified and available to download with an average resolution
(maximum length of 600 pixels) in JPEG format. To obtain the original photographs at a better resolution
please contact mailto:lead@virtualcentre.org by specifying the reference of the photograph.

FAO welcomes the reproduction and dissemination of material in this database for educational or other non-
commercial purposes provided the source is fully acknowledged (FAO, photographer and photo reference
number). Reproduction of material in this database for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited
without written permission. Applications for such permission should be addressed to:
Chief, Publishing Management Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100
Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org .



HEARING THE VOICES OF PASTORALISTS – A NEW IDS BOOK
The Global Pastoralist Gathering, held in Southern Ethiopia in January 2005, was an unprecedented event.
Bringing together more than 200 pastoralists and their supporters from 23 countries, the meeting was held in
a quintessentially pastoralist environment; a tented camp beside a dry river bed under African Acacia trees.
The meeting, organised by the UNOCHA Pastoralist Communication Initiative, was an opportunity for
herders to exchange views and develop strategies. Mongolians discussed trade with Peruvians; Ethiopians
discussed education with Iranians; Malians and Mauritanians discussed political organisation with
Argentinians, Kenyans and Tanzanians. Local pastoralist groups in conflict with each other also used the
gathering as a place to make peace. The Pastoralist Communication Initiative is a project working with the
UN and IDS, and funded by the UK Department for International Development. The gathering and the book
“Rain, Prosperity and Peace” are just part of a constellation of efforts to promote the role of pastoralists in
governance and policy processes around the world.

The Initiative promotes sharing of information and ideas between pastoralists in their search for appropriate
development and a sustainable environment. While many pastoralists are suffering decline of their way of
life through lack of representation and loss of resources, others have found ways of organising to lobby and
co-operate with governments; creating laws, policies and services that promote pastoralist livelihoods.
The Initiative is also aimed at providing a new perspective to government, NGOs and international agencies,
offering understanding of the value of pastoralism, and new approaches to securing and enhancing pastoralist
contributions to society, economy and the environment.

Without change, by 2015 access to education, health, clean water, economic progress and legal protection
will have declined in pastoralist areas. Not only will pastoralist people and their animals suffer, but the
fragile environments in which they live will have degraded and the markets which they serve will decline.
This situation will affect not only herders and their children, but all those who live around and among them.
It will affect national economies and societies in their entirety. Increasing gaps between poor pastoralists and
rich others, increasing frustration at erosion of rights and loss of land and increasing destitution will lead to
conflict and migration. The Millennium Development Goals have set targets for access to education, health
and social development to be achieved by 2015. While many countries are moving towards these goals, there

                                                                                                              12
remains a worrying gap. In pastoralist areas of the world, these goals will not be met, unless new attitudes
are adopted and substantial new investments are made.

A PDF-version of “Rain, Prosperity and Peace” can be downloaded at www.ids.ac.uk/ids/news/pastoralists.



RASSEMBLEMENT MONDIAL DES ELEVEURS (ETHIOPIE - JANVIER 2005)

Le rassemblement Mondial des Eleveurs organisé dans le sud de l’Ethiopie en Janvier 2005, fut un
événement sans précédent et a réuni plus de 200 pastoralistes venus de 23 pays.
Le rapport de Rassemblement Mondial des Eleveurs est disponible sur le site de l’IDS (Institute of
Development Studies) www.ids.ac.uk/ids/news/pastoralists.html. Ce rapport est actuellement disponible en
anglais mais sera bientôt traduit en français et en espagnol.



PROJET DE PROMOTION DES EXPORTATIONS AGRO-PASTORALES
(PPEAP)

Pour plus d'informations concultez le site « Niger-Export » (http://www.niger-export.ne)

Le PPEAP a pour objectifs de :
   1. développer et diversifier les exportations de produits agro-pastoraux par la mise en place de
      conditions favorables en donnant aux entreprises du secteur privé les outils indispensables à leur
      développement;
   2. réduire la pauvreté en milieu rural en favorisant l'augmentation des revenus tirés de la vente des
      produits agro-pastoraux.

Il permet :
    1. d'assurer la promotion des produits nigériens à l'exportation;
    2. de mettre en place un système d'information sur les marchés dynamique et performant;
    3. de renforcer les capacités des organisations professionnelles, les associations d'exportateurs ou de
       producteurs-exportateurs;
    4. d'appuyer les opérateurs à travers des cofinancements.

Pour son démarrage, le PPEAP s'intéresse prioritairement à sept filières agro-pastorales porteuses retenues
sur la base des critères définis ci-après :
   1. Adaptation au climat sahélien,
   2. Possibilité de dégager un surplus exportable,
   3. Bonne maîtrise de techniques de production par les producteurs nigériens,
   4. Existence d'un marché national et/ou international pour le produit considéré,
   5. Possibilité pour le Niger d'avoir un avantage comparatif pour la production, tout au moins par rapport
        aux pays de la sous-région,
   6. Contribution significative à la réduction de la pauvreté en milieu rural par l'accroissement des revenus
        des populations.




NEWSLETTERS OF / LETTRES DE AFRICAN INDABA

African Indaba publishes a newsletter for hunter-conservationists and all people who are interested in the
conservation, management and the sustainable use of Africa's wild natural resources. African Indaba reaches
more than 6200 e-mail subscribers in 112 countries around the globe (To subscribe send a blank message to

                                                                                                           13
indaba-subscribe@uk.emessaging.co.za ) and additional thousands who read Africa Indaba on-line at the
organisation's website (http://www.africanindaba.co.za).
Hunters from around the world are using African Indaba as valuable information on African wildlife, its
conservation and sustainable use, the effects of incentive-based conservation and its interaction with
community based natural resource management programs (CBNRM).

African Indaba est un bulletin électronique (en anglais) spécifiquement destiné aux chasseur engagés dans la
conservation ou aux personnes intéressées par les problématiques liées à la conservation, la gestion et à
l’utilisation pérennes des ressources naturelles en Afrique. African Indaba cherche à stimuler les discussions
et le dialogue autour du futur de la chasse safari en afrique au travers de la publication d’une série d’articles.
Pour vous inscrire veuillez envoyer un mail vide à indaba-subscribe@uk.emessaging.co.za ou consultez
toutes les lettres publiées au site (http://www.africanindaba.co.za).




DÉVELOPPEMENT DU RÉSEAU BILLITAL MAROOBE

Le Réseau BILLITAL MAROOBE (fulfulde) est une organisations d'éleveurs pasteurs du Sahel. Son objectif
est de parvenir à une véritable sécurisation de l’économie pastorale.
Leur site Web vient de s’ouvrir vous pouvez le consulter à l’adresse : http://www.maroobe.bf/



LA FABRICATION DE LA PAILLE A UREE ET DE BLOCS A LECHER SUR
INTERNET.

Andrea Cefis travaille actuellement au Cameroun pour une ONG italienne. Il est actif à Yagoua (extrême
nord) dans un projet de développement de la vallée du Logone (projet multifactoriel: santé animale,
production animale, artisanat, produits maraîchers, tourisme). Simultanémént il est impliqué dans un projet
de l’université de Milan a Maroua sur la filière lait en zone urbaine. Il y collabore avec un autre ancien
d’Anvers : Roland Ziebe.

Andrea a développé sur internet deux brochures très intéressantes et instructives sur le travail qu’il a fait en
Tchad. Une brochure sur la production de la paille à urée et une sur la fabrication de blocs à lécher
artisanaux. Vous les retrouverez sur les adresses suivantes. Cela vaut vraiment la peine de les visiter.
Félicitations Andréa – qui fait mieux ?

             www.zootve.unimi.it/pagliaurea.htm         et       www.zootve.unimi.it/blocchi.htm



UN CD-ROM SUR L’AGRICULTURE URBAINE DE NOS JOURS !

Un CD-ROM, contenant des matériaux sur l'agriculture urbain,e a été produit par l'Institut Africain de
Gestion Urbaine et ETC dans le cadre du Programme RUAF (Resource Center on Urban Agriculture &
Forestry) en coopération avec d'autres partenaires du RUAF comme le CRDI et le PGU.
La plupart des matériaux portent sur l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Un document traite spécifiquement
de l'agriculture urbaine en Afrique du Nord et au Moyen Orient.


      RIRPOSAT dispose de quelques exemplaires de ce CD-ROM. Les membres
      intéressés peuvent l’acquérir en faissant la demande auprès de Noor
      Goemaere (ngoemaere@itg.be).


                                                                                                               14
SOMMAIRE DU CD-ROM
I. Présentation du RUAF IAGU et ETC
Qu’est ce que le RUAF et avec quels partenaires le RUAF a t-il réalisé ce CD-ROM ?

II. Presentation du CD-ROM
Pourquoi ce CD-ROM est nécessaire ?

III. Informations clefs sur l’agriculture urbaine
Qu’est ce que l’agriculture urbaine ? Quelques faits importants.

IV. Références bibliographiques
Les références bibliographiques - en français - portant sur les principales thématiques de
l’agriculture urbaine au plan international, national et local. Ces références proviennent de la
base de données du RUAF.

V. Actes des conférences électroniques
Conclusions et recommandations des conférences électroniques.

VI. Magazine Agriculture Urbaine - (N° 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
Sept numéros complets portant sur des thématiques de l’agriculture urbaine.

VII. Rapports des ateliers régionaux
  1. Rapport de la Consultation Régionale sur Agriculture Urbaine [ PDF 221 KB ]
  Consultation régionale des maires et autres acteurs africains de l’agriculture urbaine en
  Afrique francophone.

  2. Rapport de l’Atelier Méthodologique [ PDF 1.658 KB ]
  Projet de recherche/consultation pour le développement durable de l’agriculture urbaine :
  Axes de recherche et dispositif méthodologique.

  3. Rapport Séminaire Ath-Bruxelles [ PDF 696 KB ]
  Villes du Nord et Villes du Sud - A la rencontre de l’Agriculture Urbaine.

  4. Actes de la Visite d’étude et Atelier International sur la Réutilisation des Eaux Usées en
  Agriculture Urbaine [ PDF 2.066 KB ]
  Une visite d'étude / atelier dont l’objectif était de favoriser les échanges d'informations sur
  le secteur de l’agriculture urbaine entre acteurs.

VIII. Publications (Texte intégral)
  1. Une ville à bâtir, de la nourriture à produire (Growing Cities, Growing Food)
  Un livre en deux parties: Les articles thématiques qui traitent de questions spécifiques
  relatives à l’agriculture urbaine. Les Etudes de cas portant sur les villes d’Asie, d’Afrique,
  d’Amérique Latine et d’Europe.

  2. L’interface entre agriculture et urbanisation en Méditerranée sud et est
  Ce livre est le résultat de plusieurs années de recherche parmi plus de deux douzaines de
  chercheurs basés au Moyen-Orient, en Afrique du Nord, en France et ailleurs. Le livre sera
  publié par l’Institut Français du Proche-Orient (IFPO) – Direction des Etudes
  Contemporaines (l’ex-CERMOC), à Beyrouth, Liban.

  3. L’Agriculture urbaine - Cultiver des légumes en ville [ PDF 787 KB ]
  L’objectif de cette publication était de décrire des méthodes pratiques, durables et étudiées
  avec toute l’attention requise pour l’exploitation agricole à petite échelle en zone urbaine.

  4. Problématique de l'utilisation des eaux usees dans l'agriculture urbaine a Dakar
  (Senegal) [ PDF 866 KB ]
  L’objet de cette étude était d’analyser l’agriculture dans l’espace intra et périurbain de la
  ville de Dakar par rapport à la réutilisation des eaux usées.


                                                                                                   15
   5. La problématique foncière en agriculture urbaine - L'étude cas de Abidjan-Côte d'Ivoire
   [ PDF 324 KB ]
   L'objectif général de cette étude de cas était de documenter la problématique foncière en
   agriculture urbaine à Abidjan dans la perspective du développement de l’agriculture urbaine.

   6. Développement durable de l’agriculture urbaine en Afrique francophone - Enjeux,
   concepts et méthodes [ PDF 464 KB ]
   Cet ouvrage est le fruit des travaux de quatre institutions, qui se sont associées pour
   capitaliser et diffuser leurs méthodes de diagnostic et d’intervention en agriculture urbaine :
   le CRDI (Canada), le CIRAD et le ministère des Affaires étrangères (France) et l’ISRA
   (Sénégal).

IX.    Agriculture   Urbaine      –   Une     alternative  pour    le   développement
Ce film documentaire a été réalisé dans le cadre du Programme de recherche / consultation
pour de développement durable de l’agriculture urbaine en Afrique de l’ouest conduit par
l’IAGU.




POST-CONFLICT LAND TENURE - USING A SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS
APPROACH
Jon D. Unruh - Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 18

This paper addresses the application of sustainable livelihood approaches to access to land and land
administration in post-conflict situations. Its preparation is based in part on the author’s land tenure project,
policy and research experience in conflict and post-conflict settings, particularly in Somalia, Mozambique,
East Timor, Uganda, and Ethiopia, complemented by additional land tenure work in Zambia, Madagascar,
Saudi Arabia, and Peru. The paper also draws on a variety of academic, government, donor, and NGO
publications, in order to provide substantive grounding and wider relevance than what the author’s own
experience provides.
The working paper articulates how informal, or customary land tenure systems function “on the ground” in
post-conflict scenarios, and the intersection between this reality and the reduced capacity of the formal
system. Because the sustainable livelihoods approach can be used to focus on smallholders, an understanding
of the post-conflict tenurial realities faced by rural producers is important to exploring how the sustainable
livelihoods approach would be able to contribute to resolving the problems associated with land access in
such environments.
Furthermore, the paper provides a “lessons learned” outcome of the intersection between “on-the-ground”
post-conflict land tenure and the sustainable livelihoods (SL) approach, along with a consideration of the SL
approach in a post-conflict case study. It also describes some of the primary critical issues that may require
further attention, so as to tailor both post-conflict assessment and the SL approach to post-conflict settings.
A pdf-version of the document can be downloaded at :
http://www.fao.org/sd/dim_pe4/pe4_050601_en.htm


       If you have difficulties to download those files ask Noor (ngoemaere@itg.be) to do it for you.


APRÈS CONFLITS FONCIERS – POUR UNE APPROCHE PAR LES MOYENS
D'EXISTENCE DURABLES

Jon D.Unruh - Programme d’appui aux moyens d'existence (LSP) - FAO Document de travail n°18

Ce document aborde la mise en œuvre d'une approche par les moyens d'existence durables (MED) pour
aborder les questions relatives à l'accès au foncier et à la gestion des situations d'après conflit foncier. Il se
fonde principalement sur l'expérience personnelle de l'auteur en termes de projets fonciers, de politique et de
                                                                                                               16
recherche sur le règlement des conflits et des après conflits, notamment en Somalie, au Mozambique, à
Timor Est, en Ouganda et en Ethiopie ; il s'appuie également sur d'autres travaux sur le foncier entrepris en
Zambie, à Madagascar, en Arabie Saoudite et au Pérou. Le document exploite enfin une série de publications
provenant d'universités, d'institutions gouvernementales, de donateurs ou d'ONG, dans le but d'élargir et de
renforcer la pertinence des expériences de l'auteur.
Ce document de travail analyse les mécanismes qui régissent les systèmes fonciers informels ou coutumiers
"sur le terrain", à partir de scénarios d'après conflits et en établissant des recoupements entre cette réalité et
les capacités réduites du système foncier formel. Comme l'approche par les moyens d'existences durables
peut être valablement utilisée au bénéfice des petits exploitants agricoles, il est important de comprendre à
quelles réalités et à quels conflits ces producteurs sont soumis afin de déterminer comment l'approche MED
pourrait contribuer à la résolution de leurs problèmes d'accès à la terre dans des environnements de ce type.
De plus, ce document tire les enseignements croisés des après conflits fonciers "sur le terrain" et de
l'approche MED et propose une analyse de cette approche à travers une étude de cas d'après conflit. Il
évoque enfin les principales questions critiques qui pourraient appeler un travail supplémentaire d'adaptation
de l'approche après conflit et de l'approche MED pour le règlement des après conflits.
Pour télécharger ce document (disponible en anglais - voir ci-dessus) veuillez consulter la page Internet :
http://www.fao.org/sd/dim_pe4/pe4_050601_fr.htm



LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION AND NATURAL RESOURCE ACCESS
Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 9

This paper sets out to explore the links beween livelihood diversification and access to natural resources, and
it does this bearing in mind the need to make micro-macro policy links between local level rural livelihoods
and national level poverty reduction efforts represented by Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers.
Diversification refers in this paper to the changing character of household activity portfolios and income
sources, not to switching full-time occupations, nor to the relative diversity of sub-sectoral non-farm
enterprises in rural areas.
The paper provides a synopsis of the livelihoods approach, summarises ideas and recent evidence concerning
livelihood diversification, links diversification to natural resource access considerations, considers policy
environments pertinent to both diversification and natural resource access, and proposes policy areas that
could form the basis of action oriented research initiatives in this area.
The paper takes the view, supported by a considerable literature and much empirical evidence, that
livelihood diversification is generally a good thing for rural poverty reduction. It helps to lessen the
vulnerability of the poor to food insecurity and livelihood collapse; it can provide the basis for building
assets that permit individuals and households to construct their own exit routes out of poverty; and it can
improve the quality and sustainability of natural resources that constitute key assets in rural livelihoods.
A pdf-version of the document can be downloaded at :
http://www.fao.org/sd/dim_pe4/pe4_050502_en.htm


       If you have difficulties to download those files ask Noor (ngoemaere@itg.be) to do it for you.




DIVERSIFICATION DES MOYENS                                 D'EXISTENCE              ET      ACCES         AUX
RESSOURCES NATURELLES

Programme d’appui aux moyens d'existence (LSP) - FAO - Document de travail n° 9

Ce document analyse les liens existants entre la diversification des moyens d'existence et l'accès aux
ressources naturelles. Il s'agit notamment d'établir des liens politiques micro/macro entre le niveau local des
moyens d'existence ruraux et le niveau national des efforts de réduction de la pauvreté, sur la base des

                                                                                                               17
documents stratégiques élaborés dans ce domaine. Dans ce document, la diversification se réfère à toute une
gamme d'activités et de sources de revenus des ménages, qui n'impliquent pas nécessairement le passage à
des occupations à plein temps, ni à des activités s'inscrivant dans le sous-secteur des entreprises non
agricoles en milieu rural.
Ce document propose un résumé de l'approche par les moyens d'existence, synthétise les idées et les
exemples récents de diversification des moyens d'existence, souligne les liens existants entre la
diversification et l'accès aux ressources naturelles, identifie l'environnement politique pertinent pour
favoriser à la fois la diversification et l'accès aux ressources naturelles et avance des propositions politiques
qui permettraient, sur ce thème, le développement d'initiatives de recherches orientées vers l'action.
Ce document adopte le point de vue – déjà exprimé dans de nombreux textes et vérifié sur le terrain – selon
lequel la diversification des moyens d'existence a généralement des effets positifs sur la réduction de la
pauvreté rurale. Elle contribue à atténuer la vulnérabilité des pauvres à l'insécurité alimentaire et à
l'effondrement des moyens d'existence ; elle permet aux individus et aux ménages d'accéder à des biens qui
les aideront à sortir de la pauvreté ; elle peut enfin améliorer la qualité et la durabilité des ressources
naturelles qui constituent la base des moyens d'existence ruraux.

Pour télécharger ce document (disponible en anglais - voir ci-dessus) veuillez consulter la page Internet :
http://www.fao.org/sd/dim_pe4/pe4_050502_fr.htm



LE FONCIER ET LA DECENTRALISATION AU NIGER - PROGRAMME
SAHEL

Institut International pour l’Environnement et le Développement (IIED)

Le programme Réussir la décentralisation a pour objectif principal d’apporter un appui au processus de
décentralisation actuellement en cours au Sahel. Ce processus de décentralisation accorde un accent
particulier à la promotion de politiques et de pratiques de gestion durable, équitable et efficace des ressources
naturelles. Il vise par ailleurs à apporter une valeur ajoutée aux initiatives similaires en cours à travers le
renforcement des réseaux existants, l’établissement de relations de partenariat et l’introduction d’approches
novatrices qui constituent un des éléments clés de l’avantage stratégique de l’IIED. Réussir la
Décentralisation est financé par la coopération Danoise (DANIDA) et l'Agence Suédoise pour le
Développement International (ASDI).
Le Niger s’est engagé, depuis une dizaine d’années, dans un processus de décentralisation qui met la
question foncière au centre des préoccupations. Après les étapes de Tahoua, Agadez, Zinder, Diffa et
Maradi, le Secrétariat permanent du Code Rural, a animés des Conférences publiques sur le Foncier et la
Décentralisation à Dosso, Tillabéry le 7 juin 2005 et dans la communauté urbaine de Niamey, respectivement
les 7, 8 et 9 juin 2005.

Pour en savoir plus : http://www.iiedsahel.org/index.php



LA GESTION DECENTRALISEE DES RESSOURCES PASTORALES DE LA
COMMUNE DE KOURI.

Association agriculture/élevage, Organisation paysanne et négociation dans le Minyankala (Sud-Est du Mali)
Peter Hochet (EHESS/CLAIMS)

Les éditions du Gret ont le plaisir de vous présenter leur dernière publication, sortie dans la collection
"Foncier et ressources renouvelables" :
Face aux risques de surexploitation des ressources naturelles, ou aux conflits entre usagers, les intervenants
de développement prônent la négociation de règles de gestion des ressources. L’hypothèse est que de telles



                                                                                                              18
négociations entre usagers et autorités, autour de la mise en place d’instances de gestion et d’aménagements,
conduisent à la pacification des relations entre acteurs et à une exploitation plus durable.
À Kouri, au sud-est du Mali, l’ONG InterCoopération a appuyé l’implication de la Coopérative des agro-
éleveurs dans le Schéma d’aménagement pastoral dont elle a accompagné la mise en place. Mais quelle est
l’effectivité de la Coopérative dans la régulation des conflits et dans la définition des aménagements ? Plus
largement, quels sont dans cette zone les enjeux de la coordination entre acteurs autour des ressources
pastorales ? Y a-t-il besoin d’instances formelles et pour quoi ? Pour les acteurs locaux, l’identité
socioprofessionnelle " agro-éleveur ", rassemblant agropasteurs peuls et agriculteurs minianka élevant du
bétail, a-t-elle un sens ?
Pour comprendre les enjeux de la gestion des ressources pastorales dans la zone, l’effectivité du schéma
pastoral et les effets d’une intervention externe, cette étude replace l’intervention du projet dans l’histoire et
l’ethnographie de l’agropastoralisme et des migrations peules. Elle analyse les situations de négociation
autour des résidus de récolte et du partage de l’espace. Elle étudie la dynamique interne de la Coopérative
des agro-éleveurs et l’influence qu’a eu le projet sur elle.

2005, Paris, Éd. Gret, Réf. FON 7, ISBN : 2-86844-150-5, 100 pages, 11,90 €
http://www.gret.org/publications/howcommande.htm



      Les membres intéressés peuvent acquérir cet ouvrage en faissant la
      demande auprès de Noor Goemaere (ngoemaere@itg.be). RIPROSAT achètera
      10 livres et les offrira à ceux qui sont les premiers à en faire la demande.




BULLETIN DE LIAISON DU GROUPE DE RECHERCHE ET D’ACTION SUR
LE FONCIER N° 17

18, avril 2005
Numéro Spécial Décentralisation

Après une longue période d’hibernation, GRAF Info revient en force en 2005. Pour marquer ce changement
et ses ambitions nouvelles, le bulletin change de «look» et de fonctionnement.
En effet, le défi majeur que le bulletin se fixe est tout d’abord le respect de la périodicité, c’est-à-dire la
parution régulière, une fois tous les deux mois, de Graf Infos. Pour marquer ce virage, Graf infos consacre
son premier numéro de l’année au programme «Réussir la décentralisation». C’est donc un numéro spécial
portant sur la première phase de ce programme qui a pris fin et qui a touché le Burkina, le Mali, le Niger et le
Sénégal.

Après avoir lu cette publication vous saurez tout sur le contexte d’exécution de programme, sa mise en
oeuvre, les résultats auxquels il est parvenu et les nouvelles orientations de la phase II.
La question de la décentralisation est d’actualité au Burkina et recommande la participation de tous, au
moment où la communalisation rurale est en passe de devenir une réalité.
Pour obtenir une copie PDF (382 Kb) de Graf Info veuillez écrire au Centre Virtuel qui vous la transmettra
(lead.fr@virtualcentre.org).



CONTRIBUTION DES ELEVEURS DE TAHOUA-NORD AU PROCESSUS
D'ELABORATION DES TEXTES COMPLEMENTAIRES DU CODE RURAL
SUR L'ELEVAGE ET LE PASTORALISME


                                                                                                               19
Rapport technique récapitulatif du déroulement des activités - Juillet 2004 – Mai 2005
UNION DES ELEVEURS PRODUCTEURS Animation pour la Promotion de l’Entraide aux Initiatives
Locales en Zone Pastorale

De quoi s'agît-il?

Au lendemain de la conférence nationale, le Niger s’est engagé dans un chantier de reformes dans le secteur
rural. C’est ainsi que les principes directeurs d’une politique nationale en matière de développement rural ont
été amorcés dès 1992, et qui a conduit à l’institutionnalisation d’un code rural portant sur les bases juridiques
de gestion et d’accès aux ressources disponibles. Cependant, au fur et à mesure de son application, les
différents acteurs ont conclu que son contenu paraît répondre beaucoup plus aux préoccupations des
situations agricoles que pastorales.
Malgré l’arsenal mis en œuvre par le code rural, de nombreuses questions restent en suspens quant à son
applicabilité dans la zone pastorale.
L’ordonnance n°93-015 du 2 mars 1993 fixant les Principes d’Orientation du Code Rural dit à son article 151
« la présente ordonnance portant principes d’orientation du code rural sera complétée par des textes
législatifs et réglementaires pour ensemble constituer le Code Rural ».
C’est dans cette optique que le Gouvernement du Niger a officiellement lancé le processus d’élaboration des
textes complémentaires au code rural sur l’élevage et le pastoralisme, à Niamey en juin 2003.
C’est aussi dans cette dynamique que l’UEP/APEL-ZP, consciente des enjeux politiques, sociaux et
économiques qui vont accompagner toutes ces transformations, s’est engagée à apporter la contribution des
éleveurs de Tahoua Nord dans l’élaboration du code pastoral au Niger.
Pour obtenir une copie Word (21 Kb) du rapport veuillez écrire au réseau MARP qui vous la transmettra
(hamarp@intnet.ne).



BULLETIN D’INFORMATION SIM BETAIL
(Service Des Statistiques De L'élevage – Niger)
Le Service des statistiques de l’élevage du Niger publie de manière hebdomadaire un bulletin flash sur
l’évolution des transactions commerciales observées sur les marchés à bétail (Bovins, ovins, caprins et
camelins).
Pour obtenir une copie Word d’un bulletin veuillez écrire au centre Virtuel qui vous la transmettra
(lead.fr@virtualcentre.org)




RAPPORT SUR LE FORUM ANNUEL DU CONSEIL MONDIAL DES
ELEVEURS 2004

Accès aux Ressources Naturelles pour les éleveurs : Code pastoral - Signe de reconnaissance légitime en
faveur des éleveurs ou combat continu sans solution durable ?


   Ci-desous vous trouverez les conclusions et les recommandations de ce forum. Le rapport complet
   peut être consulté au site suivant :
   http://www.condial.org/francais/fsactualites02_fichiers/Rapport%20General.doc




                                                                                                              20
Introduction générale :

Du 12 au 16 Janvier 2004, s’est tenue au Centre SILOE dans la communauté urbaine de Niamey en
République du Niger, la 7ième édition du Conseil Mondial des Éleveurs (CME).
Le CME a été créé en Novembre 1996, sur l’initiative des éleveurs Africains auxquels se sont joints des
spécialistes de l’élevage du Nord. Les fondateurs du CME partagent la conviction que l’élevage soit une
activité de vie dont la fonction soit de tout vivifier.
Au Niger, quatre-vingts (80) participants représentant une quarantaine de structures ont pris part aux travaux
de la 7ième édition. Les discussions ont porté sur les problématiques de la gestion des ressources naturelles
et sur les situations conflictuelles qui en découlent au niveau de l’Afrique, de l’Inde et de l’Europe. D’autres
thématiques ont été également abordées. Il s’agit entre autres des problématiques des conventions locales,
des codes pastoraux, des droits des éleveurs, de la décentralisation en relation avec l’accès aux ressources
naturelles et de la prévention et de la gestion des conflits autour des ressources naturelles.

Conclusions de la réunion

En France (2001) les participants au CME avaient insisté pour la première fois sur le fait que le réseau CME
devienne plus politique au lieu de se limiter à l’organisation des rencontres entre les éleveurs de différents
pays. Certes, ces rencontres sont importantes pour établir des relations, mais unanimement, il lui était exigé
de défendre officiellement les intérêts des éleveurs par rapport à leurs droits fondamentaux comme le droit
de « L’accès aux pâturages et à l'eau ».
La rencontre en 2004 lors du 7ième forum CME doit être classée définitivement dans le processus de
construction d’un réseau international d’éleveurs qui cherche à influencer les décisions concernant les
peuples pasteurs dans le contexte d’une globalisation accentuée sur des aspects économiques.
Aussi, lié à l’engagement pris par les organisations locales nigériennes à savoir, AREN et DAOUD de
                                                                                            1
toucher un maximum d’organisations d’éleveurs nigériens pour la participation au CME , ce dernier a pu
dépasser le statut parfois individualiste et partisan pour les pasteurs, mais a rassemblé en un lieu des
organisations d’éleveurs qui forment la masse critique des pasteurs à tous les niveaux.
Depuis la création du CME, la façon de discuter entre les éleveurs a beaucoup changé.
Il était remarquable de constater que :

    •   Une multitude des organisations de différents groupes d’éleveurs s’est manifestée pendant le forum.
    •   La forte présence de grands « leaders d’éleveurs » confirmait la crédibilité du CME.
    •
                                                                                      2
        La suspicion s’est transformée en solidarité timide entre différents groupes
    •   Leur volonté publiquement affichée soulignait la nécessité de devoir s’investir dans l’action de
        pacification entre les différents groupes d’éleveurs et de tous les intéressés.
    •   Un pas vers une cohérence a été fait qui permettra enfin d’exprimer la légitimité de leurs droits et de
        les défendre avec force.
    •   Les arguments pertinents des groupes de travail sont présentés ci-dessous. Il faut retenir que les
        groupes de travail étaient constitués d’éleveurs venant de différents pays, ce qui explique la diversité
        des arguments et la grande qualité des solutions proposées.

1) Perception du foncier par les éleveurs
Tous les groupes d’éleveurs présents à la rencontre ont constaté une restriction des espaces pastoraux qui
s’exprime dans un affaiblissement accentué des éleveurs3.
Les éleveurs perçoivent le foncier comme un phénomène d’aliénation et de spoliation permanente, une
situation d’insécurité et d’injustice. (Citation Groupe I)



1
  Le nombre des organisations nigériennes était limité à 30 institutions.
2
  Bien qu’on ne puisse pas négliger les barrières linguistiques entre les groups d’éleveurs de l’Afrique de l ‘Ouest et de
l’Afrique de l’Est.
3
  Ils ont évoqué que
•     L’accès aux pâturages et à l'eau s'est aggravé
•     Ils se sentent longtemps délaisser par les pouvoirs publics, brimés par les textes institutionnels
•     Ils se sentent totalement exclus de toute action utile concernant le foncier.
•   Ils sentent arbitrage dans le règlement des conflits entre agriculteurs et éleveurs

                                                                                                                         21
Ils ont d’office reconnu que leurs problèmes sont identiques d’un pays à un autre et que leur propre tort, c’est
de rester silencieux face aux différents changements politiques, économiques et même culturelles. Ils sont
toujours dans un attentisme total et légendaire.
En conséquence, les organisations d’éleveurs participants avaient exprimé leur volonté de s’y engager.

2) Le Code Pastoral est en faveur des éleveurs
Les éleveurs considèrent les textes élaborés, il y a plusieurs décennies comme leur étant défavorables. Seuls
les agriculteurs avaient le droit d’exploiter librement les ressources naturelles. Selon eux l’exploitation
anarchique des terres a insisté les éleveurs à se défendre.
Les codes pastoraux sont considérés comme une réponse de l’administration aux éleveurs pour compenser
l’exclusion et jouent à la faveur des éleveurs. Ils ont permis d’abord, de reconnaître que le monde des
éleveurs a le droit à l’utilisation équitable des ressources naturelles et que les organisations d’éleveurs sont
renforcées. Toutefois, cette situation diffère selon les pays.
Entre autres les codes pastoraux ont eu des effets positifs au titre desquels :
    • La reconnaissance des terroirs d’attache aux éleveurs et des droits d’usage prioritaire (Niger)
    • Le libre accès des éleveurs aux pistes de transhumance et aux gîtes d’étapes
    • Le transfert de pouvoir dans les conseils ruraux (Sénégal)
    • La formation des auxiliaires vétérinaires, alphabétisation fonctionnelle (Sénégal)
    • La reconnaissance officielle des couloirs de passage d’animaux (Cameroun)
    • La réglementation de la transhumance transfrontalière (Mali, Mauritanie, Cameroun, RCA)

3) Les propositions des éleveurs pour un meilleur accès aux ressources naturelles
Les éleveurs se rendent compte que sans leur implication active aucune action ne serait lancée en leur faveur.
Les participants étaient d’accord que les organisations d’éleveurs doivent gagner plus de poids, plus
d'influence pour pouvoir influer les politiques pastorales. Le lobbying serait un moyen d’action pour influer
sur les politiques nationales.
Pour en arriver là, l’opinion des gouvernements en place doit être sensibilisée sur les conditions de vie des
pasteurs traditionnels, leur utilité écologique et économique pour l’ensemble du pays. C’est aux
organisations des pasteurs de se munir d’une vision commune et de la défendre.
Pour cela :
    • La « conviction d’aller ensemble » est prioritaire - Les éleveurs doivent s’unir à l’échelle nationale à
        travers les structures associatives - La création d’un haut Conseil du pastoralisme local, sous-régional
        et international4 doit être envisagée.
    • L’implication des éleveurs dans l’élaboration des stratégies et des politiques de développement de
        l’élevage5 est vitale pour eux. Là où ces lois existent, il s’agit de leur révision, de leur vulgarisation et
        de leur application. Les éleveurs s’impliquent dans l’élaboration de lois qui sécurisent durablement
        les pasteurs en matière foncière et leur garantissent l’accès aux ressources naturelles.
    • La création de zones pastorales dans tous les pays est indispensable. Schémas d’aménagement
        concertés à l’échelle locale et régionale. Faire un classement des pistes de transhumance et des points
        d’eau pastoraux dans le domaine public de l’Etat et des collectivités territoriales. Clarification des
        délimitations territoriales - Élaboration des conventions locales pour la préservation d’aires pastorales
        et des couloirs de passage - Déterminer le statut des champs pièges - Respect des couloirs de
        transhumance - Associer les organisations d’éleveurs dans les règlements de conflits

Les éleveurs s’organisent sur le plan régional pour la gestion et l’exploitation des ressources naturelles, car
pour améliorer l’accès aux ressources naturelles, il faut améliorer les ressources elles-mêmes. Donc :
   • Planter
   • Un esprit d’investissement
   • Créer des banques de crédit pastoral
   • Créer et gérer des marchés de bétail

Pour mener toutes ces actions, les éleveurs sont obligés de
  • Rechercher de l’information

4
  Il s’agit d’un réseau d’éleveurs national comme le CME le prévoit dans les statuts concernant l’organisation du réseau à
une échelle nationale.
5
  Dans le cas du Niger, ils doivent s’impliquer dans l’élaboration du Code pastoral.

                                                                                                                       22
   •   Mettre en place un système d’information (banque des donnés) et de formation des éleveurs
   •   Créer des tribunes pastorales comme espace d’échange à tous les niveaux

4) Rôle de l’Etat dans la gestion du foncier
Avant tout, que l’État reconnaisse le pastoralisme comme mode de vie et comme une véritable activité socio-
économique qui demeure la meilleure alternative pour la conservation des ressources naturelles.
Le premier rôle de l’Etat serait l’élaboration d’une politique d’aménagement du territoire et sa mise en œuvre
par une législation appliquée et respectée par tout le monde. Il assure l’accès équitable aux ressources
naturelles.
Dans ce processus, l’Etat associe les éleveurs et prend en compte leurs propositions dans les décisions. Il
favorise le transfert des pouvoirs aux éleveurs (Niger) à travers les commissions foncières et pastorales.
L’état soutient la création d’infrastructures et apporte une assistance technique dans la gestion des
infrastructures pour l’utilisation optimale de ces ressources.

5) Le rôle pour le Conseil Mondial des Éleveurs
Pendant le forum, les éleveurs ont discuté du rôle éventuel que le Conseil Mondial des Eleveurs (CME) doit
et peut jouer au niveau international et national. Il est important de faire cette distinction. Elle indique déjà
que l’efficacité du réseau international (composé par des réseaux nationaux) dépendra de la multitude des
réseaux nationaux dont la création doit être suivie soigneusement.

Au niveau international :
  • Que le CME soit un cadre fédérateur des organisations de différents pays
  • Que le CME soit engagé par les associations nationales à être leur porte-parole dans les instances
      internationales (forum social mondial ; forum économique mondial)
  • Que le CME joue essentiellement un rôle de lobbying, de plaidoyer auprès des Etats et institutions
      internationales comme le PNUD, la FAO, la Banque Mondiale etc.
  • Que le CME appuie la mise en place des cellules de représentation dans les différents pays
  • Que le CME commandite des études
  • Que le CME mette en place un cadre de suivi des recommandations du CME entre 2 éditions
  • Que le CME organise des formations des éleveurs (à travers des bourses, voyages d’études, aides
      pour projet de recherche)

Au niveau national :
  • Que le CME appuie - au niveau de chaque pays la création d’une tribune des éleveurs capables de se
      mobiliser pour influer sur les législations
  • Que les associations nationales engagent le CME à servir d’interface dans les négociations pour la
      résolution des conflits inter et intra-pasteurs.
  • Que le CME mobilise tous les partenaires potentiels capables de nous assister dans les négociations
  • Que le CME établie ensemble avec les associations d’éleveurs les priorités d’actions selon les
      contextes (par exemple au Niger les éleveurs dans le cadre de l’élaboration du Code Pastoral)
  • La définition des rôles à jouer n’est pas exhaustive et laisse flairer les points de faiblesse et les
      moments forts de la structure actuelle.

6) Le rôle pour les femmes dans le processus de paix
La femme est la 1e victime de la guerre et est l’instauratrice de la paix. La nature pacifique de la femme en
général a été soulignée comme sa capacité à tisser des relations avec des membres d’autres communautés.
Aujourd’hui les femmes sont rarement impliquées dans la gestion des conflits. Avant, elles avaient un rôle
important en cas de risques de conflits, elles empêchaient très souvent l’éclatement des confrontations.
Les participants avaient concédé à la femme un rôle de prévention de conflits à travers les liens qu’elle est
capable de nouer notamment :
   • Les liens d’alliance qu’elle crée entre communautés et clans.
   • Les liens de cousinage.
   • Les liens de voisinage entre groupes et familles différentes.
   • Sa promptitude à créer des relations amicales et son potentiel de persuasion étaient mentionnées
       comme deux qualités extraordinaires.


                                                                                                                23
     •   En cas de confrontation, elle permet de concilier les groupes opposés notamment par le phénomène
         d’échanges de femmes.

Unanimement, les participants ont exigé de réintégrer la femme dans son rôle d’antan. Il est indispensable de
créer un environnement pour permettre à la femme d’être efficace, c’est-à-dire
   • Organiser les femmes en groupements
   • Alphabétiser et scolariser les femmes des éleveurs
   • Former des femmes pour la gestion des ressources
   • Responsabiliser les femmes dans les prises de décisions.

7) Renforcer les capacités des éleveurs en vue de la défense de leurs intérêts
Échanger est vital pour les êtres humains, surtout quand ils se sentent menacés. Il s’agit de modifier le statut
de crainte, le sentiment de danger qui se renforce par l’ignorance. Remonter la confiance en quelqu’un
commence en lui procurant un espace sûr où il peut s’exprimer librement, sans crainte, où des solutions
peuvent être trouvées ensemble et où des alliances peuvent être cherchées.
Les activités suivantes permettent aux éleveurs de s’informer et d’informer les autres, de trouver du courage,
de se renforcer mutuellement, de développer des visions et des actions communes. Il s’agit, entre autres de :
   • La création de ces espaces d’échanges
   • La formation des éleveurs sur leurs droits et devoirs leur ajoute de la force
   • Des connaissances en organisation, en lobbying et en techniques de négociations
   • L’appui organisationnel et financier de la mise en place des réseaux et des plates-formes d’éleveurs
   • Des tribunes locales peuvent aider à réduire le déficit de communication entre les pasteurs et les
        politiques.

Les résultats des groupes de travail sont un indicateur représentatif pour la continuation du montage du
réseau CME. La nécessité d’un réseau formel qui représente les organisations des pasteurs à une échelle
internationale est ressortie clairement. Le mandat des participants au CME est repris dans les
recommandations. Enfin la lettre aux ministres rappelle le rôle que le forum du CME-2004 a retenu pour les
gouvernements en faveur des pasteurs.

Recommandations

La 7ième édition du CME sur le thème « Accès aux ressources naturelles : code pastoral – signe de
reconnaissance légitime des éleveurs ou combat sans solution durable ? » a adopté deux catégories de
recommandations :

1.       Au Conseil Mondial des Eleveurs

Les associations nationales engagent le CME :
   • À servir d’interface dans les négociations pour la résolution des conflits inter-pasteurs ;
   • À être leur porte-parole dans les instances internationales (forum social mondial ; forum économique
       mondial) ;
   • À jouer un rôle de lobbying, de plaidoyer auprès des États, des institutions internationales comme : le
       PNUD, la FAO, la Banque Mondiale etc.;
   • À faire un suivi-évaluation des différents forums organisés,
   • À intervenir au niveau des gouvernements et partenaires pour porter haut le flambeau des éleveurs,
   • À organiser des tribunes d’éleveurs au niveau de chaque pays,
   • À assurer la promotion de réseaux d’associations d’éleveurs pour revaloriser l’image du pastoralisme
   • À mobiliser tous les partenaires dans les négociations.

2.       À l’Etat

     •   Élaborer, appliquer, respecter et faire respecter les législations
     •   Assurer la sécurité foncière aux éleveurs
     •   Assurer l’accès équitable aux ressources naturelles
     •   Garantir le pastoralisme en tant que mode de vie et activité socio-économique,

                                                                                                             24
•   Promouvoir des stratégies de gestion alternatives de conflits en s’appuyant sur les formes
    traditionnelles et les textes de lois et règlements
•   Assurer la sensibilisation et la vulgarisation des lois et règlements pour la protection équitable des
    citoyens
•   Déterminer les statuts des champs en zone pastorale
•   Promouvoir une politique d’aménagement du territoire et sa mise en œuvre,
•   Assurer l’application conséquente des textes législatifs et réglementaires qui favorisent une
    organisation libre et viable des éleveurs
•   Associer les éleveurs aux prises de décisions concernant le foncier




                                                                                                             25
LE NOUVEAU SITE DU EASYPOL / EASYPOL WEB SITE – FAO
EASYPol est un référentiel interactif en ligne qui propose des ressources liées à l’élaboration des politiques
agricoles et rurales dans le secteur du développement. Ce référentiel a été lancé par la Division de
l'Assistance aux Politiques de la FAO.
EASYPol a été créé pour faciliter l'accès au matériel concernant l’élaboration des politiques par
l’intermédiaire d'un moteur de recherche avancé, de matériel organisé par thèmes ainsi que par des parcours
de formation. Disponible en anglais, français et espagnol, EASYPol est régulièrement mis à jour avec de
nouvelles informations.
Pour visiter le site veuillez accéder au site web :
http://www.fao.org/tc/easypol/output/index_main.asp?lang=FR

EASYPol is an on-line, interactive multilingual repository of downloadable resource materials for capacity
development in policy making for food, agriculture and rural development. EASYPol materials are
developed and maintained by the Agricultural Policy Support Service of FAO.
EASYPol materials are structured into inter-related and cross-linked modules organised by topic, type and
training paths that can be accessed through user-friendly search facilities.
New materials are being continuously developed and will be added to the existing collection. Check our
EASYPol news page to see our new issues.
Certain EASYPol modules are consolidated into printed publications under the CAFAP (Capacity
Development in Food and Agriculture Polices) series produced by the Agricultural Policy Support
Service.We hope you find EASYPol a useful tool. Feedback and comments are welcome and should be
addressed to easypol@fao.org.
To visit EASYPOL go to the website :
http://www.fao.org/tc/easypol/output/index_main.asp?lang=EN




                                                                                                           26
BUREAU   POUR    L'ECHANGE    ET  LA                                          DISTRIBUTION                  DE
L'INFORMATION SUR LE MINI-ELEVAGE
BEDIM est une association internationale sans but lucratif qui se consacre à la collecte, au traitement et la
diffusion des informations concernant les espèces animales relevant du mini-élevage et l'utilisation de leurs
produits (voir site internet http://www.bib.fsagx.ac.be/bedim/).
Dans le but de dynamiser son site internet et favoriser l’échange entre chercheurs et praticiens du mini-
élevage dans le monde, BEDIM fait un appel aux anciens du RIPROSAT.
Si vous êtes lié au mini-élevage, vous pouvez envoyer vos coordonnées à l’adresse suivante en précisant :
    -   nom, prénom et adresse complète
    -   téléphone, fax, adresse e-mail
    -   si vous êtes chercheur ou praticien
    -   indiquer l’espèce ou les espèces avec lesquelles vous travaillez
En outre, si vous êtes chercheur et êtes occupé dans un programme de recherche, il serait intéressant que
vous transmettiez également cette information et, surtout, les possibilités de stage avec leurs conditions. Ces
données seront répertoriées sur le site de BEDIM
Adresse de contact :
BEDIM
Faculté universitaire des Sciences agronomiques de Gembloux, Unité de Zootechnie
Passage des Déportés, 2 - B-5030 Gembloux - Belgique
fax + 32(0)81-62 21 15
e-mail bedim@fsagx.ac.be




BUREAU FOR EXCHANGE AND DISTRIBUTION OF INFORMATION ON
MINILIVESTOCK
BEDIM is a non-profit making international organization devoted to identification, processing and diffusion
of information and data related to minilivestock allover the world and to promote a sustainable use of non-
conventional animals and their products (see website http://www.bib.fsagx.ac.be/bedim/).
With the aim of revitalizing its website and favouring the exchange among researchers and practitioners in
the world involved in minilivestock, BEDIM calls on the alumni of RIPROSAT for collaboration.
If you are involved in minilivestock, you are invited to send BEDIM the following information:
    -    Name, first name and complete address
    -    Telephone, fax, e-mail
    -    Specify if you are a researcher or a practitioner
    -    Indicate the animal species you are dealing with
Besides, if you are a researcher and involved in a research program, please inform us about the possibilities
and conditions for students to do teaching practices. In the future, individuals interested in minilivestock will
be able to consult these informations on the website of BEDIM.
Contact address:
BEDIM
Faculté universitaire des Sciences agronomiques de Gembloux - Unité de Zootechnie
Passage des Déportés, 2 - B-5030 Gembloux - Belgium
fax + 32(0)81-62 21 15
e-mail bedim@fsagx.ac.be
                                                                                                     ET




                                                                                                              27
PRIX ARMAND FERON 2004
Le prix Armand Féron est une donation familiale, créé en mémoire du Dr. Armand Féron, un vétérinaire
belge qui a consacré, avec dévouement et conviction, sa brève carrière professionnelle à la Coopération au
Développement dans le domaine de la Production et de la Santé Animales dans le Tiers Monde. Le prix est
attribué tous les deux ans à une personne originaire d’un pays en développement ou d’Europe qui a apporté
par son travail une contribution significative au développement rural dans les pays du Tiers Monde. La
famille Féron a demandé au Département Vétérinaire de l’Institut de Médecine Tropicale d’Anvers de créer
un comité de sélection afin d’identifier les lauréats pour le Prix Féron. Les lauréats précédents étaient : Dr.
D. Zongo (Côte d’Ivoire, 1994), Dr. O. Diall (Mali, 1998), Prof. W. Benitez-Ortiz (Equateur, 2000), Dr. M.
Mulumba (Zambie, 2002) et l’organisation Vétérinaires sans Frontières-Belgique en 2002.

LAUREAT 2004

En 2004 le Département Vétérinaire a décidé, à l’unanimité, de remettre à titre posthume le Prix Féron au Dr.
Kakule Kasonia. Le Dr. Kasonia est d’origine Congolaise (Rép. Dém.). Il a
fait ses études de médecine vétérinaire à l’Université de Lubumbashi et a
obtenu son doctorat à la Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire à Liège. Le titre de
sa thèse de doctorat était ‘ Plantes Médicinales et médecine traditionnelle en
Afrique Centrale’. Le Dr. Kasonia était un homme charismatique et très
intelligent, qui a contribué énormément à la promotion de la médecine
vétérinaire traditionnelle. Il était un des instigateurs du réseau
‘Ethnoveterinary Medicine’. Le 29 avril 2004 il a été attaqué par une bande
de bandits pendant qu’il travaillait pour Vétérinaires sans Frontières au Nord
du Cameroun. Il laisse une veuve et 5 enfants. Le Prix Féron lui a été remis à
titre posthume lors du symposium organisé par VsF-Belgique le 15 avril 2005
‘Le rôle de l’élevage dans le développement durable et dans la lutte contre la
pauvreté’.


ARMAND FÉRON PRICE 2004
The Armand Féron price is a family donation, created in the memory of Dr. Armand Féron. This Belgian
veterinarian dedicated his short professional career with devotion and conviction to development cooperation
in the field of animal production and health in the developing world. The price is awarded every two years to
a person, originating from a developing country or Europe, who by his work has made a significant
contribution to the rural development of the Third World countries. The Féron family has invited the
Veterinary Department of the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp to create a selection committee for
identifying the laureates for the Féron price. The former laureates were: Dr. D. Zongo (Ivory Coast, 1994),
Dr. O. Diall (Mali, 1998), Prof. W. Benitez-Ortiz (Ecuador, 2000), Dr. M. Mulumba (Zambia, 2002) and the
organization Veterinarians without Borders (VWB)-Belgium in 2002.

2004 LAUREATE

In 2004 the Veterinary Department has decided unanimously to award the price posthumously to Dr. Kakule
Kasonia. Dr. Kasonia is Congolese by birth. He studied veterinary medicine at the University of Lubumbashi
and obtained his doctorate at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Liège. His senior thesis was entitled
‘Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Central Africa’. Dr. Kasonia was a charismatic and very
intelligent man, who contributed greatly to the promotion of traditional veterinary medicine. He was one of
the founders of the network ‘Ethnoveterinary Medicine’. On April 29th 2004 he was attacked by a gang of
criminals while working for Veterinarians without Borders in the north of Cameroon. He leaves a widow and
five children. The Féron price was awarded to him posthumously during the symposium, organized by VWB
on April 15th 2005, ‘The role of breeding in durable development and in the struggle against poverty’.




                                                                                                            28
THE SURPRISES OF EXTENSION WORK
(a true story by Hugo Van Swinderen)


In those days, there were not one, but two livestock development projects operating in the same North-
Eastern corner of the Borgou: our FAO project and one financed by the EEC and run by my good friend and
colleague Michel Lecomte. We were sometimes complementing, but rather more often overlapping each
other, this to the bewilderment of the Beninese field workers, and to a lesser extend of the villagers who
could hardly decipher the “donor” logo’s on the flanks of our respective vehicles and who frankly didn’t care
less to know who financed what, as long as they saw things happening.

One field of activity where this overlapping did give a lot of confusion in the minds of the farmers were our
demonstrations of fodder conservation. One should know that in the rainy season (roughly from June till
September) the local grasses grow at a tremendous speed, up to three meters tall, much faster than the cattle
can eat them. But no sooner have the daily rains ceased to fall, or this immense biomass of grass begins to
wither and only a few weeks later you’re left with tough, coarse straw which only a desperately hungry cow
will try to digest. Then arrive the bush fires (sometimes set by lightning, but far more often by little boys, to
chase out the edible rats) and all what’s left until next year is ash and roasted trees and bushes. What a waste!

So: fodder conservation is the answer: cut all that grass when it’s green and juicy, and store it for the long
dry season, just as European farmers have been doing since centuries, for their long cold winter. Logical,
isn’t it? But how to keep the grass from spoiling? That’s where our two schools of thought clashed: the FAO
promoted haymaking, that is to say letting the freshly cut grass dry out in the sun until it has lost almost all
its moisture, then pile it up into a haystack. The European Union, so to speak, was in favour of silage
making: dig a trench, fill it up with cut grass, press well, cover tightly with soil and let nature do its work,
namely a spontaneous lactic fermentation which acts as a preservative identical to sauerkraut making, with as
result: silage.

Both methods are technically feasible, each with its practical pros and cons, but were they socially
acceptable? We didn’t know, it had never been tried before in the region but we were all eager to go ahead
and both projects started out with a series of field demonstrations, both projects operating in the same area,
trying to convince the same farmers that hay (or silage) was The Thing. This, of course, is a situation one
should carefully avoid: that in front of the people to be convinced, technicians should contradict each other.

It so happened that in the village of Mareguinta, both fodder conservation waves had passed, each having left
in its wake a few haystacks and also a few silage trenches, all this made, it must be said, by the voluntary
labour of the half interested, half amused local population. Now, with the onset of the dry and dusty
harmattan weather, it was time to make an evaluation. So we called another meeting with the villagers (the
patience and courtesy of African farmers, beleaguered as they are with orientation, formulation and
evaluation missions, seems unlimited), “at 8 am sharp”.

Toward ten o’clock the first elders began to gather under the “arbre de palabres” (the younger male
population understandably had more urgent things to do) and at 11 am we could start. So to hear, the fodder
conservation campaign had been a great success: everybody was convinced of its necessity, and as from now
on, their animals would have, so we were assured, enough to eat throughout the long dry season. Of course,
us being FAO, we were particularly keen on hearing about the progress of the haymaking method, and I
wanted to find out which of both alternatives, hay or silage, had won their preference. I was playing a high
game: I had no idea what the popular verdict would be. So I asked the question.

There was a deadly silence. I saw my local extension workers stiffen visibly, thinking Monsieur Hugo had
gone mad: hadn’t they been doing their very best to convince each farmer they could get hold of, that
haymaking was the sole valuable method? Why sowing doubt just now? Raising my voice, I repeated my
question, duly translated in Bo and Fulani. At last a very old man stood up:
“I prefer haymaking.” (sigh of relief)
“Very good, old man, and please tell us why?”

                                                                                                              29
With disapproval in his voice, and referring to the silage trenches, came the reply:
“I don’t like that silage business: what’s been buried, should remain buried.”


FELLOWSHIPS
La plupart des informations, qui suivent, sont déjà connues par nos membres francophones puiqu’elles sont
parues dans des éditions antérieures de cette lettre. Cependant Noor les a rassemblé afin de les passer à nos
amis anglophones.



A. FELLOWSHIPS FOR MSC STUDIES OR OTHER

DGDC FELLOWSHIPS

With the financial support of the Belgian Directorate for Development Cooperation (DGDC), the Institute of
Tropical Medicine is able to offer sixteen fellowships to applicants from developing countries for
international Master courses. Acceptance to a course is conditional to, but no guarantee for such
scholarships. The application form for a DGDC Fellowship can be acquired, on request, from the course
coordinator or directly downloaded from the ITM website (http://www.itg.be). The fully completed form
should be returned by the candidate himself before the end of March. In May the selection committee meets
to decide which application forms will be withheld.

The selection is made on the basis of the following criteria:
• The candidate’s motivation
• His/her age (maximum age of 45 years)
• His/her professional experience (minimum 2 years; positive discrimination for those who work or have
worked in or with projects funded by Belgium)
• The amount of responsibility trusted upon the candidate in his country of origin (and the relevance of the
MSTAH course in respect of those responsibilities)
• His/her previous academic studies (be holder of a degree in veterinary medicine, biology, agricultural or
zoological sciences, bioengineering or a degree considered equivalent by the Departmental Council, and
have an excellent academic background or profile)
• The geographical origin of the applicant (preferably no more than 4 grant applicants should have the same
nationality; political stability in the country of origin)
• Positive discrimination for female candidates

                                Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine
                                            Nationalestraat 155
                                            B-2000 Antwerpen
                                                  Belgium
                                         E-mail: education@itg.be

INTERNATIONAL OR BILATERAL PROJECTS

For candidates who are employed by international projects (financed by F.A.O., F.E.D. of P.N.U.D.) or
certain bilateral projects (funded by the British Council, DGDC, Coopération française, GTZ,… ) it is
sometimes possible to obtain a fellowship from these organisations. All applications must be submitted to the
director of the project or the ministry concerned.

THE JOINT JAPAN/WORLD BANK GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM

The JJ/WBGSP offers fellowships for studies related to development at the master’s level, in fields such as
agriculture, environment, natural resource management,… The basic requirements are roughly the same as

                                                                                                          30
those mentioned for DGDC grants: considered are nationals of a World Bank member country, between the
ages of 25 and 45, with a university degree from a developing country and at least 2 years of professional
work experience. More information and the necessary application documents can be found on the website
(http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/scholarships/). All applications must reach the JJ/WPGSP Secretariat before
April 1st (for September intake).
                                              The World Bank
                          Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Programme
                                      1818 H Street, NW-MSN J2-204
                                       Washington, DC 20433 - USA
                                          Tel: +1 (202) 473-6849
                                          Fax: +1 (202) 522-4036
                                      E-mail: jjwbgsp@worldbank.org

THE ISLAMIC DEVELOPMENT BANK (IDB) M.SC SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMME

The IDB M.Sc Scholarship Programme offers scholarships to students from e.g. Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad,
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Togo, Uganda, Djibouti, Somalia, Sierra Leone, Mozambique
and Mauritania, whose maximum age is 30 years. Eligible students may apply for studies in science,
engineering, technology or medicine, before April 1st (for September intake).

Application forms can be obtained through the Offices of the IDB Governors in the students’ countries, the
designated Contact / Focal Points for the Programme or the Office of the Scholarship programme. More
information can be found on the IDB website (http://www.isdb.org).

                                Islamic Development Bank (Head Quarter)
                                     Office of Scholarship Programme
                                               P.O. Box 5925
                                               Jeddah 21432
                                         Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                                          Tel: (+9662) 6361400
                                          Fax: (+9662) 6366871
                                      E-mail: idbarchives@isdb.org

THE FLEMISH COMMUNITY

The Flemish Community provides fellowships to Europeans and nationals of countries with whom Flanders
has signed a bilateral cultural agreement, e.g. China, Egypt, India, Israel, Morocco, and Mexico. Individuals
interested in such scholarships should contact the Attaché of the Flemish Community of the Belgian
Embassy or the Department of Education in their respective countries. Official application forms are
available from these agencies. The application deadline is usually February 1st for admission in September of
the same year, but should be confirmed with the agencies. The admission fee is not provided for within the
grant!

THE PROGRAMME ALBAN (EUROPEAN COMMISSION)

The Programme Alban aims at the reinforcement of the European Union – Latin America co-operation in the
area of Higher Education. Participants are the Member States of the European Union and the following 18
countries of Latin America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.

The Programme covers postgraduate (master – doctorate) or higher specialised education / training, for a
period of 6 months to 3 years, in institutions or centres in the European Union. Application forms can be
found on http://www.programalban.org or http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/alban and sent via
postal address or Internet. Deadlines for submission of applications are defined in each annual call.

                                               Alban Office
                                        Asociación Grupo Santander

                                                                                                          31
                                          Universidade do Porto
                                        Rua de Ceuta, 118 5° S/35
                                        4050-190 Porto - Portugal
                                          Fax: +351 22 2046 159
                                      E-mail: info@programalban.org
                  (Or contact the European Commission: europeaid-infoalban@cec.eu.int)

THE FORD FOUNDATION INTERNATIONAL FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAMME (IFP)

The Ford Foundation awards fellowships for advanced study to exceptional individuals who will use their
education to further development in their own countries. Fellows may enrol in masters or doctoral programs
and may pursue any academic discipline or field of study that is consistent with the interests and goals of the
Ford Foundation.

Candidates must be nationals or residents of an eligible IFP country, situated in Africa (e.g. Ghana, Nigeria,
Senegal, Kenya, Uganda), the Middle-East, Asia (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam), Latin America (e.g. Brazil, Chile,
Mexico, Peru) or Russia; furthermore, they must hold a baccalaureate degree or its equivalent, and have
substantial experience.

For more information on IFP, or to apply for a fellowship, interested individuals may contact the IFP
International Partner in their region. The addresses of these regional IFP offices can be found through the
Ford Foundation’s website: http://www.fordfound.org .

THE INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE (IDRC)

The International Development Research Centre funds and administrates a number of research programs and
projects in the field of international development: environment and natural resource management,
information and communication technologies for development, and socioeconomic equity. IDRC also offers
training awards for long-term training for citizens of developing countries, for a graduate degree program;
however, these awards are only given in the context of an existing IDRC project or program, for project-
related reasons. For more information on IDRC’s projects, programs and awards: http://web.idrc.ca/en/ev-1-
201-1-DO_TOPIC.html .
                                             IDRC Head Office
                                                P.O. Box 8500
                                                 Ottawa, ON,
                                                   Canada
                                                  K1G3H9
                                          Tel: (+1-613) 236-6163
                                          Fax: (+1-613) 238-7230
                                            E-mail: info@idrc.ca

THE COMMONWEALTH SCHOLARSHIP AND FELLOWSHIP PLAN (CSFP)

Through the Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan of the Association of Commonwealth
Universities (ACU), member countries of the Commonwealth offer educational and training opportunities to
each other’s citizens (Botswana, Cameroon, Kenya, The Gambia, Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda, Swaziland,… – Belgium is not a Commonwealth member
country!). Nature, terms and conditions, duration and application deadlines vary.

Historically, the majority of awards have been offered for postgraduate study - both doctorates and taught
courses. There are, however, exceptions to this. Some countries - most notably the United Kingdom - offer
Fellowships for mid-career professionals to spend a short period of professional updating. A small number of
undergraduate awards have been made - for example the new award in Mauritius.

Detailed information is available at the ACU (http://www.acu.ac.uk) and the CSFP website
(http://www.csfp-online.org).
                              Association of Commonwealth Universities

                                                                                                            32
                                             36 Gordon Square
                                           London WC1H OPF
                                              United Kingdom
                                         Tel: +44 (0)20 7380 6700
                                         Fax: +44 (0)20 7387 2655
                                          E-mail: info@acu.ac.uk

THE HUBERT H. HUMPHREY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM (HHH)

The HHH Fellowship Program, a Fulbright exchange activity, offers fellowships for up to a maximum of a
year of study and professional experience in the USA, to mid-level professionals from designated countries
in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, the Middle-East and Eurasia. An undergraduate degree, five
years of professional experience, demonstrated leadership qualities and fluency in English are required.

During their fellowship year, Humphrey fellows participate in programs that combine graduate-level
academic coursework with professional development activities. The program is not a degree program, but
rather is designed to provide broad professional enrichment through a combination of activities tailored to
each fellow’s interests.

Interested candidates can find more information through the website of the Institute of International
Education (IIE) (http://www.iie.org), and receive an application through the Public Affairs Section of the
U.S. Embassy of the Fulbright Commission in their home country.

                                      Humphrey Fellowship Program
                                    Institute of International Education
                                      1400 K Street, NW, Suite 650
                                      Washington, DC 20005 - USA
                                            Tel: (202) 326-7701
                                            Fax: (202) 326-7702




B. FELLOWSHIPS FOR PHD STUDIES, POST-DOCTORAL RESEARCH OR
OTHER


THE INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL MEDICINE (ITM)

With the financial support of the Belgian Directorate for Development Co-operation (DGDC), the ITM
started in 2003 a doctoral studies programme for former Master-course participants (MPA, MDC or
MSTAH). Each year, at the end of September, a Selection Committee for Doctoral Studies of the ITM will
evaluate the proposals and choose up to three candidates that fulfil the academic requirements.

The selection is made on the basis of the following criteria:
• the academic achievements of the candidate: academic training transcripts and previous professional and
scientific (if any) experience
• the research topic which is proposed and its relevance compared to the research agenda of the ITM
scientists. The committee also has to be convinced that the research can be finalised within a 4-year time-
period, during which all expenses are covered by the scholarship.
• the candidate’s age: the candidate should obtain his/her PhD before reaching the age of 45. Usually it is
better not to wait too long after your MSc before starting a PhD; 2 to 3 years would be a suitable period.
• An additional criterion is that the candidate should not be working within or connected to an existing
project of the ITM. In the latter case the application should be send to the project managers and not to the
scholarship fund for alumni.

                                                                                                         33
For more information, visit http://www.itg.be.

                               Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine
                                           Nationalestraat 155
                                           B-2000 Antwerpen
                                                 Belgium
                                          Tel: +32-3-247-66-66
                                          Fax: +32-3-216-14-31
                                        E-mail: education@itg.be

THE INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR SCIENCE (IFS)

The IFS Granting Programme is open for project proposals from developing country scientists who conduct
research on the sustainable management of biological resources (topics in both natural and applied sciences
such as animal husbandry, agriculture, veterinary medicine,…). Candidates must be under 40 years of age
and hold at least a Master’s or equivalent degree / research experience.

Application forms can be requested from the IFS Secretariat or directly downloaded from the website
(http://www.ifs.se). They must reach the Secretariat before the end of June (1st deadline) or December (2nd
deadline).

IFS occasionally issues calls for applications together with other partner or donor organizations, e.g. the
United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS), Japan. Both the Agriculture for Peace
Fellowship (APF) competition and the Science and Technology Fellowship (STF) competition are in the
form of an ordinary IFS Research Grant, plus an additional Fellowship component, sponsored by UNU-IAS.
To apply, a candidate must fill in the IFS Grant Application Form as well as an additional form, which is
available for download on the IFS or the UNU-IAS website (http://www.ias.unu.edu). The application
deadline is June 30th.

                                 International Foundation for Science (IFS)
                                          Karlavägen 108, 5th floor
                                           SE-115 26 Stockholm
                                                  Sweden
                                           Tel: +46 8 545 818 00
                                           Fax: +46 8 545 818 01

THE ISLAMIC DEVELOPMENT BANK MERIT SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMME

The IDB Merit Scholarship Programme provides scholarships to promising and / or outstanding scholars and
researchers to undertake advanced studies and / or research in the fields of applied science and technology.
Eligible are students from IDB member countries who are between 25 and 35 (for Ph.D study) or 25 and 40
(for Post-Doctoral research) of age and hold a M.Sc (for Ph.D study) or Ph.D (for Post-Doc research)
minimum.

Application forms can be obtained through the Offices of the IDB Governors in the students’ countries, the
designated Contact / Focal Points for the Programme or the Office of the Scholarship programme. More
information can be found on the IDB website (http://www.isdb.org).

                                 Islamic Development Bank (Head Quarter)
                                      Office of Scholarship Programme
                                                P.O. Box 5925
                                                Jeddah 21432
                                          Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                                           Tel: (+9662) 6361400
                                           Fax: (+9662) 6366871
                                       E-mail: idbarchives@isdb.org

                                                                                                         34
THE WELLCOME TRUST’S RESEARCH TRAINING / CAREER DEVELOPMENT
FELLOWSHIP IN TROPICAL MEDICINE

The Wellcome Trust’s Training Fellowship in Tropical Medicine provides up to 4 years’ support to basic
science or veterinary graduates with a Ph.D and less than four years of postdoctoral research experience. For
graduates with a Ph.D and three to eight years’ postdoctoral research experience, there is the Research
Career Development Fellowship in Tropical Medicine. Developing country graduates who do not have a
Ph.D, but who are educated to first degree of Master’s level, and have research experience equivalent to a
Ph.D (as evidenced by their publication record) may also be considered for both fellowships. Research
projects must be based primarily in a developing country setting, while training may be undertaken at centres
of excellence regionally or internationally, recognised as the most appropriate location for the particular
research area.

Candidates should first complete a preliminary application form, which can be downloaded from the
Wellcome Trust’s website (http://www.wellcome.ac.be). If the preliminary application meets the scheme’s
requirements, a full application form will be sent out. Applications are considered twice a year.

                         Tropical and Clinical Immunology and Infectious Disease
                                           The Wellcome Trust
                                             215 Euston Road
                                            London NW1 2BE
                                         Tel: +44 (0)20 7611 8764
                                        Fax: +44 (0)20 7611 7288
                                     E-mail: tropical@wellcome.ac.uk


GHENT UNIVERSITY’S DOCTORAL                            GRANTS         FOR       CANDIDATES          FROM
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


Every year the University of Ghent offers a number of doctoral grants for candidates from developing
countries who wish to obtain a Ph.D at Ghent University. The candidates must come from – and must also
possess the nationality of – one of the countries on the OECD-DAC list part I (Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development – Development Assistance Committee). Relating to the fields of research, no
restrictions are imposed. The grant covers an initial period of two years, which may be extended by an
additional two years, depending on the evaluation of the progress report.

For more information and application forms: www.ugent.be.

                                   President of the Research Council
                                    C/o Research Co-ordination Unit
                              New Rectorate Building, fifth floor, room 5.11A
                                       Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 25
                                               9000 Gent
                                                Belgium
                                          Tel: +32 9 264 3027
                                     E-mail: ann.peters@UGent.be

THE ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT-FOUNDATION

The Alexander von Humboldt Foundation enables highly qualified researchers from developing countries to
carry out academic projects of their own choice in Germany (age limit: 45 years). The subject of the research
proposal must be of relevance to development policy and particularly suited to the transfer of knowledge and
methods to developing countries. Applications may be submitted for long-term research stays of between 6
and 12 months.

                                                                                                          35
On the website http://www.avh.de/en/programme/index.htm one can find comprehensive information on the
fellowships and awards; it is also possible to download the necessary application documents directly from
the web.

                                 The Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation
                                          Jean-Paul-Strasse 12
                                             D-53173 Bonn
                                                Germany
                                         Tel: (+49) 0228-833-0
                                        Fax: (+49) 0228-833-199
                                      E-mail: forster.select@avh.de

THE VISITING FULBRIGHT SCHOLAR PROGRAM

The Visiting Fulbright Scholar Program is administered by the Council for International Exchange of
Scholars (CIES), a division of the Institute of International Education (IIE). Individual Fulbright grants are
available to scholars from selected countries, to conduct research, lecture or pursue combined lecturing and
research in the United States for a period of 3 to 12 months. A doctoral degree or equivalent professional
training or experience is required.

Interested individuals who meet the eligibility requirements apply for grants through the Fulbright
commission / foundation or public affairs section of the U.S. embassy in their home countries. Addresses and
further information can be found through the CIES website: http://www.cies.org .

THE IIE SCHOLAR RESCUE FUND (SRF)

The Scholar Rescue Fund of the Institute of International Education offers fellowships to support temporary
visits to universities and colleges around the world by scholars whose life, security or work is threatened in
their home region. Scholars in any field or discipline and from any country or region will be considered. The
fellowships are intended for established academic professionals, not students, and preference may be given
to those scholars holding a Ph.D. or other highest degree and who have been employed at a college or
university for an extended period.

Applications may be submitted for stays of between 3 and 12 months, and are accepted at any time
throughout the year. They will be considered by the Selection Committee 3 times per year (generally in
October, January and April); however, emergency applications will be considered earlier if a candidate’s
circumstances do not permit waiting for the next regular Committee meeting.

On the website of the IIE (http://www.iie.org/SRF ) one can find more information on the SRF as well as the
necessary application documents.
                                      IIE Scholar Rescue Fellowships
                                       809 U.N. Plaza, Second Floor,
                                           New York, NY 10017
                                                    USA
                                        Tel (USA): 1-212-984-5472
                                        Fax (USA): 1-212-984-5401
                                            E-mail: SRF@iie.org

THE KELLOGG FOUNDATION
Grantseeking
What we fund
The Foundation will consider requests that fall within our established or developing programming areas, as
listed below. Most grants are awarded in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean, and seven
southern Africa countries including Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, and
Zimbabwe. To be eligible for a grant, the organization or institution, as well as the purpose of the proposed


                                                                                                           36
project, must qualify under regulations of the United States Internal Revenue Service as a 501c3 organization
(non profit or charitable organisations)
What we don't fund
The Foundation generally does not make loans and does not provide grants for:
    • operational phases of established programs;
    • capital purposes (purchasing, remodeling, or furnishing of facilities and equipment, except as part of
         a programmatic effort);
    • separate budget line items labeled as "indirect or overhead costs";
    • conferences;
    • films, television, or radio programs unless they are an integral parts of a project or program already
         being funded;
    • endowments or development campaigns;
    • religious programs; or
    • individuals.
Note: Research, planning or studies are sometimes funded only as part of a broader program or Foundation-
funded project.

Some examples of projects in South Africa funded by the Kellogg Foundation :
Bulilima-Mangwe Rural District Council 6/1/2004 5/31/2007 $677,700.00 Active Engage rural communities
in economic activities in the livestock and marula industries, promote good health and hygiene, and enhance
leadership training
Chimanimani Rural District Council 6/1/2004 5/31/2007 $260,000.00 Active Strengthen community-level
development committees to increase participation in district planning and development processes and
improve the quality of community health care delivery systems
University of Fort Hare 6/1/2004 5/31/2006 $450,000.00 Active Strengthen the production and institutional
capacity of the smallholder red meat producers in Eastern Cape Province to enhance strategic access to the
commercial red meat markets



   If you know other grant delivering organisations which do not occurr in this list, please fill Noor
   Goemaere (ngoemaere@itg.be) in on these opportunities!!




                                                                                                          37
CONFÉRENCES / CONFERENCES

THE 4TH WORLD CONFERENCE ON MOBILE LEARNING, MLEARN 2005
will take place from 25 to 28 October 2005 in Cape Town, South Africa.
                         This annual conference is the key research and networking event for researchers,
                         strategists, educators, technologists and practitioners from all over the world.
                         Previous mLearn conferences have attracted participants from more than 60
                         countries, and is, therefore, the world's largest conference on mLearning and
                         emerging ambient technologies
                         This conference is organised by the Tshwane University of Technology, the
                         University of Pretoria and the University of South Africa in collaboration with the
                         Mobilearn and M-learning projects.

If you have any further questions, please contact the Conference Secretariat at:
                                                  Postnet suite 112,
                                                   Private Bag X855
                                                    Pretoria, 0002
                                                      South Africa
                                             E-Mail: info@mlearn.org.za
                                              Fax:     +27 12 318-5108
                                              Tel:     +27 12 318-5042

 Ceux, qui désirent recevoir ce rapport n'ont qu'à en faire la demande auprès de noor (ngoemaere@itg.be) .
  Veuillez préciser le format que vous désirez recevoir (une copie imprimée ou une copie électronique).

                                --------------------------------------------------------

THE   INTERNET                   CONFERENCES                      ON          BIOTECHNOLOGY             AND
BIOENGINEERING
When you read this message the conferences will probably have come to an end, but, for those who are
 interested in one of the conference topics, the proceedings of the conferences are said to be available at the
 IOBB website.

IOBB is organizing the Internet Conference on Biotechnology and Bioengineering in Africa
(http://www.iobbnet.org/icbb-africa) which will have 3 e-symposia.

* E-Symposium on Biological Nitrogen Fixation
 http://www.iobbnet.org/drupal/forum/84

* E-symposium on Economic aspects on the use of Biotechnologies and Bioengineering in Urban
   Agriculture by African Households
 http://www.iobbnet.org/drupal/forum/102

* E-Symposium on Phytoremediation and Water Purification
  http://www.iobbnet.org/drupal/forum/100

The virtual conference is hosted at www.iobbnet.org and uses the IOBB Drupal - a webforum software. All
participants are recommended to create their user accounts at www.iobbnet.org (if you dont have one
already) and then send a request to et-w7 @ segate.sunet.se for write permissions so that you can write
comments and even upload images.
Registration is free as the I-conference has two sponsors.
Please goto http://www.iobbnet.org/icbb-africa for more information

                                --------------------------------------------------------


                                                                                                             38
THE 6TH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON THE CONSERVATION OF DOMESTIC
ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES
The Farm Animal Conservation Trust (FACT), the Agricultural Research Council (ARC), and Rare Breeds
International (RBI) are pleased to invite you to the 6th Global Conference on the Conservation of Domestic
Animal Genetic Resources to be held in Magaliesburg, South Africa in October 2005.
                   Magalies Park Conference Centre, North-West Province, South Africa
                                   Sunday, 9 – Thursday, 13 October 2005

The Farm Animal Conservation Trust (FACT) is a non-profit organization that promoted and facilitated the
conservation of farm animal genetic resources of economic, scientific and cultural interest to agriculture in
South Africa.
The theme for the 2005 Conference is: Conservation : The Future
A wide audience of conservationists of farm animal genetic resources from around the world are welcome.
The 6th Global Conference on the Conservation of Farm Animal Genetic Resources will provide a forum for
the interaction and exchange of information and ideas on all aspects of animal genetic resource conservation
as a tool for sustainable development and will include a session sponsored by the FAO on the First report on
the State of the World Animal Genetic Resources.

The following topics will be covered:
• In situ and ex situ conservation
• Research and application: farming for the future
• Indigenous knowledge systems, IPR’s, access and benefit sharing of Farm Animal Genetic Resources
• The family farm and conservation
• Marketing rare breeds and products
• Agricultural innovations involving indigenous animals and traditional farming practices
• Breeders / keepers’ rights
•
The official language of the Conference will be English. Final date for registration 30 September 2005
Official Conference Organiser
                                               Anelja de Bok
                                     Email: Anelja@gogirlevents.co.za
                               Phone: +27 11 781 8611, Fax: +27 11 781 8622

                               --------------------------------------------------------

4TH LATIN AMERICAN CONGRESS                                            ON         AGROFORESTRY                FOR
SUSTAINABLE ANIMAL PRODUCTION.
24-October-2006 / 27-October-2006
More information? please contact Jesús Suárez (jesus.suárez@indio.atenas.inf.cu)

                               --------------------------------------------------------

THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DESERT ANIMALS
(SHEEP, GOATS, CAMELS, HORSES AND OSTRICH) PRODUCTION IN HOT
CLIMATES

                                 The conference will take place from 29-August-2005 to 31-August-2005.
                                 The Conference is organized by The Egyptian Association of Desert
                                 Animals Production.
                                 For more information please contact Prof. Dr. I. Fayez M.
                                 Marai (profmarai@yahoo.co.uk).

                                                   --------------------------------------------------------

                                                                                                               39
THE 20TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE WORLD ASSOCIATION
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY

Where ? : Christchurch, New Zealand
When ? : 16-20 October 2005
Earlybird Registration Deadline : 31 July 2005

                                --------------------------------------------------------

ATELIER INTERNATIONAL SUR LA « DIVERSITE DES FABACEES
FOURRAGERES ET DE LEURS SYMBIOTES »

Dans le cadre du Centenaire de l’Institut National d'Agronomie, l’INA, l’INRAA, le MATE, l’ITGC, l’ITELV et le
CNDRB organisent à Alger du 19 au 22 février 2006 un Atelier international sur la « Diversité des Fabacées
Fourragères et de leurs Symbiotes : Applications Biotechnologiques, Agronomiques et Environnementales ».
L’objectif de ce workshop international est de réunir les scientifiques concernés par l’utilisation des
Fabacées fourragères et/ou pastorales et leurs symbiotes pour l’amélioration de leurs performances dans le
souci de développer une agriculture durable sur le pourtour méditerranéen en général et dans les zones
arides et semi-arides en particulier.

Le programme de ce workshop comprendra des conférences plénières, ce qui permettra aux participants
d'avoir une vision générale des progrès dans le domaine, et des communications ciblées (orales ou
affichages) permettant des informations détaillées sur les résultats obtenus. Le programme s’articulera
autour des thèmes suivants :

   1. Ecologie et distribution des Fabacées fourragères et/ou pastorales et de leurs symbiotes ;
   2. Diversité des Fabacées fourragères et/ou pastorales et de leurs symbiotes ;
   3. Les acquis biotechnologiques et les applications possibles sur d’autres espèces ;
   4. Les acquis et les applications possibles en matière d’agronomie ;
   5. Les acquis et les applications possibles en matière d’environnement et d’aménagement du
   territoire.

Pour toute information supplémentaire veuillez contacter :
                                        Dr. ABDELGUERFI Aïssa
                                L-RGB/INA El Harrach 16200 Alger Algérie
                             a.abdelguerfi@ina.dz ou aabdelguerfi@yahoo.fr

                                --------------------------------------------------------




                                                                                                           40
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL HEALTH


   Nous nous excusons pour nos amis francophones mais à partir de cette année le rapport annuel de
   l'IMTA est rédigé uniquement en anglais.
   Au cas où vous désirez des informations complémentaires sur certains projets ou des tirés à part de
   certains articles, n'hésitez pas d'adresser votre demande au promoteur du projet ou à l'auteur de l'article
   ou à Noor Goemaere (ngoemaere@itg.be).



   In case you wish complementary information on a project or a copy of one of the manuscripts, please
   contact the promoters of the project, the author of the paper or Noor Goemaere (ngoemaere@itg.be).


The main goal of the Department of Animal Health is to improve the health and well- being of the human
population in the tropics by developing, disseminating and applying scientific knowledge of tropical
livestock diseases. The department pursues this objective through innovative and applied research, post-
graduate training and education and support for research and control of tropical animal and zoonotic
diseases. Currently, our research concentrates on biological, epidemiological and preventive aspects of
trypanosomiasis, theileriosis, taeniasis-cysticercosis and chemo-resistance against anthelmintics and
trypanocides.

Early 2004 we organised an internal management review that will be repeated annually to assess the
functioning, the output and the fund raising of the department and to discuss the way forward. This exercise
was experienced as a very useful way to ensure our quality of research and teaching. On June 10th we
organised a joint scientific meeting of the Belgian and Dutch Societies for Parasitology. Almost one hundred
scientists attended this one day conference during which senior speakers as well as young scientists
presented their latest results. On the same day Niko Speybroeck, a staff member of our department received
the prestigious Merial award 2004 which rewards a young parasitologist from the Benelux, who has made an
important and innovative contribution in the field of medical and veterinary parasitology. In October our
department organised a first meeting to initiate a Belgian platform of Tropical Veterinary Medicine.
Colleagues from the Universities of Gembloux, Ghent and Liège and of « Vétérinaires sans Frontières » were
invited to share ideas on the mission and activities of such a platform. This initiative will be followed up in
2005.

In July 2004 we celebrated the graduation of the first group of 16 Anglophone students of the new one-year
Msc course in Tropical Animal Health (see chapter on Education). Together with the Faculty of Veterinary
Science of the University of Pretoria we developed the module on tsetse and trypanosomiasis. We also
contributed significantly to the module on ticks and tick-borne diseases and helminthology for the web-based
MSc programme on Veterinary Tropical Diseases. From 2005 onwards these modules will be available on
the Web for continuing professional development in tropical animal health and in early 2006 for the full
Master programme. Finally, we organised a module on neurocysticercosis as part of a European Masters
Programme on “Neurosciences and Tropical Parasitology” coordinated by the University of Limoges,
France.

Marc Jochems and Frank Ceulemans, our senior technicians, retired in 2004. It will not be easy to
compensate for their longstanding experience in the field of laboratory techniques and teaching on tropical
diseases. Two young laboratory technicians, Anke Van Hul and Lieve Vermeiren joined the department to
take up these challenging tasks. Elke Vansnick also left the department after successfully defending her PhD-
thesis on ‘Johne’s disease in zoo animals: development of molecular tools for the detection and
characterisation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis’.




                                                                                                                 41
UNIT OF PROTOZOOLOGY

From 22 to 24 November 2004 the Unit of Protozoology organised an international conference on ‘Drug
development for parasitic diseases’ within the framework of the COST B22 action (with support from the
EU). One hundred and thirty five participants from more than 20 countries attended this conference and
presented 37 oral communications and 42 posters. In one of the sessions, which dealt with drug resistance,
our unit reported a breakthrough in the field of detection of isometamidium resistance in Trypanosoma
congolense. Indeed, we were able to identify a genetic marker for isometamidium resistance, which allowed
us to develop a PCR-RFLP test for rapid confirmation of resistant strains. The other research priorities in the
field of tsetse and trypanosomiasis were the study of genetic diversity in T. congolense, the animal reservoir
of T. b. gambiense sleeping sickness and the interactions between tsetse fly, host and environment. Important
progress was made in the research on ticks and tick-borne diseases, on the design of a control strategy for
East Coast fever (ECf) in Rwanda and on the development of a DNA vaccine against this disease.
The Unit continued its collaboration with the Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases of the University
of Pretoria and the International Trypanotolerance Centre (Banjul, The Gambia), the Centre for Ticks and
Tick-borne Diseases (Lilongwe, Malawi) and the Programme against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT).


UNIT OF HELMINTHOLOGY

The Unit of Helminthology continued the research lines on taeniasis-cysticercosis and on the control of
gastrointestinal nematode infections in livestock. International initiatives on assessing the global burden and
impact of Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis and epilepsy associated with it received increasing attention
from WHO and FAO. We contributed by generating field data from endemic areas on prevalence, disease
impact and risk factors, through our collaborative projects in Africa, South America and Asia. These studies
also provided data on regional differences in prevalence, epidemiology and clinical presentation of T. solium.
New areas of research were explored including age-related immunity in pigs to T. solium infection, and a
novel approach for identifying diagnostic biomarkers for cysticercosis based on serum protein profiling by
Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). The
aim of this research, conducted in collaboration with the McGill Institute in Montreal, Canada and for which
we obtained a PhD scholarship (Institute for the Promotion of Innovation by Science and Technology in
Flanders – IWT), is to enable serological differentiation between viable and degenerated cysticerci. Such a
test should contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of taeniasis-cysticercosis and provide a
useful tool for clinical assessment, prognosis and monitoring of human cysticercosis. We further refined
PCR-RFLP detection of Taenia spp. on both parasitic material and faecal extracts. Low cost DNA extraction
methods from faecal material were tested and are currently being validated.
We assessed the spatial distribution and risk factors of bovine cysticercosis in 4 provinces in Flanders by a
case-control study using geographic information studies and questionnaires at a herd level. We concluded
that bovine cysticercosis is evenly distributed in the provinces of Antwerp, Vlaams-Brabant and Oost-
Vlaanderen but is less common in Limburg. Risk factors are mainly related to the herd size and the proximity
to the farm of waste water effluent.
As part of our national reference task for trichinellosis, we optimised and standardised the production of the
excretory/secretory antigen used in the diagnostic ELISA. We confirmed the diagnosis of a case of
trichinellosis in a wild boar from the Namur province, and with the help of the Dutch Institute for Public
Health and environment we characterised the isolate as Trichinella britovi. This is the first description of this
species in Belgium.
In South Africa and in the Antwerp Zoo we assessed integrated control strategies for gastrointestinal
strongyle infections and resistance to anthelmintic drugs in domestic and wild ruminants (collaboration with
Ghent University).




                                                                                                              42
PROJECTS

Institutional collaboration with the Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases (DVTD) of the
University of Pretoria, South Africa
Parasitic diseases of livestock are important constraints to animal production in Africa. For many years the
Department of Animal Health (DAH) has been instrumental in the research and control of two major vector-
borne diseases (i.e. trypanosomosis and East Coast Fever) and a helminth zoonosis (i.e., cysticercosis) in
Southern Africa. The concerted research efforts have resulted in substantial increases in national capacities to
deal with these parasitic diseases. To facilitate the transfer of this expertise to other African countries, the
DAH entered into an institutional collaboration with the Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases
(DVTD), Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Pretoria. The DVTD is a major player in the
field of veterinary research and capacity building in Southern Africa. The institutional collaboration aims at
increasing the DVTD’s capacity to deal with trypanosomosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis. This is
achieved through (i) improving the DVTD’s diagnostic capacity for the specific diseases, (ii) developing a
web-based MSc course in Tropical Animal Health and (iii) conducting research in the specific diseases in
Southern Africa. In the second year, a tsetse/trypanosomosis unit was set up with the entomology section of
the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute that can support research in tsetse and trypanosomosis in the region.
Research proposals for MSc and PhD projects were designed, students were selected and their proposals
evaluated. Within the framework of the collaboration 7 PhD students and one MSc student are currently
conducting their research in the fields of, trypanosomosis and tsetse control, Corridor disease and Theileria
identification, modelling in ovine haemonchosis, canine babesiosis, and tuberculosis. We also support the
development of modules on trypanosomosis, tick-borne diseases and helminthology of the web-based MSc
course in Tropical Veterinary Medicine. This course will be launched in the spring of 2005.
ITM promoter: P. Dorny
ITM collaborators: D. Berkvens, D. Geysen, K. Kanobana, M. Madder, N. Speybroeck, P. Van den
Bossche, T. Marcotty
External collaborators: J.A.W. Coetzer, B. Gummow, J. Van Wyk (DVTD, Faculty of Veterinary Science,
University of Pretoria, South Africa), M. Mulumba (Centre for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, CTTBD,
Malawi)
Support: DGDC; University of Pretoria

Support to the training programme of the OAU/IBAR Centre for Ticks and Tick-borne diseases
(CTTBD), Lilongwe
The Centre for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (CTTBD) is a Southern African Development Community
(SADC) and African Union (AU/IBAR) centre of excellence for training in veterinary epidemiology, vaccine
production and backstopping service. CTTBD continued to produce, titrate and test East Coast fever
vaccines for Zambia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Several courses were organised in 2004: a training
workshop on economics of animal health for the directors of veterinary services of SADC member countries
(12 participants); a laboratory diagnostics course for senior laboratory staff (12 participants); epidemiology,
data handling and changing roles of veterinarians (8 participants); and livestock economics (disease control)
(23 participants). The candidates were drawn from thirteen countries in Eastern and Southern Africa
(Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique,
Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe). ITM participated in both the epidemiology and the
laboratory diagnostics courses. Dr Gondwe, a Malawian veterinarian and holder of a M.Sc. Epidemiology,
continued as lecturer in the epidemiology course under the supervision of ITM assumed. Alumni support
continued in terms of advice on control of tick-borne diseases and assistance in data collection and analysis.
The CTTBD website went online to streamline the alumni support and backstopping services.
ITM promoter: D. Berkvens
ITM collaborators: N. Speybroeck, T. Marcotty, J. Brandt, D. Geysen, F. Ceulemans
Partner promoter: M. Mulumba (University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia)
External collaborators: G. Chaka (Provincial Veterinary Office, Chipata, Zambia); M. Billiouw (Private
Consultant)
Support: DGCD; DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency); Dutch Development Cooperation


                                                                                                             43
Decision support for control of tropical animal diseases in southern Africa
Despite the availability of an arsenal of preventive and curative control tools, control of certain tropical
animal diseases remains difficult. This can be attributed to the limited amount of resources allocated to
animal health and changing priorities.
Although theoretical models of how epidemio-surveillance networks should be developed are available, it
remains questionable if such models are appropriate for the circumstances prevailing in most of the sub-
Saharan African countries. Instead of adopting a theoretical model that has proven to be effective elsewhere,
preference was given to a thorough study of existing epidemio-surveillance systems and to the adjustment of
existing actions, depending on the requirements. Hereby, the role played by the actors at several levels of
disease management was taken into account (e.g. livestock owner, veterinary field staff, provincial level,
etc.) with focus on the primary veterinary care level.
A total of eight studies were conducted in four southern African countries (Botswana, Malawi, Zambia and
Zimbabwe). These were chosen because of their contrasting livestock management systems and differences
in disease management practices. The aim of the studies was to describe ongoing epidemio-surveillance
activities under prevailing conditions. Attention was paid to data collection, data analysis and ensuing
disease control practices.
In southern Zambia, a study was conducted to determine the livestock owners’ and veterinary field staff’s
knowledge of and attitude towards an endemic (East Coast Fever, ECF) and epidemic (Foot and Mouth
Disease, FMD) disease. In the Central Region of Malawi and eastern Zambia, the diagnostic capacity and
capability of livestock owners, veterinary field staff and district, provincial and central veterinary
laboratories was assessed. In eastern Zambia, a study was conducted to quantify and qualify the veterinary
information flow from livestock owner up to the level of the national epidemiology unit. In Zimbabwe,
recent outbreaks of FMD were studied and the factors contributing to those outbreaks identified. In
Botswana, the existing rabies surveillance database was used to demonstrate how modelling can greatly
improve disease data interpretation and disease control actions. Also in Botswana, available epidemio-
surveillance data were used to demonstrate the importance of regional epidemio-surveillance networks and
of risk assessment in animal disease (FMD) management. Finally, a study of the activities of a privatised
para-veterinarian scheme revealed the potential role of such private operators in the collection of disease
data.
The outcomes of these studies demonstrated clearly that although each of the countries has an epidemio-
surveillance network, some of the cornerstones of such a system are dysfunctional thus jeopardising the
network’s usefulness.
ITM promoter: D. Berkvens
ITM collaborators: P. Van den Bossche, E. Thys, N. Speybroeck
External collaborators: M. Mulumba (Centre for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Malawi)
Support: DGDC

Institutional University Collaboration (IUC-VLIR) with the University of Zambia (UNZA)
The institutional collaboration between the Flemish Inter-University Council (VLIR) and UNZA consists of
7 sub-projects, one of which is with the School of Veterinary Medicine. The main objective of this project is
to enhance the research capacity of the Veterinary School about relevant veterinary issues in Zambia. We are
participating in research programmes on porcine cysticercosis, trypanosomosis and tuberculosis (in
collaboration with the Department of Microbiology of the ITM). In 2004 we focused on the capacity
strengthening of the serology laboratory that is now the regional reference laboratory for cysticercosis of the
East and Southern Africa working group on cysticercosis. We are also conducting prevalence- and
community-based studies on human taeniasis and cysticercosis in porcine cysticercosis-endemic areas of
Southern provinces to investigate the importance of Taenia solium for human health. Epidemiological
research of livestock trypanosomosis in a trypanosomosis endemic zone of the eastern plateau of Zambia was
continued. The eastern plateau represents an area where large game animals are absent and where the tsetse
population has become highly dependent on livestock for its survival. A large-scale serological and
parasitological survey to determine the relative importance of the main livestock species (cattle, sheep and
pigs) in the epidemiology of the disease is ongoing. Samples are currently being processed for serological
and genetic analysis. The sentinel cattle herd, established in the same area, is sampled on a monthly basis to
determine the incidence of trypanosomal infections in different age categories and different sexes.
Experimental infections to study the development of Trypanosoma congolense infections in pigs were
completed and are being evaluated. The tuberculosis research focuses on the human-domestic and wild

                                                                                                            44
animals interface in the Lochinvar national park. In this area high tuberculosis prevalence has been observed
in man, cattle and the Lechwe antelope. We sampled man and animals and collected Mycobacterium isolates
that will be genetically characterised to assess transmission of species and strains between man and animals.
ITM promoter: P. Dorny
ITM collaborators: P. Van den Bossche, L. Rigouts, K. Polman.
External collaborators: I.K. Phiri, H. Simukoko (University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia); J. Vercruysse, S.
Gabriel (University of Ghent); A.L. Willingham III (Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology,
Frederiksberg, Denmark)
Support: DGDC, Flemish Interuniversity Council (VLIR)


Epidemiology and improved diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis and trichinellosis
Since 2001, an increase in the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis has been observed in Belgium. We
conducted an epidemiological study in four Flemish provinces. The main goal was to analyse the distribution
and to provide baseline epidemiological data in the studied area using abattoir meat inspection records from
2001 to 2003. Afterwards, a case-control study was set up using GIS and a questionnaire to assess risk
factors for bovine cysticercosis at the herd-level. The results showed an important increase in prevalence at
animal and herd-level from 2001 to 2003 in cattle originating from Oostvlaanderen, Antwerp and Vlaams-
Brabant. In Limburg prevalence was lower and did not increase as in the other provinces. The case herds
were almost uniformly distributed over the study area, with concentrations in areas with large cattle
populations or higher concentration of herds. The case-control using GIS could not indicate an association
between infection of a herd and the proximity of water streams or sewage treatment plants. The
questionnaire-based case-control study was limited to milk-producing farms. A classification and regression
tree revealed that a large herd size and a high ratio “slaughtered cattle/herd size” were the most important
risk factors for bovine cysticercosis. In 17% of the analysed herds, an association between proximity with
wastewater effluent and the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis was found. The prevalence and geographic
distribution in the area of investigation indicated that a variety of factors or practices maintain the cycle of T.
saginata. In most cases, the infection of cattle is beyond the control of the cattle owners.
Surveillance of trichinellosis in Western Europe is based on the systematic inspection by artificial digestion
of meat samples from pig, wild boar and horses. While during the last decades this systematic inspection
failed to detect any case of trichinellosis in Belgium, in 2004 a wild boar shot in Mettet in the province of
Namur was found positive by artificial digestion of the meat. The diagnosis was confirmed in our lab and the
isolate characterised as Trichinella britovi (with the assistance of the Dutch Institute of Public Health and
Environment, (RIVM). This is the first description of T. britovi in Belgium. We also examined meat samples
of wildlife (red foxes, badgers and rats) and were able to detect Trichinella in one fox. These findings
confirm the persistence of a sylvatic reservoir of Trichinella in Belgium.
ITM promoter: P. Dorny
ITM collaborators: J. Brandt, J. De Borchgrave, E. Ducheyne, K. Kanobana, B. Victor, D. Geysen
External collaborators: L. Michael (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, South Africa) ; O. Ogunremi
(Centre for Animal Parasitology, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canada); J. Cabaret (INRA, France),
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (Bilthoven, The Netherlands)
Support: Federal Food Agency (FAVV-AFSCA)


Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam
In collaboration with the National Institute for Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology (NIMPE) and the
National Institute of Veterinary Research (NIVR) we continued studies on the prevalence, epidemiology and
risk factors of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, a zoonotic infection that is passed from pigs to man.
The joint team, comprising both medical and veterinary experts collected data from the field, thereby
targeting both man and pigs; exchanged information; and developed and transferred diagnostic tools. We
conducted community-based studies on taeniasis/cysticercosis in rural areas in the mountainous region of
Bac Kan province in North Vietnam and in the coastal province of Ha Tinh in Central Vietnam, and in a
industrialised area in Hai Duong, near Hanoi. In both rural areas a low prevalence of taeniasis and porcine
cysticercosis was found while human cysticercosis was more common and showed both neurological and
subcutaneous localisation. We could not detect any case of taeniasis/cysticercosis in the industrialised area.
These studies demonstrate regional differences of prevalence that could be attributed mainly to general
development variations. Genetic identification of adult tapeworms collected from a hospital-based study

                                                                                                                45
revealed mainly Taenia saginata and T. s. asiatica and less T. solium. The finding of a high proportion of
Asian Taenia is puzzling, as the larval stage, which must be found in the pigs’ liver, has never been detected
in Vietnam. In NIMPE hospital the usefulness of the antigen detecting-ELISA on serum and urine samples
for the monitoring of the success of treatment of cysticercosis patients is being assessed. Preliminary results
indicate the high potential of this tool.
ITM promoter: P. Dorny
ITM collaborators: J. Brandt, D. Geysen, K. Kanobana, K. Polman
External collaborators: L.K. Thuan, D.C. Thach (National Institute for Malariology, Parasitology and
Entomology, NIMPE, Hanoi); V. Dung, N.V. Khong (National Institute of Veterinary Research, NIVR,
Hanoi); J. Vercruysse, R. Somers (Ghent University, Belgium); B. Goddeeris (Catholic University Leuven,
Belgium); Ph. Craig (Salford University, UK)
Support: DGDC; Flemish Inter University Council (VLIR); Ghent University; ITM


Zoonoses in Ecuador
An intervention study for taeniasis/cysticercosis was continued in the Zapotillo district, Loja Province,
Ecuador. It has been a very dry year and for economical reasons many people left the region. Therefore
participation was not as efficient as in 2003. In spite of the previous intervention, whereby all Taenia carriers
were treated, many cases of cysticercosis were detected in pigs, less than one year old. Because of the
drought, it is not unlikely that pigs, in search of feed, were roaming around far beyond the areas treated in
2003. On the other hand, PCR-RFLP on faecal extracts in a small group of persons indicated that many adult
Taenia solium remain undetected by conventional microscopic diagnosis. Studies on human cysticercosis
revealed that the number of positive cases – by EITB-antibody detection – doubled that of positive cases by
antigen detection. This suggests that frequent and possibly early contacts with oncospheres stimulate
development of immunity with consequently few infections leading to active cysticercosis. The low
incidence of epilepsy or other cysticercosis-related neurological symptoms in the same region in a survey
supported by the University of Limoges, strengthens this hypothesis. Additional brain imaging studies would
be very valuable, yet technically and financially difficult to implement.
In 2004, we began a study to evaluate the situation of bovine tuberculosis in the Mejia canton, one of the
most important regions for dairy production in Ecuador. The single tuberculin test and the comparative
tuberculin test resulted in 4.24% and 3.85% of positive reactors respectively. The highest number of cases
was found in large herds and not in traditional herds probably due to more intense contacts between the
animals. Bovine brucellosis on the contrary is more frequent in small farms, where the poor living conditions
and the lack of hygienic standards are probably the major determinants. Both zoonoses are very important in
Ecuador and in collaboration with the University of Liège and the Unit of Mycobacteriology of ITM work
will continue to differentiate mycobacteria involved and assist the development of control strategies.
Equally, studies on bovine brucellosis will be continued. However the interference by indiscriminate
vaccinations against brucellosis with diagnostic tests, complicates estimations on the true prevalence of this
zoonosis.
ITM promotor: P. Dorny, J. Brandt,
ITM collaborators: D. Geysen, D. Berkvens, F. Portaels, L. Rigouts, R. Rodríguez-Hidalgo (PhD student),
F. Proaño-Peréz (MSc student).
External collaborators: W. Benitéz-Ortíz, M. Chavéz-Larea, M. Barionuevo-Samaniego, M. Celi-Erazo, J.
Ron-Roman (CIZ, Quito, Ecuador), C. Saegerman (Ministry of Health, Consumer’s protection and
Environment, Brussels, Belgium), K. Walraevens (Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (CERVA),
Brussels, Belgium)
Support: DGDC; Universidad Central del Ecuador


Collaboration with the « Cysticercosis working group in Peru »
The Cysticercosis Working Group (CWG) in Peru is based on a long-term collaboration between three
different Peruvian institutions and diverse institutions within the USA. There is a well developed research
infrastructure allowing experimental infections in pigs as well as integration of obtained field data in
biochemical,      medical     and    epidemiological     research.   Our    department     has    a    long
standing informal collaboration with two main actors in the CWG in Peru i.e. the Instituto de Ciencias
Neurologicas (ICN) under the supervision of Dr. H. Garcia and the Department of Public health of the
School of Veterinary Medicine at San Marcos University, under the supervision of Dr. A. Gonzalez

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(UNMSM, Lima). This collaboration was mainly based on the application of our home-made ELISA for the
detection of circulating parasite antigen (Ag-ELISA) in diverse aspects of their research on Taenia solium
cysticercosis. In 2004 this collaboration was consolidated and extended. Projects were undertaken in the
following fields:

Immuno-parasitology (UNMSM, Lima) - Understanding the immune response to infection is a prerequisite
for implementing vaccine based control strategies. This research has been hampered by the lack of
reproducible and standardised experimental T. solium infections in pigs. Recently, an experimental,
reproducible model of porcine cysticercosis was developed at the UNMSM. In addition, animals of different
ages develop different parasitological profiles. The analysis of samples obtained following experimental
infection of pigs of different ages with our Ag-ELISA revealed that the kinetics of cyst development
significantly differ in function of the age of the animals. In younger pigs, cysts develop faster and the larval
stages survive longer. This finding has important consequences as far as transmission of the infection is
concerned. We currently test the hypothesis that the observed age-related profiles are induced by different
immune responses.

Development of immuno-diagnostic tools for the diagnosis (UNMSM) - Our department supports the
development of immune assays. ELISAs for the detection of T. solium specific IgA, IgM and Ig G were
developed with Tsol18var1, a specific recombinant antigen. Ongoing new experimental infections will allow
a more extensive sampling and broaden our investigation to mucosal immune responses.
One of the most interesting features of the above mentioned experimental model is that it allows the
reproduction of parasitological profiles that are observed in natural conditions, but using standardised
experimental infection. Based on the availability of this well documented material, we initiated a PhD project
(IWT scholarship) on bio-markers differentiating active cysticercosis (living cysts) from inactive
cysticercosis (calcified cysts).

Validation of our home made antigen ELISA for its use in the diagnosis of NCC (ICN) -Our Ag-ELISA for
the diagnosis and monitoring of neuro-cysticercosis (NCC) was further validated. Last year it was validated
as a diagnostic tool for the detection of porcine cysticercosis using Bayesian techniques. In collaboration
with Peru, the same approach will be used for the validation of this test for human NCC. Serum samples of
about 800 individuals Peruvian patients will be used. The performance of our assay will be tested in
conjunction with the cysticercosis EITB and neuro-imaging techniques.
ITM promoter: K. Kanobana
ITM collaborators: J. Brandt, P. Dorny, N. Deckers (PhD student)
External collaborators: H. Garcia (ICN, Lima, Peru); A. Gonzalez, M. Silva (UNMSM, Peru), E. Cox
(UGent)
Support: Fund for Scientific Research-Flanders (FWO); Institute for the Promotion of Innovation by
Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT); ITM


Helminth control and paratuberculosis in Zoo animals
The research activities of this collaborative project focus on two topics: “Helminth control and anthelmintic
resistance in captive wild ruminants” and “Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subspecies
paratuberculosis in Zoo-animals”. We assessed chemical and non-chemical control strategies of
gastrointestinal nematode infections in several wild ruminant species in the Antwerp Zoo and the
Planckendael Animal Park. Husbandry conditions and animal species were the dominant factors for
differences in infection intensities. Based on in vivo and in vitro tests benzimidazole (fenbendazole)
resistance was suspected in the nematode population infecting the Arabian oryx herd. A questionnaire based
survey on the importance and control of worm infections in 150 European Zoo’s has been initiated.
Paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease is an incurable chronic enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium
subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) mainly affecting ruminants. We study the prevalence of Map in the
Antwerp Zoo where the situation is ideal for the transmission of this disease. We evaluated a new faecal
DNA extraction method in combination with new specific primers and demonstrated a higher sensitivity than
the classical culture methods. The new assay could be used in a more extensive survey for Map in European
Zoo’s. The results of this 4 year research project were presented by E. Vansnick as a PhD-thesis entitled:
“Johne’s disease in zoo animals: development of molecular tools for the detection and characterisation of M.
avium subspecies paratuberculosis” at the Faculty of Pharmacology, University of Ghent.

                                                                                                             47
ITM promoters: P. Dorny, D. Geysen
ITM collaborators: E. Goossens, E. Vansnick (PhD-students)
External collaborators: F. Vercammen (Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp); E. D’Haese, H. Nelis
(promoter), J. Vercruysse (Ghent University, UGent); J. Boomker (Department of Veterinary Tropical
Diseases (DVTD) University of Pretoria, South Africa)
Support: Flemish community; Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp

Diagnosis and control of animal trypanosomiasis in Cameroon
We conducted a large-scale field survey on the efficiency of insecticide-treated cattle as a barrier to re-
invasion by tsetse ten years after they have been cleared from the plateau of the Adamaoua, Cameroon by
aerial spraying. Entomological, parasitological and serological surveys were conducted in the tsetse-infested
valley, the buffer zone and on the plateau. Tsetse flies (Glossina morsitans submorsitans) were only detected
in the valley. The average trypanosomiasis prevalence in cattle was highest in the tsetse-infested zone
(33,3%) and much lower in the buffer zone and the plateau (5,2% and 3,9% respectively). The prevalence of
anti-trypanosomal antibodies in cattle was on average 87,1%. It did not significantly differ between zones
but analysis of the PCV and optical densities of seropositive cattle suggested that most of the seropositive
animals in the buffer zone and on the plateau were probably infected in the tsetse-infested zone during
transhumance.
The preliminary results of a longitudinal study, in which 9 herds of sentinel cattle are followed up, suggest
nevertheless that trypanosomiasis challenge on the plateau still occurs. Further entomological studies are
required to clarify itse origin.
ITM promoter: S. Geerts
ITM collaborators: P. Van den Bossche, R. De Deken, Mamoudou (PhD-student)
External collaborators: A. Zoli (promoter Cameroon – University of Dschang), E. Van Marck (promoter
VLIR, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antwerp), P.H. Clausen (Freie Universität Berlin), N. Mbahin, C.
Tanenbe, A. Bourdanne (University of Dschang, Cameroon)


Animal trypanosomosis and sleeping sickness epidemiology in Kinshasa
Since two years a multidisciplinary team, comprising several institutes in Kinshasa (LABOVET, Programme
Nationale de Lutte contre la Trypanosomose Humaine Africaine (PNLTHA), and INRB) and several
departments of ITMA (Animal Health, Public Health, and Parasitology) studies factors governing
trypanosomosis transmission risk in Kinshasa.
The Veterinary Laboratory of Kinshasa (Labovet) sampled more than 1400 animals (mainly pigs) in 421
farms in and around Kinshasa, revealing Trypanosoma simiae and T. congolense. All Congolese partners
contributed to a study of the distribution of tsetse flies. The Animal Health Department developed an ELISA-
test was developed for the quantification of antibodies against Trypanosoma spp. in pigs. All these data will
allow to determine trypanosomosis transmission in Kinshasa.
In 2004 Labovet collaborators were trained in vector transmitted diseases and geographical information
systems at the Animal Health Department. A third colleague
of Labovet is taking part in the “MSc in Tropical Animal
Health” for the academic year 2004-05.
Satellite data on the spectral responses of habitats, where
tsetse flies were captured, were fed in a geographical
information system. The GIS-software was then able to
visualise and map similar habitats around Kinshasa. These
habitats were considered as being favourable to tsetses and
others as being less suitable. As Glossina fuscipes quanzensis
does not disperse far from the riverbanks, assessment of
habitat suitability could be limited to a buffer zone around the
rivers. This study indicated the sites where tsetse sampling
should be continued or initiated.
A multidisciplinary unit analyses the past and new
trypanosomosis cases in and around Kinshasa and will
centralise all relevant data on humans and animals. A first
task is the data processing and visualisation of all human

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trypanosomosis cases in Kinshasa from 1992 to 2000.
ITM promoter: M. Boelaert (Department of Public Health - overall project), R. De Deken (Department of
Animal Health for animal trypanosomosis)
ITM collaborators: P. Van den Bossche, S. Geerts, E. Ducheyne, N. Deckers, and J. Brandt
External collaborators: J. Sumbu, G. Tshilenge, P. Kabambi, S. Mpiana (Laboratoire vétérinaire –
Kinshasa, DR Congo); P. Mansinza, A. Mpania (PNLTHA – Kinshasa, DR Congo); F. Wat’senga (INRB,
Kinshasa, DR Congo)
Support: DGCD; ISIS-programme (Centre nationale d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES, Toulouse, France)

Health and productivity of trypanotolerant small ruminants in West Africa
In collaboration with ILRI and ITC we genotyped 654 individuals from 17 indigenous West-African dwarf
(WAD) goat populations in The Gambia, Mali, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau and Guinea. The genotyping
included 16 polymorphic autosomal microsatellite markers. The objectives of the study were to examine
genetic differentiation and relationship between these West-African goat populations and to assess the degree
of genetic admixture between the two goat breeds present in the area, the WAD and the Sahelian goat.
Principal component (first three components account for 64.3%) and admixture analysis (assuming two
breeds) indicate that within the WAD-populations there is a gradient of introgression of Sahelian genes,
consistent with the geographical locations of the populations and tsetse distribution (figure). Genetically
WAD-dominant populations are still found further down both routes, in western Gambia, south Senegal,
Guinea-Bissau and west and central Guinea, the probable centre of origin of dwarf goat. With a further shift
of tsetse distribution and associated increasing movement of Sahelian goats, these populations may
encounter an increasing cross-breeding pressure and a reduction of their innate trypanotolerance.
ITM promoter: S. Geerts
ITM collaborators: D. Geysen, J. Brandt, D. Berkvens
External collaboration: K. Agyemang, S. Leak, S. Dhollander, E. Hoeven, B. Faburay (International
Trypanotolerance Centre, Banjul, The Gambia)
Support: DGDC; Vlaamse Vereniging voor Ontwikkelingssamenwerking en Technische Bijstand (VVOB);
ITM


Genetic diversity of the Trypanosoma congolense population in cattle
Molecular tools have been applied extensively in the characterization of human trypanosomes and have
allowed to clarify important aspects of the epidemiology. They have been less applied to the economically
important trypanosome species infecting animals. In the case of T. congolense, four genetically distinct
groups have been identified but little information is available on the genetic diversity within a group.
Nevertheless, important epidemiological features of trypanosome infections in livestock may be explained by
genetic differences between the trypanosome strains present in a particular area.
A prerequisite for molecular epidemiological studies is the availability of a robust but sensitive tool that can
distinguish different genotypes. In a first phase and in analogy with work conducted with T. brucei, the
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism test (AFLP) was adopted for T. congolense and used to genotype
about fourty cloned T. congolense strains isolated from cattle in a trypanosomiasis endemic area of Katete
District (eastern Zambia). A second phase was started in which we compared the virulence of the genetically
different strains in mice. Clear differences in virulence between strains from geographically identical areas
were observed.
ITM promoters: P. Van den Bossche, D. Geysen
ITM Collaborators: J. Masumu (PhD student), S. Geerts
External collaborator: A. Bechin (VUB, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Molecular and Cellular
Interactions, Brussels, Belgium)
Support: Fund for Scientific Research-Flanders (FWO); PhD grant

The susceptibility of tsetse to infections with T. brucei and T. congolense
Surprisingly little is known of the process of the establishment of trypanosomes in the tsetse’s midgut and its
subsequent development into a mature or metacyclic infection.
Age-dependent susceptibility of tsetse -- Much of the epidemiology of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is
based on the notion that tsetse flies infect themselves during the first bloodmeal and become refractory

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afterwards. Various explanations for this change in susceptibility have been proposed. Recently, field data
have suggested that older flies still acquire trypanosome infections, with important repercussions were was
conducted to study the age-dependent susceptibility of tsetse to T. brucei and T. congolense. Batches of
tsetse of various ages were offered a single infected bloodmeal and their metacyclic infection rate was
determined. The susceptibility to infection in teneral flies increased with increasing starvation. The uptake
of a single uninfected bloodmeal significantly reduced the fly’s susceptibility to T. congolense and T. brucei.
Nevertheless, adult flies were still able to infect themselves with infection rates of up to 5% and 10% for T.
brucei and T. congolense respectively.
Mixed trypanosome infections in tsetse flies -- Recent molecular analyses of infected tsetse have revealed
that in the field, a large proportion of these carries a mixed trypanosome infection. Those mixed infections
add a new dimension to trypanosome transmission dynamics. We examined the phenomenon under
experimental conditions. A first experiment showed clearly that tsetse can infect themselves with two
trypanosome species (T. congolense and T. brucei) when taking a first bloodmeal on an animal with a mixed
infection. Other experiments with old infected flies showed that infected flies can also obtain an additional
infection at older age, especially flies harbouring a metacyclic T. brucei infection.
Both experiments demonstrate that the rate at which tsetses acquire trypanosomes is far more complicated
than assumed. They also show the importance of reviewing critically and, if necessary, revising some of the
important assumptions governing vector-parasite relationships and parasite transmission dynamics.
Inducing refractoriness in tsetse -- The susceptibility of adult tsetse may have important repercussions for
control interventions using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), in which large numbers of sterilized male flies
are released to mate with wild females and induce sterility. Since adult flies can be potential vectors a
method needs to be developed that makes them refractory before release. In a project funded by the
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of administering a
singley bloodmeal containing isometamidium chloride (a trypanocidal drug) on the tsetse’s subsequent
susceptibility to infection. The outcome showed that such a bloodmeal significantly reduces the treated flies’
subsequent vectorial capacity for T. congolense and T. brucei infections. Furthermore, and perhaps more
importantly, isometamidium chloride could be an interesting chemical in future studies of factors that
determine the susceptibility or refractoriness of tsetse flies to trypanosome.
ITM promoter: P. Van den Bossche
ITM collaborators: J. Van den Abbeele, C. Kubi (PhD student), J. Brandt, R. De Deken, S. Geerts, D.
Geysen, T. Marcotty, D. Berkvens
Support: Fund for Scientific Research-Flanders (FWO); Research grant of International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA, Belgium)

The ecology of Glossina austeni and Glossina brevipalpis in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South
Africa
In collaboration with the Onderstepoort Veterinary Faculty (DVTD) and the Veterinary Institute the
distribution of Glossina austeni and G. brevipalpis was studied in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa.
These two species are the only tsetses present in South Africa. Although their ecology is little known they
constitute a serious threat to livestock production in South Africa, Mozambique and Tanzania. During a
period of twelve consecutive months the distribution and density of the two species was determined in the
three main vegetation types of the study area (indigenous forest, open grassland and exotic plantations). The
outcome of the study showed clear differences in habitat preference for both species in South Africa.
ITM promoter: P. Van den Bossche
ITM collaborators: T. Marcotty
External collaborators: J. Esterhuizen (PhD-student), G. Vale (NRI, Zimbabwe)
Support: Institutional collaboration DVTD, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (South Africa)


Improved diagnosis of drug resistant trypanosomes
The aim of this project was to gain a better understanding of the resistance mechanisms of Trypanosoma
congolense towards isometamidium and to develop a PCR assay as a quick method to identify drug resistant
T. congolense strains. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) was used to compare two isogenic
clones of T. congolense. The parent clone, sensitive to isometamidium, has a CD50 (the curative dose that
gives complete cure in 50 percent of the animals) in the mouse of 0.018 mg/kg and its derivative exposed to
increasing doses of isometamidium, has a CD 50 that is 94-fold higher. Sixty-four combinations of eight

                                                                                                            50
EcoR I and eight Mse I primers were used in comparative AFLP analysis to detect subtle genetic differences
between the two clones. Thirty-five polymorphic fragments of DNA that were observed only in the resistant
clone were purified and then sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were used in searching the GeneDB T.
congolense database (http://www.genedb.org/genedb/seqSearch.jsp) to find surrounding sequences upstream
of an open reading frame and downstream to a stop codon. The sequences of the open reading frames were
subsequently compared to the sequences in the genomic databases. A predicted gene coding for an 854
amino acids protein was thus identified. The protein contains a putative ATP binding site, a Walker B and
LSGG motifs and eight predicted trans-membrane domains. The gene in the resistant strain of T. congolense
has a triplet insertion coding for an extra lysine. Using PCR-RFLP (Polymerase chain reaction - Restriction
Fragment Length Polymorphism), the insertion was sought in the genomes of various T. congolense strains
(35) isolated from 9 different geographic origins scattered all along the tsetse fly belt and whose sensitivity
to isometamidium chloride had been determined through single dose mouse tests. The presence of the
insertion, specifying an extra codon was found to always be present in the genomes of T. congolense clones
that were resistant to isometamidium chloride. Further validation of the PCR-RFLP method for the detection
of isometamidium resistance is currently ongoing.
ITM promoter: S. Geerts
ITM collaborators: V. Delespaux, D. Geysen
External collaborators: L. Vanhamme (ULB, Free University Brussels, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine
Moléculaire); P.A.O. Majiwa (African Agricultural Technology Foundation, c/o ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya); I.
Sidibe (CIRDES, Burkina Faso); PH. Clausen, Y. Afewerk (Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany)
Support: Fund for scientific Research – Flanders (FWO)


Study of the susceptibility of Trypanosoma congolense isolated in Zambezia Province
(Mozambique) to trypanocidal drugs
In collaboration with the Veterinary Faculty of Maputo the sensitivity of Trypanosoma congolense isolates
from Chinde, Nicoadala and Maganja da Costa districts (Zambézia Province of Mozambique) was evaluated
to diminazene aceturate, isometamidium chloride and homidium chloride. To assess the effect of the farming
system and the intensity of drug regimes on the development of drug resistance, trypanosome isolates were
collected from cattle from subsistence, semi-subsistence and commercial livestock production systems. Drug
use practices in each of the production systems were determined using a questionnaire. Seven isolates were
selected for resistance testing in mice. In four of the seven isolates high levels of multiple drug resistance
(diminazene aceturate and isometamidium chloride) was detected. One isolate had a low level of multiple
(diminazene aceturate and isometamidium chloride) drug resistance. Two isolates were susceptible to both
diminazene aceturate and isometamidium chloride. One of those was highly susceptible to isometamidium
chloride even at the lowest dose rate. The observed levels of drug resistance could in most cases be
correlated to the drug use practices in the particular livestock production system.
ITM promoter: P. Van den Bossche
ITM collaborators: T. Marcotty, S. Geerts
External collaborators: S. Jamal (Veterinary Faculty of the Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo,
Mozambique)
Support: Department of Veterinary Services, Mozambique

Development of a control strategy for theileriosis in Rwanda
The programme involves the training of the staff of the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL, Kigali) in
serological, ecological and molecular diagnostic techniques. PCR results of 300 blood samples taken in the
dry season and 300 blood samples taken during the wet season showed an endemic East Coast fever situation
in the whole of Rwanda. The prevalence of Theileria parva was different between the regions (5-55%) and
between the seasons (0-20%). PIM allele frequencies differed between provinces (1-11%).
Part of the samples of the two surveys have been analysed using a multilocus genotype (3 loci) approach.
The multilocus genotype characterisation of 165 positive blood samples revealed a high polymorphism but
structured in 2 dominant T. parva parasite population groups (X and Y in the figure) present throughout the
country. It was essentially the PIM profile which was the determining factor in the discrimination of the
different isolates. Most of the infections showed single genotypes (62 %) but multiple genotype infections
accounted for 34% double and 4 % triple genotype infections. Comparison with the 1998 genotype results
points to limited strain dynamics over this 6 year period.

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Molecular genotyping assisted in the identification of animals carrying the correct genotype for pick-up
experiments. Several animals carrying one of the 2 genotypes have been traced and bought for pick-up.
These will be used to isolate the required genotype parasite populations for stabilate production and cross
immunity testing.
A tick colony has been established at the CVL. Furthermore, 400 Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks have
been collected in each of the 10 provinces (N=4000). These will be used to determine the T. parva infection
rates in questing ticks using molecular techniques.
Serological monitoring of improved dairy farms around Kigali has been initiated in order to secure proven
ECF free animals for the pickup and cross immunity experiments.
ITM promoter: D. Geysen
ITM collaborators: J. Brandt, M. Madder and D. Berkvens
External collaborators : J. Vercruysse (University of Gent), I. Gafarasi and T. Bazarusanga (CVL, Kigali,
Rwanda).
Support: VLIR


The use of DNA immunisations for the identification of candidate CTL antigens using a
Theileria parva bovine model
The objective of this project is to identify relevant antigens in Theileria parva for the development of a
subunit vaccine. The screening method is based on DNA vaccination with candidate antigen constructs and
analysis of the resulting CTL-response.
The polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) is a suitable candidate CTL-antigen for incorporation in
a DNA vaccine. The polymorphic nature of the central part of the coding region of the PIM gene, in contrast
to the conserved nature of the termini and the introns, suggests that PIM plays a primordial role in the host’s
immune response and that T. parva has developed a mechanism to vary the antigenicity of this important
surface molecule.
The expression of the EGFP-PIM fusion gene was further optimised. A construct encoding the full EGFP-
PIM fusion protein is being tested as a naked DNA vaccine, while a truncated hydrophilic PIM is used as a
diagnostic antigen for ELISA. For delivery of the DNA an intradermal jet-injection system (Pigjet) has been
tested on turkeys.
Indications that PIM plays an important role in the host-parasite interactions are being further investigated in
order to understand the biological role of PIM in the lifecycle of T. parva. The development of a PIM
specific target mice cell culture has been initiated in order to have a mice based ‘in vitro system’ to screen
immune reactions towards various epitopes. At this point, stable transfectants are being screened for
expression of PIM and for the presence of class I MHC molecules for presentation.
ITM promoters: D. Geysen, G. Vanham (Department of Microbiology)
ITM collaborators: C. Ververken
External collaborators: B. Goddeeris (Catholic University Leuven)
Support: Fund for Scientific Research- Flanders (FWO)


Development of in vitro systems
The prevention of East Coast fever (Theileria parva) by immunisation relies on the simultaneous infection
and treatment of bovines. However, this method has a major constraint: because of the strict host specificity,
T. parva stabilates can only be titrated in bovines. Therefore the development of an in vitro alternative as a
more reliable and simple screening method has been an important research topic of the department. Briefly,
the current protocol is as follows: bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, harvested from naïve donors,
are infected with serially diluted T. parva tick-derived stabilates and transferred to a specific culture medium
in 96-well culture plates. Cultures are then left to incubate, after which each well is examined on the
presence of infected lymphocytes. Logistic regressions are applied on the binomial data obtained to
determine or to compare the viability of the T. parva suspensions tested. This method has not only the
advantage of replacing in vivo titration but is also more precise. It allows the optimisation of the production
of T. parva stabilates and the estimation of the viability loss caused, sporozoite extraction methods). The
effects of T. parva inhibitors can equally be assessed in vitro. In this respect, a sporozoite neutralisation test
was developed to appraise the inhibitory capacity of sera obtained from animals experimentally vaccinated
with the p67 subunit vaccine.
ITM promoter: J. Brandt

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ITM collaborators: T. Marcotty, A. Van Hul, D. Geysen, V. Mbao (PhD student)
Support: PhD-grants (BTC/CTB, Brussels, Belgium)



PUBLICATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL PEER-REVIEWED JOURNALS

Ali L, Van den Bossche P, Thys E. Enjeux et contraintes de l'élevage urbain et périurbain des petits ruminants à
Maradi au Niger: quel avenir? Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 2003; 56: 73-82.

Baelmans R, Parmentier HK, Udo HMJ, Dorny P, Demey F, Berkvens D. Different serum haemolytic
complement levels in indigenous chickens from Benin, Bolivia, Cameroon, India and Tanzania. Trop Anim
Health Prod 2004; 36: 731-742.

Bastiaensen P, Dorny P, Batawui K, Boukaya A, Napala A, Hendrickx G. Parasitisme des petits ruminants dans
la zone périurbaine de Sokodé, Togo. II. Caprins. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 2003; 56: 51-56.

Bastiaensen P, Dorny P, Batawui K, Boukaya A, Napala A, Hendrickx G. Parasitisme des petits ruminants dans
la zone périurbaine de Sokodé, Togo. I. Ovins. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 2003; 56: 43-50.

Cherenet T, Sani RA, Panandam JM, Nadzr S, Speybroeck N, Van den Bossche P. Seasonal prevalence of
bovine trypanosomosis in a tsetse-infested zone and a tsetse-free zone of the Amhara Region, north-west
Ethiopia. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2004; 71: 307-312.

De Deken R, Obwolo MJ, Thys E, Geerts S. The adjustment of curricula in veterinary faculties in sub-Saharan
Africa. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epizoot 2004; 23: 383-390.

De Deken R, Speybroeck N, Gillain G, Sigue H, Batawi K, Van den Bossche P. The macrocyclic lactone
"Spinosad", a promising insecticide for tsetse fly control. J Med Entomol 2004; 41: 814-818.

Deharo E, Baelmans R, Gimenez A, Quenevo C, Bourdy G. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of plants used
by the Tacana ethnic group in Bolivia. Phytomedicine 2004; 11: 516-522.

Devos J, Geysen D. Epidemiological study of the prevalence of Babesia divergens in a veterinary practice in the
mid-east of France. Vet Parasitol 2004; 125: 237-249.

Dispas M, Lemaire M, Speybroeck N, Berkvens D, Dupont A, Boelaert F, Dramaix M, Vanopdenbosch E,
Kerkhofs P, Thiry E. Deux protocoles d'hyperimmunisation au moyen de vaccins marqués réduisent l'incidence
de séroconversion envers l'herpèsvirus bovin 1 en cheptels laitiers: résultats d'une étude sur le terrain. Ann Méd
Vét 2004; 148: 47-61.

Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S. Immunodiagnostic approaches for detecting Taenia solium [letter]. Trends Parasitol
2004; 20: 259-260.

Dorny P, Phiri IK, Vercruysse J, Gabriel S, Willingham AL, Brandt J, Victor B, Speybroeck N, Berkvens D. A
Bayesian approach for estimating values for prevalence and diagnostic test characteristics of porcine
cysticercosis. Int J Parasitol 2004; 34: 569-576.

Dorny P, Rodríguez-Hidalgo R, Benitez Ortiz W, Geerts S, Geysen D, Ron-Román J, Proaño-Pérez F, Chávez
Larrea MA, Barrionuevo-Samaniego M, Celi-Erazo M, Vizcaíno-Ordóñez L, Brandt J. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in
man and pigs in Ecuador. Vet Parasitol 2004; 125: 189-191.

Dorny P, Somers R, Dang TCT, Nguyen VK, Vercruysse J. Cysticercosis in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2004; 35(Suppl.1): 223-226.



                                                                                                               53
Erhart A, Thang ND, Bien TH, Tung NM, Hung NQ, Hung LX, Tuy TQ, Speybroeck N, Cong LD, Coosemans
M, D'Alessandro U. Malaria epidemiology in a rural area of the Mekong Delta: a prospective community-based
study. Trop Med Int Health 2004; 9: 1081-1090.

Erhart A, Thang ND, Hung NQ, Toi LV, Hung LX, Tuy TQ, Cong LD, Speybroeck N, Coosemans M,
D'Alessandro U. Forest malaria in Vietnam: a challenge for control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004; 70: 110-118.

Faleke OO, Ogundipe GAT, Dorny P. Sero-prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle in Oyo state of
Nigeria. Bull Anim Health Prod Africa 2004; 52: 79-83.

Faye D, Sulon J, Kane Y, Beckers JF, Leak S, Kaboret Y, Melo de Sousa N, Losson B, Geerts S. Effects of an
experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection on the reproductive performance of West African Dwarf goats.
Theriogenology 2004; 62: 1438-1451.

Flisser A, Gauci CG, Zoli A, Martinez-Ocaña J, Garza-Rodriguez A, Dominguez-Alpizar JL, Maravilla P,
Rodriguez-Canul R, Avila G, Aguilar-Vega L, Kyngdon C, Geerts S, Lightowlers MW. Induction of protection
against porcine cysticercosis by vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens. Infect Immun 2004; 72:
5292-5297.

Geerts S, Zoli A, Nguekam JP, Brandt J, Dorny P. The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in West and Central
Africa. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2004; 35(Suppl.1): 262-265.

Geurden T, Claerebout E, Vercruysse J, Berkvens D. Estimation of diagnostic test characteristics and prevalence
of Giardia duodenalis in dairy calves in Belgium using a Bayesian approach. Int J Parasitol 2004; 34:
1121-1127.

Geysen D, Bazarusanga T, Brandt J, Dolan TT. An unusual mosaic structure of the PIM gene of Theileria parva
and its relationship to allelic diversity. Mol Biochem Parasitol 2004; 133: 163-174.

Mahama CI, Desquesnes M, Dia ML, Losson B, De Deken R, Geerts S. A cross-sectional epidemiological
survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the Savelugu and West Mamprusi districts of northern
Ghana. Vet Parasitol 2004; 122: 1-13.

Mahama CI, Mohammed HA, Abavana M, Sidibé I, Koné A, Geerts S. Tsetse and trypanosomoses in Ghana in
the twentieth century: a review. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 2003; 56: 27-32.

Marcotty T, Speybroeck N, Berkvens D, Chaka G, Besa R, Madder M, Dolan T, Losson B, Brandt J. In vitro
titration of Theileria parva tick derived stabilates. Parasitology 2004; 128: 131-137.

Ndao M, Magnus E, Büscher P, Geerts S. Trypanosoma vivax: a simplified protocol for in vivo growth, isolation
and cryopreservation. Parasite 2004; 11: 103-106.

Ngowi HA, Phiri IK, Afonso S, Matenga E, Boa ME, Mukaratirwa S, Githigia S, Saimo M, Sikasunge C,
Maingi N, Lubega GW, Kassuku A, Michael L, Siziya S, Krecek RC, Noormahomed E, Vilhena M,
Nsengiyumva G, Andriantsimahavandy A, Dorny P, Johansen MV, Willingham AL. Taenia solium cysticercosis
in Eastern and Southern Africa: an emerging problem in agriculture and public health. Southeast Asian J Trop
Med Public Health 2004; 35(Suppl.1): 266-270.

Ogunremi O, MacDonald G, Geerts S, Brandt J. Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis by
immunohistochemical test on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded bovine lesions. J Vet Diagn Invest 2004;
16: 438-441.

Ogunremi O, MacDonald G, Scandrett B, Geerts S, Brandt J. Bovine cysticercosis: preliminary observations on
the immunohistochemical detection of Taenia saginata antigens in lymph nodes of an experimentally infected
calf. Can Vet J 2004; 45: 852-855.



                                                                                                            54
Parmentier HK, Baelmans R, Savelkoul HFJ, Dorny P, Demey F, Berkvens D. Serum haemolytic complement
activities in 11 different MHC (B) typed chicken lines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2004; 100: 25-32.

Robays J, Kadima AE, Lutumba P, Miaka mia Bilenge C, Betu Ku Mesu VK, De Deken R, Makabuza J,
Deguerry M, Van der Stuyft P, Boelaert M. Human African trypanosomiasis amongst urban residents in
Kinshasa: a case-control study. Trop Med Int Health 2004; 9: 869-875.

Saegerman C, De Waele L, Gilson D, Godfroid J, Thiange P, Michel P, Limbourg B, Vo TKO, Limet J,
Letesson JJ, Berkvens D. Evaluation of three serum i-ELISAs using monoclonal antibodies and protein G as
peroxidase conjugate for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Vet Microbiol 2004; 100: 91-105.

Saegerman C, Speybroeck N, Roels S, Vanopdenbosch E, Thiry E, Berkvens D. Decision support tools for
clinical diagnosis of disease in cows with suspected bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Clin Microbiol 2004;
42: 172-178.

Sinyangwe L, Delespaux V, Brandt J, Geerts S, Mubanga J, Machila N, Holmes PH, Eisler MC. Trypanocidal
drug resistance in eastern province of Zambia. Vet Parasitol 2004; 119: 125-135.

Speybroeck N, Berkvens D, Mfoukou-Ntsakala A, Aerts M, Hens N, Van Huylebroeck G, Thys E. Classification
trees versus multinomial models in the analysis of urban farming systems in Central Africa. Agric Systems 2004;
80: 133-149.

Speybroeck N, Madder M, H TH, Mtambo J, Tirry L, Chaka G, Marcotty T, Berkvens D. Variation in body size
in the tick complex Rhipicephalus appendiculatus/Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. J Vector Ecol 2004; 29:
347-354.

Van den Bossche P, De Deken R, Brandt J, Geerts S, Geysen D, Berkvens D. The transmission of mixed
Trypanosoma brucei brucei/T. congolense infections by tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans). Vet Parasitol
2004; 119: 147-153.

Van den Bossche P, De Deken R, Brandt J, Seibou B, Geerts S. Recirculation of Trypanosoma brucei brucei in
cattle after T. congolense challenge by tsetse flies. Vet Parasitol 2004; 121: 79-85.

Van den Bossche P, Munsimbwe L, Mubanga J, Jooste R, Lumamba D. A large-scale trial to evaluate the
efficacy of a 1% pour-on formulation of Cyfluthrin (Cylence, Bayer) in controlling bovine trypanosomosis in
Eastern Zambia. Trop Anim Health Prod 2004; 36: 33-43.

Vansnick E, de Rijk P, Vercammen F, Geysen D, Rigouts L, Portaels F. Newly developed primers for the
detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Vet Microbiol 2004; 100: 197-204.

Zongo I, Mbahin N, Van den Abbeele J, De Deken R, Van den Bossche P. Comparison of the infection rate of
tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans, fed in vitro or in vivo. Med Vet Entomol 2004; 18: 64-66.


OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Cefis A, Rizzi R, Thys E. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the production of Carora dairy cattle in
North-West of Venezuela. In: Iskandar CTNF, Hassan L, Dhaliwal GK, Yusoff R, Omar AR, Khan MAKG,
Meng GY, Abu J, Arshad SS, bin Salim N, Aziz SA, Daud HM, Rahman SOA, editors. Animal health: a
breakpoint in economic development? The 11th International Conference of the Association of Institutions for
Tropical Veterinary Medicine & 16th Veterinary Association Malaysia Congress, 23-27 August 2004, Petaling
Jaya; proceedings. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, 2004: 221-223.

De Deken R. African horse sickness; 2nd ed. In: Kaandorp S, editor. Transmissible diseases handbook. [s.l.]:
European Association of Zoo- and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), 2004.



                                                                                                             55
De Deken R. New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax; 2nd ed. In: Kaandorp S, editor. Transmissible
diseases handbook. [s.l.]: European Association of Zoo- and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), 2004.

De Deken R. Old World screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana; 2nd ed. In: Kaandorp S, editor. Transmissible
diseases handbook. [s.l.]: European Association of Zoo- and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), 2004.

De Deken R, Obwolo MJ, Thys E, Geerts S. Curricula adjustment in veterinary faculties of sub-Saharan Africa.
In: Iskandar CTNF, Hassan L, Dhaliwal GK, Yusoff R, Omar AR, Khan MAKG, Meng GY, Abu J, Arshad SS,
bin Salim N, Aziz SA, Daud HM, Rahman SOA, editors. Animal health: a breakpoint in economic
development? The 11th International Conference of the Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary
Medicine & 16th Veterinary Association Malaysia Congress, 23-27 August 2004, Petaling Jaya; proceedings.
Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, 2004: 43-45.

Hendrickx G, Biesemans J, De Deken R. The use of GIS in veterinary parasitology. In: Durr PA, Gattrell AC,
editors. GIS and spatial analysis in veterinary science. Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2004.

Holmes PH, Eisler MC, Geerts S. Current chemotherapy of animal trypanosomiasis. In: Maudlin I, Holmes PH,
Miles MA, editors. The trypanosomiases. Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2004: 431-444.

Madder M, Thys E, De Deken R, Dorny P. Training at the department of animal health of the Institute of
Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, Belgium. In: Iskandar CTNF, Hassan L, Dhaliwal GK, Yusoff R, Omar AR,
Khan MAKG, Meng GY, Abu J, Arshad SS, bin Salim N, Aziz SA, Daud HM, Rahman SOA, editors. Animal
health: a breakpoint in economic development? The 11th International Conference of the Association of
Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine & 16th Veterinary Association Malaysia Congress, 23-27 August
2004, Petaling Jaya; proceedings. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, 2004: 209-210.

Marcotty T. [Immunisation against East Coast fever] [reply]. Newsl Ticks Tick-Borne Dis Livestock Tropics
2004; 26: 34.

Marcotty T. Optimisation and rationalisation of cattle immunisation against Theileria parva in eastern Zambia.
Tropicultura 2004; 22: 93-94.

Schlater J, Van den Bossche P. Trypanosomiasis (tsetse-transmitted). In: Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines
for terrestrial animals (mammals, birds and bees); 5th ed. Paris: Office International des Epizooties (OIE), 2004:
vol 1: 580-588.

Van den Bossche P, De Deken R. The application of bait technology to control tsetse. In: Maudlin I, Holmes PH,
Miles MA, editors. The trypanosomiases. Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2004: 525-532.

Ziébé R, De Deken R, Tarla FN, Thys E. Utilisation de la traction bovine et asine par les paysans sédentaires du
canton de Boboyo (Extrême-Nord Cameroun) possédant des ruminants. Draught Anim News 2004; 40: 21-28.


ABSTRACTS

Assana E, Kanobana K, Tume C, Zoli PA, Geerts S, Berkvens D, Dorny P. Isolation of a 14 KDa fraction from
Taenia solium cyst fluid and evaluation of its sensitivity and specificity in ELISA for diagnosis of porcine
cysticercosis [abstract]. In: Scientific meeting of the Belgian and Dutch Societies for Parasitology, 10 June 2004,
Antwerp. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004.

Brys L, Noël W, Brandt J, Raes G, Hassanzadeh G, De Baetselier P, Beschin A. Investigating the functions of
alternatively activated macrophages elicited during parasite infections [abstract]. In: Scientific meeting of the
Belgian and Dutch Societies for Parasitology, 10 June 2004, Antwerp. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004.




                                                                                                                56
Delespaux V, Geysen D, Majiwa PAO, Geerts S. Identification of a genetic marker for isometamidium
resistance in T. congolense [abstract]. In: Drug development for parasitic diseases; 1st COST B22 Congress,
Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, 22-24 November 2004. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004: 34.

Geerts S, Delespaux V, Van den Bossche P, Geysen D. Epidemiology of resistance to drugs used in the control
of bovine trypanosomiasis in Africa [abstract]. In: Drug development for parasitic diseases; 1st COST B22
Congress, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, 22-24 November 2004. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004: 39.

Geurden T, Berkvens D, Vercruysse J, Claerebout E. Bayesian diagnostic assay validation and molecular
epidemiology of Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy calves in Belgium [abstract]. In: Scientific meeting of the
Belgian and Dutch Societies for Parasitology, 10 June 2004, Antwerp. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004.

Jamal S, Neves L, Van den Bossche P. Study of the susceptibility of Trypanosoma congolense to diminazene
aceturate, isometamidium chloride and homidium chloride in Zambézia Province, Mozambique [abstract]. In:
Drug development for parasitic diseases; 1st COST B22 Congress, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp,
Belgium, 22-24 November 2004. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004: 66.

Maes L, Cos P, Vanden Berghe D. Drug discovery of new anti-infectives: turning "screening" into
"lead-finding" [abstract]. In: Drug development for parasitic diseases; 1st COST B22 Congress, Institute of
Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, 22-24 November 2004. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004: 17.

Masumu J, Geysen D, Van Snick E, Geerts S, Van den Bossche P. A modified AFLP-test for Trypanosoma
congolense strain identification [abstract]. In: Scientific meeting of the Belgian and Dutch Societies for
Parasitology, 10 June 2004, Antwerp. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004.

Rodriguez S, Melendez DP, Silva ME, Jimenez J, Brandt J, Tsang VCW, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, Dorny P,
Garcia HH. Human neurocysticercosis: antigen and antibody detection in urine samples [abstract]. Am J Trop
Med Hyg 2004; 71(4(Suppl)): 43, Abstract 143.

Speybroeck N, Aerts M, Thys E, Hens N, Saegerman C, Dorny P, Berkvens D. Classificatiebomen en
diagnostiek [abstract]. In: Workshop Vereniging voor Epidemiologie en Economie (V.E.E.), Brussel, 7
september, 2004. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004.

Tami A, van Beers S, Kibona S, Matemba L, Msangi A, Malele I, Ndung'u JM, Matovu E, Magona JW, Kaiser
MN, Brun R, Van den Bossche P, Büscher P, Hendrickx G, Gilbert M, Muela-Ribera J, Hausmann-Muela S,
Giesler W, Vasall A, Schallig H, Stolcke V, Lever P. Innovative knowledge and technologies to support public
health decision-making and improve control of human African trypanosomiasis [abstract]. In: 6th Annual
EANETT Conference, Khartoum, Sudan, Nov. 29 - Dec. 1, 2004. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004.

Victor B, Rodriguez R, Ceulemans F, Geysen D, Brandt J, Dorny P. The use of PCR-RFLP to support the visual
inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Belgian abattoirs [abstract]. In: Scientific meeting of the Belgian and
Dutch Societies for Parasitology, 10 June 2004, Antwerp. [s.l.]: [s.n.], 2004.




SCIENCE SANS RIGUEUR, ÇA VOUS RUINE LA GRANDEUR

Une enquête menée aux Etats-Unis auprès de 3 247 scientifiques et dont les résultats sont publiés dans la
dernière livraison de Nature fait état, pour un tiers des réponses, de comportements pas franchement
frauduleux, certes, mais pas non plus absolument rigoureux dans la recherche scientifique. Un tiers des
chercheurs qui ont répondu reconnaissent qu'au cours des trois dernières années, il leur est arrivé de ne pas
respecter scrupuleusement les protocoles de recherche ou de fermer les yeux sur l'usage de données peu
fiables ou sur l'interprétation contestable qui en était faite.
T.Marcotty


                                                                                                           57
                                                                              A la une de "Nature" : données
                                                                              truquées, expériences bâclées,
                                                                              résultats douteux dans les
                                                                              laboratoires.

                                                                              "Et alors, quel est le problème?"




 A survey carried out in the United States among 3,247 scientists showed that one third of the interviewees
 recognised not having respected always scrupulously the research protocols or having used data that were
 rather unreliable. Results of the survey were published in the scientific journal “Nature” (I wonder if they
 are reliable - RDD).




 RÉSUMÉS DE THÈSES / ABSTRACTS OF THESIS

 THE IMPACT OF LAND USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE ON THE
 PREVALENCE AND INCIDENCE OF BOVINE TRYPANOSOMOSIS IN
 NORTHERN GHANA (PHD-THESIS)

In January 2005 Charles Mahama (Ghana) defended his PhD-thesis at the Veterinary Faculty of the
University of Liège. B. Losson (ULg) and S. Geerts (ITM) were the promoters. Among the members
of the jury were R. De Deken and G. Hendrickx.


A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors was conducted in
the Savelugu and West Mamprusi districts of northern Ghana (chapter 1). The tsetse apparent density
varied from 0 to 26 flies/trap/day, with a predominance of G. tachinoides in trap catches. The
trypanosome challenge was found to be higher in the West Mamprusi District (19.8) than in the
Savelugu District (4.7). The difference in trypanosome challenge was attributed directly to tsetse
apparent density and indirectly to differences in the integrity of riparian vegetation, which is
relatively more intact in the West Mamprusi District than in the Savelugu District. With regard to the
prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis, it was observed that the mean parasitological and serological
prevalence of the disease was significantly higher in the West Mamprusi District (16% and 53%
respectively) than in the Savelugu District (8% and 24% respectively).

A method for the characterisation of the habitat of G. tachinoides in the Volta River basin by the use
of remote sensing and ground tsetse data is reported in Chapter 2. A recent (2001) Landsat

                                                                                                                58
(Thematic Mapper) satellite image, of resolution 30m x 30m, was processed to reveal the main habitat
types of importance as tsetse habitat. A layer on cultivated lands was also extracted from the image
and land use intensity, as measured by the level of cultivation was displayed. Based on these general
observations, a prediction map of G. tachinoides depicting areas of high, medium and low potential
for the fly was produced. An overlay of the tsetse prediction map and the map on land use intensity
revealed an inverse relationship between land use intensity in proximity to a given landscape unit and
the potential of the landscape unit for G. tachinoides. The composite map showed a high
fragmentation of riparian vegetation in areas of high land use intensity especially along the tributaries
of White Volta. There was also an inverse relationship between land use intensity and the apparent
density of G. tachinoides.

Chapter 3 describes a longitudinal survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors to investigate the
relationship between livestock management and the incidence of bovine trypanosomosis. Beginning
from the month of March 2003, two groups of sentinel cattle, in a fully-sedentary (FS) and a partially-
sedentary (PS) management system according to the type herding practice they belonged to, were
serologically and parasitologically monitored for a period of one year. Cattle in the FS group were
not exposed to tsetse because they were herded in domestic and peri-domestic environments while
those in the FS group were herded in areas known to be infested with tsetse flies. There was a highly
significant difference between the serological incidence of the FS and PS groups, which varied
significantly with time. The parasitological and serological prevalence were consistent with the
trypanosome challenge to which the groups were exposed. The study demonstrated the usefulness of
the indirect ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) in distinguishing between low and high
risk areas and suggested a strong relationship between herding practice and the incidence of bovine
trypanosomosis in the White Volta river basin of northern Ghana.

In Chapter 4 GIS is used for the selection of priority areas for the control of tsetse and
trypanosomosis in the low-input livestock production system of northern Ghana. The underlining
principle in the method used was to superimpose (cross-tabulate) data layers, at the district level, on
human population, cereal production, livestock stocking rates and trypanosomosis prevalence in order
to identify areas with a medium to high level of crop/livestock integration, where trypanosomosis
constituted a major health constraint. From the analysis, 7 districts forming about 23% of the land
area of northern Ghana (91,000 km2) were classified as first priority. Second priority areas formed
about 68% comprising of 11 districts while third priority areas formed 9%, comprising 2 districts.

The totality of the work presented in the thesis underscores the need to take into consideration the
dynamic nature of the environment and its influence on the epidemiology of animal trypanosomosis
when formulating medium to long term tsetse and trypanosomosis control strategies. The thesis also
highlights the usefulness of recent developments in tools and methods for the diagnosis of
trypanosomosis, the prediction of vector distribution and the selection of priority areas for
investments in tsetse and trypanosomosis control and/or eradication.




                                                                                                      59
IMPROVED DIAGNOSIS OF TRYPANOSOME INFECTIONS AND DRUG
RESISTANT T.CONGOLENSE IN LIVESTOCK
Vincent Delespaux – PhD Thesis – Academic Year 2004-2005
Luc Vanhamme (ULB - IBMM) promoter

Summary
The aims of this thesis were to provide a picture of the trypanosomosis and drug resistance prevalence in
Eastern Province of Zambia, to understand the underlying factors of drug resistance (drug use habits), to
improve the diagnosis of trypanosomosis in livestock and finally, to improve the diagnosis of isometamidium
resistance in T.congolense.
After an introductory part where available trypanosomosis and trypanocide resistance diagnostic methods are
described and discussed, the body of the thesis is divided in two main sections. In the first section are
presented the results of a cross-sectional and a longitudinal epidemiological survey describing the
geographical distribution of trypanosomosis cases, of resistant isolates and of cattle treated with
isometamidium chloride. The results of the monitoring of unsupervised treatments of cattle with
isometamidium by farmers and veterinary assistants with the Isometamidium-ELISA technique are also
presented.
The second section describes the development of two new diagnostic methods, the first one allowing the
diagnosis of trypanosome infections with high sensitivity and specificity through polymerase chain reaction
and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The second new diagnostic method allows the diagnosis of
isometamidium resistant T.congolense strains by PCR-RFLP.

AMELIORATION DU DIAGNOSTIC DES INFECTIONS TRYPANOSOMIALES
ET DES SOUCHES DE T. CONGOLENSE RESISTANTES AUX
TRYPANOCIDES CHEZ LE BETAIL.
Vincent Delespaux – PhD Thesis – Academic Year 2004-2005
Luc Vanhamme (ULB - IBMM) promoter

Résumé
Les buts de cette thèse étaient de fournir une image de la prévalence de la trypanosomose du bétail ainsi que
de la résistance aux trypanocides dans la province orientale de la Zambie, de comprendre les facteurs
déterminant la résistance aux trypanocides (habitude d'utilisation des médicaments), d'améliorer le diagnostic
de la trypanosomose du bétail ainsi que d'améliorer le diagnostic de la résistance de T. congolense à
l'isometamidium.
Après une partie introductive décrivant et discutant les méthodes de diagnostic de la trypanosomose ainsi que
de la résistance aux trypanocides, le corps de thèse est divisé en deux parties principales. Dans la première de
ces parties sont présentés les résultats d'une enquête transversale et d'une enquête longitudinale donnant une
image de la répartition géographique des cas de trypanosomose animale, des isolats résistants aux
trypanocides ainsi que des cas de bétails traités au chlorure d'isometamidium. Les résultats d'une enquête
visant à analyser l'usage sans guidance d'isometamidium par des éleveurs et des assistants vétérinaires y sont
également présentés.

Dans la deuxième partie sont décrits les résultas du développement de deux nouvelles méthodes de
diagnostic, la première permettant le diagnostic sensible et spécifique d'infections trypanosomiales par PCR-
RFLP et la seconde permettant de diagnostiquer un mécanisme de résistance à l'isometamidium également
par PCR-RFLP.

Ceux ,qui désirent apprendre plus sur ce sujet, peuvent consulter la thèse de Vincent Delespaux sur le site
web http://www.angelfire.com/linux/vdelespaux/TheseULB260105.pdf




                                                                                                             60
                DES NOUVELLES DE LA PART DES MEMBRES / NEWS FROM
                FELLOW MEMBERS

                Hamadé Sigué (hamade.sigue@laposte.net; CIPSAT 1998-99) a été nommé Chef de
                Programme ‘Gestion des Ressources Naturelles Systèmes de Production’ (GRN/SP) de
                l’INERA, CRREA de l’Est à Fada N’Gourma. Sa nouvelle adresse est :
                                               CRREA de l’Est, Station de Kouaré
                                                              BP 208
                                                 Fada N’Gourma - Burkina Faso
                                                     Tél : +(226) 40 77 01 87
                                                    Fax : +(226) 40 77 02 37
                Il a l’intention de relancer son projet de thèse.

                Dieudonné Moubamba (ddm040@yahoo.fr; CIPSAT 1995-1996) a aussi l’intention
                d'entamer le doctorat. Affecté à un Centre de Recherche dépendant du Ministère de
DES NOUVELLES




                l’Enseignement Supérieur du Gabon, il a conçu en collaboration avec deux collègues
                vétérinaires un projet national pour étudier les tiques et les maladies qu’elles transmettent
                aux animaux sauvages et domestiques. Le projet est exécuté en collaboration avec
                l'université dEdinbourgh. Dieudonné aimerait pouvoir intégrer une partie de ces études dans
                sa thèse de doctorat. En plus, Dieudonné est en train de créer une Unité de Production et de
                Sciences Vétérinaires au CENAREST afin de rendre le centre plus autonome.

                Entre-temps Norber Mbahin (capild@yahoo.fr; CIPSAT 2002-2003) a été accepté pour
                faire son doctorat à l'International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology au Kenya. Son
                adresse à Nairobi est :
                                                         ICIPE (ICP)
                                                  P.O. Box 30772 – 001GPO
                                                       Nairobi - Kenya

                Luca Farina (Luca.Farina@cec.eu.int; CIPSAT 1985-1986) is still working for the
                European Commission, at the Food and Veterinary Office in Dublin. A couple of months ago
                he changed unit though, and he is now working with fish, molluscs and birds. According to
                Luca, never being settled is a good challenge to a professional!

                Saïdou Traoré (saidtraore2000@yahoo.fr; CIPSAT 1992-1993) nous informe qu’il travaille
                toujours à Labé dans un Centre de Recherche et de Valorisation des Plantes Médicinales. Il
                s’y occupe du vivarium. Son adresse est :
                                                   CRVPM de Dubréka
                                                          BP 2524
                                                    Conakry - Guinée
                                                  Tél. : +(224) 59 90 51

                Manon, la petite fille de Karim Lebtahi (karim.lebtahi@caf-dcf.redcross.be; CIPSAT 1992-
                93), dont nous avons annoncé la naissance dans la 10ième Lettre du RIPROSAT, se porte très
                bien. Quand cette lettre-ci apparaîtra, elle aura déjà un an !

                Jorge Ron (jron-ciz@admin.ucentral.edu.ec; CIPSAT 2001-02) et sa femme Maria Augusta
                Chávez sont heureux de vous communiquer la naissance de leur fille au mois de janvier.
                Félicitations ! Pendant que Maria Augusta s’occupe de la petite Emilia Isabela, Jorge
                continue à travailler dans le programme de brucellose du Centro Internacional de Zoonosis
                de l’Université Centrale de l’Equateur.




                                                                                                            61
                On nous annonce que Cheikh Sadibou FALL (CIPSAT 1993) est devenu le premier
                conseiller technique du Ministre de l'Elevage. Cette promotion nous rejouit et nous rend fier.

                Angeline Bilounga (beneangeline@yahoo.fr; CIPSAT 1998-1999) nous communique
                qu’elle est toujours à Yaoundé, Cameroun, où elle travaille au Programme National de
                Vulgarisation et de Recherche Agricoles (PNVRA).

                Antonio ROTA (CIPSAT 1989) feels sorry that he did not get in touch with us for so long.
                Since November 2004 he is back with FAO, after four years working with the International
                Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) in Rome. He is based in Kabul in Afghanistan,
                where at present he is in charge of three main development projects (with poultry, dairy,
                animal health and fodder production as main components). Despite security restrictions, he
                still has a great time in Kabul. Under the project "Development of Rural Poultry Production"
                the refurbishment of some infrastructures in Kabul is almost completed: the installation of a
DES NOUVELLES




                new incubator (capacity for 40,000 eggs) will re-launch poultry hatchery activities in the
                country in collaboration with the Kabul Poultry Association. The potential for developing
                poultry industry is very high in Afghanistan. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to access good
                genetic material.
                Antonio had the opportunity to assist to the local favourite sport in Afghanistan, named
                Buzkashi. Two teams of fantastic horsemen fight for the possession of a dead calf, which has
                to be deposited into a circle to score kind of "GOAL". The horseman who scores get a
                reward (yesterday US$100 per score = 3 time average salary...and the match ended 11 - 8).
                Antonio is particularly proud of having shot a very good photo that you can admie on the
                front page of this letter. Antonio would like to receive news from his former colleagues. He
                can be contacted at the following address :
                                                Rota, Antonio (FAAFG/STALP)
                                                      GCP/AFG/030/USA
                                                 Darulaman Management Unit,
                                                 Darulaman, Sanatorium Street,
                                                      Kabul, Afghanistan
                                                    Tel: +93 (0) 79315391

                Benita DJAGMAH (MSTAH03-04) [btdjagmah@yahoo.com] recently got married.
                Congratulations to the young couple! The address of Benita’s home residence is
                                                      Box MD 1012
                                                         Madina
                                                      Accra - Ghana

                Kokouvi SOEDJI (CIPSAT 2002-03) [kokouvisoedji@yahoo.fr] nous annonce qu'il vient
                d'être nommé Responsable du Laboratoire d'Epidémiologie et d'Ecopathologie à l'Institut
                Togolais de Recherche Agronomique (ITRA). Ce labo est basé à Sokodé au centre du pays,
                mais on peut toujours le contacter à l'adresse suivante :
                                              Dr SOEDJI Kokouvi Alias Sokag
                                                    BP: 61300 Lomé-Togo
                                                     Tel: (228) 931 87 34

                Roland ZIEBE (zieberoland@yahoo.fr)ou (rziebe@snvcm.org) travaille actuellement pour
                une ONG Néerlandaise de Développement au niveau de l'Equipe Extrême-Nord Cameroun.
                                      Son adresse : B.P. 491 Maroua Cameroun
                                         Tel/Fax. (domicile) (237) 229 17 80
                                     GSM: (237) 792 84 52 ou (237) 931 45 06




                                                                                                               62
LES PHOTOS




                    MSSAT 2004-05 nous quitte




             Andréas et la fabrication de la paille à urée
                           (voire page 14)




                                                         63
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