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Thematic Timeline Ginger

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					Thematic Timeline
    Ginger

                By:
            Chris Lung
          Natalie Haddad
         Laura Norkeviciute
A. History of Trade and Economic
Impact.
                            Ginger History
 Originated in Southeast Asia
 Recorded in the 4th Century BC (India)
 Recorded in China in the 5th Century BC by Confucius
 By the 6th Century CE Ginger was being potted and traded in the early Indian
 Ocean Trade Routes
 In Europe, there were beliefs that Ginger originated from the Garden of
 Eden
 Ginger popularity fell in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire
 By the 11th Century CE it was a very popular trade item by Muslim merchants
 going to Europe; the most common purpose was to add taste drinks/foods
 and medicine
 In the 15th Century CE, Ginger was traded on ships to Africa and the
 Caribbean
 Today Ginger is grown worldwide, with the most popular kinds from China
 and Jamaica
Ginger Prices and Today‟s Use
 Prices jumped after ginger‟s first discovery and again in 11th
 and 15th Century when ginger was traded along the Silk
 Road and ocean trade routes
 In the 14th Century CE, a pound of ginger was equal to a
 whole sheep or 1 shilling and 7 pence
 Demand and prices for ginger rose in the 16th Century CE
 because of its transfer to Africa and the Caribbean
 Today, Ginger cost about 7 USD per pound
 There is a World Market of Ginger that monitors the
 production and prices of Ginger which is still high and
 popular today
 Today‟s uses of Ginger are for various medical treatments
 and food flavoring
 Today Ginger add flavor to foods and aids the body in
 absorbing more nutrients and fighting many diseases/viruses
Prices (USD) of similar items to Ginger:


  Organic Ginger Root ($9 per pound)
  Ginger Root ($6 per pound)
  Crystallized Ginger Root ($5.50 per pound)
  Organic Ginger Power ($8.80 per pound)
  Ginger Powder ($6.20 per pound)
  Gingerbread ($9 per Pound)
  Ginger Ale ($20.60, 4 pack, 12 oz)
  Ginger Tea ($6-7 per 20 pack box)
Pictures, Maps, and Charts (A)




 Pictures of Ginger in different forms
Pictures, Maps, and Charts
Cont.




 Ginger Powder     Ginger Tea
Pictures, Maps, and Charts
Cont.




 Spices Routes which Ginger was traded on. Silk Road (Blue), Indian Ocean Trade
 (Red, Sub-Saharan/Mediterranean (Purple)
Pictures, Maps, and Charts
Cont.




 Trade Routes which Ginger was spread along
Pictures, Maps, and Charts
Cont.




 Ginger Nutrition Facts
                          Ginger Process Chart
Pictures, Maps, and Charts
Cont.




 World Ginger Imports Chart
B. Cultural Influence
 -Ginger is a tuber that is consumed whole as a delicacy, medicine, or spice.
 -It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale.
 -It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae).
 -1585, ships from the West Indies arrived in Europe with a cargo of Jamaican ginger, a
 root originating in India and South China, which became the first Asian spice to grow
 successfully in the New World.
B: Literature/ Tales
 -Ginger was used for commerce, in the Eastern World
 well into antiquity. These spices found their way into
 the Middle East before the beginning of the Common
 Era, where the true sources of these spices was
 withheld by the traders, and associated with fantastic
 tales.
 -“Ginger and Pickle” is Potter's celebration of village
 life and emphasizes her preoccupation at the time of
 composition with keeping accounts, making a profit,
 and dealing with neighbors as clients. Shop keeping
 was thought an appropriate subject for children's
 books of the period and fold-out pages displayed the
 many products that would be found in a shop. In
 Ginger and Pickles, Potter offers the child reader not
 only the various products but a glimpse of what
 interests adults in a village shop: the quirks and
 eccentricities of village residents and the social life
 that revolves around such a place.
 Ginger is mentioned in ancient Chinese, Indian and
 Middle Eastern writings, and has long been prized for
 its aromatic, culinary and medicinal properties.
B: Language/Social
  Ginger is vital to most Asian cuisines and pops up in many Western cuisines too.
  Indians call it adrak in its green form and sonth in its dried form; the Spanish call it
  jengibre, the Italians zenzero, the French gingembre, the Indonesians aliah and the
  Thai call it khing – but all agree that it‟s importance in their cuisines and health.
  Little wonder then that a well-known proverb in Hindi is „Bandar kya jaane adrak ka
  swad?‟ – What does a monkey know about the taste of ginger? - Essentially implying
  that ignorant people can‟t be expected to appreciate quality. Today almost everyone –
  excepting the said monkey – does know the value of ginger, both as a taste agent and
  a health aid.
B: Culinary/Religious
 -Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. They are often
 pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes.
 They can also be steeped in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often
 added; sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger can also be made into
 candy.
 -Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from old ginger roots is
 extremely potent, and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes, and is an
 quintessential ingredient of Chinese, Japanese and many South Asian cuisines for
 flavoring dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine.
 -Ginger acts as a useful food preservative.
 -Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1, although the
 flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is
 typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies, crackers and
 cakes, ginger ale, and ginger beer.
B: Religious
 In religious ceremonies (for Rais), even before it became commercial it was cultivated
 near the homestead.
 Non-family members and animals are not allowed to enter the ginger fields. Usually the
 father is the only one who can enter.
 It‟s believed that spirits reside in the ginger fields and outsiders entering the field would
 be cursed by it, resulting in a diseases that would make his/her limbs distorted and
 swollen (dewa).
 Religious ritual called Naya Ko Puja, is performed in which new crop is offered to the
 gods and spirits. Only after the ritual, the crop can be used inside.
 Ginger was not religiously or culturally important to the Brahmin-Chhetris people.
 Another group of people that used ginger religiously were the Lepchas and Bhotias.




         Naya Ko Puja(Godess)
B: In India
 Most states in India have a signature steamed dish.
 In a Hindu story called Mahabrata , Ginger is mentioned throughout the book as an
 element used in a beef stew to enhance the flavor.
 In Gujarat, it is the dhokla, says Julie Sahni, in her cookbook "Classic Indian
 Vegetarian and Grain Cooking." Dhoklas are steamed savory cakes made from rice
 and channa dal, or yellow split peas. Raw rice and channa dal are ground to make
 coarse flour and then are mixed with yogurt, chiles, ginger, turmeric and lemon juice.
 The batter is spread onto round pans and steamed for about 10 minutes. After the
 cakes cool, they are cut into diamond shaped pieces.
B: Culture/Social
 Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers.
 Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates,
 ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-
 like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall.
 Traditionally, the root is gathered when the stalk withers; it is immediately scalded, or
 washed and scraped, to kill it and prevent sprouting.
 The ginger oil is the foundation for such drinks as ginger beer and ginger ale. The
 ginger tea of Kashmir is famous, as are the gingersnaps and gingerbread of Europe
 and America.
 -Ginger cookies are made even today during the holidays.
C. Ginger- from Harvest to End of
Use
 The major producers of Ginger are Jamaica, India, Brazil,
 Nigeria, Thailand, Australia, and Fiji.
 Ginger consists of Rhizomes, flowers, and fruits.
 The Rhizome is the stem of the plant that grows
 underground. It is typically knobby and fleshy and also
 covered in rings.
 Thirty centimeter long purple flowers grow from the Rhizome.
 The fruit that grows is a red fruit which contains seeds.
 Ginger grows to the high of about one meter. It had an
 erected stem and thick tuberous stems.
 The plant also gives off small green-yellow flowers.
 Ginger thrives in hot and dry seasons, and very wet
 seasons.
The harvesting time of ginger changes with the different uses.
Fresh ginger requires five months of harvesting while dry ginger
takes eight to nine months.
Ginger is typically processed into a dry form because that is the
form that is in highest demand.
To prepare dry ginger, the ginger plant must be boiled first in order
to kill the rhizomes.
The ginger is sun dried and then pulverized to produce oils.
In the market..
 Ginger is known for its peppery taste. Ginger
 aroma is a mixture of sweet, spicy, and sharp.
 Ginger is found in six forms, which all serve
 different purposes. These six forms include:
     Fresh ginger
     Dried ginger
     Pickled ginger
     Crystallized ginger
     Ground ginger
     Preserved ginger
 New technologies in ginger production led to the
 production of ginger oil. Ginger oil is created by a
 steam distillation process.
Pickled Ginger
                      Dried Ginger




Crystallized Ginger
The Many uses of Ginger

  Ginger is used for culinary purposes
    Ginger is used alone as a condiment.
    Also it is used in flavoring foods like
    puddings, pies, biscuits, and cookies.
  Ginger also flavors many beverages
  including tea, ginger ale, and ginger
  beer.
Ginger purposes continued..
 Ginger has many medical purposes as well.
 Ginger helps with digestion and is known to help
 stomach aches and digestion problems.
 Helpful for cramping stomachs and diarrhea.
 Helps take care of nausea.
 Reduces inflammation and muscle pain.
 Helps to reduce arthritis.
 Circulates blood, takes away toxins, cleans the
 bowels and kidneys.
 Helps skin issues.
D. Governmental Actions
             3000 BC to 1299 CE
  Ginger is used for culinary purposes
  Ginger was used in the medicine field to help cure and prevent
  bacterial and viral infections and diseases. However, the prime
  use of Ginger use would flourish in the 4th Century CE.
  India and China used Ginger for its medical properties which
  then increased the value and price of Ginger
  In a Hindu story (document) called Mahabrata , Ginger is
  mentioned throughout the book as an element used in a beef
  stew to enhance the flavor, as a result, Ginger grew in popularity
  throughout India
  Some historians believe that the Chinese fought over Ginger and
  other valuable crops and spices because the crops and spices
  were so valuable to one‟s economy
Ginger from 3000 BC to 1299
CE Continued..
 Arab traders took the rooted version of Ginger called a Rhizome to
 the Greeks and Romans who also used it which also increased the
 value of Ginger.
 To limit the expansion and keep the price high, taxes were imposed
 on merchants carrying Ginger by some Arab states
 Some (mostly Arabs/Muslims) would keep it in a preserved form to
 make sweets and to enhance foods and drinks particularly meat
 dishes and buttermilk drinks
 The Chinese, Indians, and Muslims would plant Rhizomes and then
 cultivate them at different times. The government would only allow
 a certain amount of Ginger to be export, but another reason why
 Ginger was picked at different times was because the younger the
 Ginger is, it would provide more flavor to the dish and the older a
 Ginger is, the more effective the medical properties are.
D. Government Control 1300 C.E.
to 1700 C.E
 From 1618 to 1648
 the thirty years war
 took place
 between today‟s
 Germany and most
 of the countries of
 Europe. This war
 was caused
 because of many
 things including
 the want for spices
 for trade. One of
 these spices was
 ginger. Spices
 were crucial at this
 time for trade and
 economic growth.
Governmental actions 1300 C.E. to
1700 C.E. continued..
 Christopher Columbus discovered the West Indies in 1492.
 Disputes arose over who the land belonged to. The
 Portuguese king claimed they were his because the lands
 were south of the canaries.
 This argument was ended though with the treaty of
 Tordesillas in 1494. This treaty stated that all new land west
 of a line that was 370 degrees west of the Cape Verde
 islands would belong to Spain and lands east of this line
 were Portuguese property.
 In 1498 Vasco da Gama led an expedition around Africa to
 India.
 Asia was rich in spices, including ginger. At this time spices
 were very expensive in Europe. In the beginning the
 Portuguese dominated the spice trade. They were able to
 conquer many lands and gain a lot of power and spices.
D: 1701 C.E. to Present
 Food units are generally for large quantities, not comparable to modern supermarket
 prices.
 Most farmers are smallholders, as per capita availability of land has been declining
 rapidly due to population pressure. Crops like maize, potatoes, ginger and cardamom
 are grown in the higher areas.
 Ginger is the main, if not only, cash crop for many farmers in our study area. Ginger
 can be grown economically on small plots in a wide range of environments. Thus,
 smallholders and marginal farmers can grow ginger and sell or consume the crop
 without any processing. Because farmers rely so much on this crop, control and
 decision making in the production cycle are of great importance.
 Asia still grows most of the spices that once ruled the trade, including cinnamon,
 pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and ginger. However, more and more spices are being planted
 in the Western Hemisphere along with a wide variety of herbs and aromatic seeds.
 From the beginning of history the strongest nations have controlled the spice trade. The
 same is true today; the United States is now the world's major spice buyer, followed by
 Germany, Japan, and France.
 France was a major power in the 17th century, but it did not play a large part in the
 developing trade because it did not invest in spice exploration. However, Frenchmen
 did help to break the Dutch hold on the market. They stole enough cloves, ginger
 cinnamon, and un-limed nutmeg from the Dutch to begin plantings on French-controlled
 islands in the Indian Ocean.
D:1701 C.E. to Present cont.
 As with most spices though, ginger was used only by the more affluent until the middle
 of the 1700s when spices became more affordable to the average person. Today
 ginger is cultivated in southern China, India, parts of the African continent, and on the
 islands of Madagascar and Hawaii.
 Prices of cooking staples like ginger and garlic have doubled over the past year,
 according to the Ministry of Commerce. A ministry survey done in 36 cities found garlic
 prices shot up 96 percent, while ginger prices also rose 90 percent.
 The trend is expected to continue due to increasing labor and land costs.
 Compared with agricultural commodities such as food grains and cotton which are
 controlled by the government, it is much easier for hot money to make waves in the
 agricultural market for products such like garlic, ginger and vegetables, which require
 close government regulation to ensure stable prices.
 The government does not regulate herbal remedies, so quality and potency can vary
 from product to product.
 Since the economy went down, prices went up, this caused less people to keep buying
 the high quality ginger and even those who do, only get it for serious purposes. But
 those who do buy it; the economy is thankful to.
Continued: Recently in Life…
 Judy, 33, is separating from Peter after 8 years of marriage. She stayed home. The
 family assets are worth 1.5 M. Peter earned $400,000 last year. Her objectives are to
 succeed on her own. She believes that there is a future in natural medicine and wants
 to set up her own ginger farm. Her priority is to get as much money from the settlement
 as possible so she can invest it in “Judy‟s Ginger”. $700,000 net of tax sounds fair.
 While she isn‟t interested in receiving support from Peter, she would appreciate
 accessing his business acumen from time to time.
Who Did What?

 Natalie: Part C (slides 18-24) and Part
 D 1300 C.E. to 1700 C.E.(slides 27-
 29)
 Chris: Part A (slides 2-10) and Part D
 3000 BC to 1299 CE (slides 25-26)
 Laura: Part B (slides 11-17) and Part
 D- 1701 C.E to present (slides 30-32).
Bibliography
 "Ginger." University of Maryland Medical Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2010.
 http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/ginger-000246.htm.
 "The History of Herbology and its Practice." Suite101.com: Online Magazine and
 Writers' Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2010. <http://www.suite101.com/content/the-
 history-of-herbology-a260477>.
 Anonymous. "PLANT CULTURES - Ginger History." PLANT CULTURES - Home Page.
 Web. 11 Dec. 2010. <http://www.plantcultures.org/plants/ginger_history.html>.

				
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