Literacy Assessment Support PALS 1-3 Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening Adams 12 Five Star Schools PALS 1-3 Protocol Refresher DLT 9/29/2011 Update 1 Online Learning: Support for Grades 1-3 Literacy Assessment Purpose: Outcomes: • Engage in a self-directed • As the result of this session, refresher to support the you will accurate collection of data Know the district that expectations for reading Meets state reporting assessment requirements Be prepared for the District Complies with the district Assessment Day assessment schedule Understand the PALS Informs instruction assessment protocol Have answers to frequently asked questions with regard to PALS How to Use this Online Learning Opportunity • Gather the materials listed on • Materials needed from your the right. PALS Kit: • View this PowerPoint to Administration and Scoring refresh your knowledge of the Guide (Form B) PALS protocol. Assessment Training CD- • Stop at identified points to ROM view clips from the PALS CD- ROM. • Continue viewing until the Let’s get started! session is complete. • Return to this resource as often as needed (posted on the district’s literacy website). Grades 1-3 Assessment Overview District Requirements for 2010-2011 • PALS Form B is given in the fall and spring. • DRA or PALS Form C is given mid-year to students reading below grade-level. Oral reading passage scores are due in ScholarsMart: September 24, 2010 January 21, 2011 (DRA for below grade level readers) May 20, 2011 Special Notes: • Third grade students who are reading above PALS level are given the BRI. (Above PALS level means students read the 6th grade passage with accuracy, a fluency of 3, and comprehension score of at least 5/6.) • Schools may determine how far to test beyond grade level passage. It is recommended to test no more than two years above grade level. Purpose of PALS Beginning of the year: Monitor progress from spring screening Determine instructional needs of students (formative assessment) Determine who needs intervention Determine kind and length of intervention Mid-year: Monitor progress from fall screening Fulfill requirement to monitor below grade-level readers Determine effectiveness of instruction Determine effectiveness of intervention Exit students from intervention Add students to intervention End of Year: Determine if a student is reading below, on, or above grade level (summative assessment) Determine effectiveness of intervention Set plans for next school year Contents of PALS Kit The following materials will be needed when administering PALS tasks: • Administration and Scoring Guide for Form A or B (form for current year) • Student Summary sheet • Student Spelling Sheet or plain paper • Teacher Packet Copies of recording forms for oral reading passages (R to Gr. 6) Copies of comprehension questions (R to Gr. 6) • Student Packet Word lists Four small books for oral reading: Readiness, Preprimer A, Preprimer B, Preprimer C Student version of Primer and above oral reading passages Alphabet charts Concept of Word materials (picture sheet, booklet, word list) • Class Summary Sheet (This is a very helpful at-a-glance tool.) Basic Screening Principles • Test within the PALS testing window. • Do not pre-teach test items such as words from word lists. • Follow the directions and script in the Administration and Scoring Guide, prompting only as directed. Failure to follow these principles invalidates the screening results. Assessment Window • The District Assessment Day is the first day of the assessment window for administering PALS. • However, since the spelling task can be given in a whole group setting, you may administer this part of the test one or two days before the District Assessment Day. • You may also give the word list one or two days before Assessment Day. This will support efficient preparation for and administration of the oral reading passages on Assessment Day. • Letter Sounds (1st grade fall only), Level B and C tasks, if needed, are given on the District Assessment Day. An Introduction to PALS • Insert the CD-ROM and click on “PALS 1-3 movie.” • Click on the “play” arrow to view an introduction to PALS by one of its creators. Disregard the information specific to Virginia testing or slide the triangle in the “time bar” to 1:28 to begin viewing. • Pause the CD when the time bar at the bottom of the PALS screen reads 2:15. Otherwise, the CD will play continuously. PALS Assessment Tasks Turn to the flowcharts on pages 8-10 of the Administration and Scoring Guide to find your grade-level tasks. For all students the following tasks are given: • Word Knowledge – Task 1: Spelling Inventory – Task 2: Word Recognition in Isolation – Task 3: Letter Sounds (First Grade Only) • Oral Reading in Context (leveled reading passages) For students not meeting Summed Scored Benchmarks, more diagnostic tasks are given: • Alphabetics: Alphabet Recognition, Letter Sounds, Concept of Word • Phonemic Awareness: Blending, Sound to Letter Word Knowledge Task 1: Spelling Inventory Turn to pages 11-12 in the • What are the key points? Administration and Scoring This task can be administered a Guide. Read the directions to day or two before the District familiarize yourself with this task. Assessment Day. Locate the materials used in this task: This task can be administered Student Spelling Sheet individually, in small groups, or Teacher Packet (Spelling Words and as a whole class. Sentences) Spelling is scored by phonics Student Summary Sheet (for features. Be sure to read p. 12 recording) in the Administration and Then return to the CD-ROM to view Scoring Guide for specific the Spelling Inventory Task. Stop scoring directions. the CD when the time bar reads 5:00 and continue with the PowerPoint. Task 2: Word Recognition in Isolation This task is administered individually. The following lists are required: Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Fall Pre-Primer Grade 1 list Grade 2 list Mid-year Grade 1 list Grade 2 list Grade 3 list Spring Grade 1 list Grade 2 list Grade 3 list Enter the score from the grade-level list into ScholarsMart at mid-year and in the spring. Word Recognition Task Turn to page 14 in the Administration What are the key points? and Scoring Guide. Read the Move up or down in word lists to find directions to familiarize yourself the highest word list on which the with this task. student can correctly read 15 or more words. Locate the materials used in this task: Give the Oral Reading Passage that Student Packet (Word lists) corresponds to the highest level word Student Summary Sheet list on which the student reads 15 or more words correctly. Return to the CD-ROM to view the Words should be read automatically. Word Recognition Task. Self- corrections are counted as correct. Pause the CD when the time bar on the Hint: Write the incorrect student PALS screen says 7:35 and continue response for additional information with the PowerPoint. on student’s word solving strategies. Task 3: Letter-Sound Task (First Grade Only) • If you will be testing first graders, • What are the key points? turn to page 16 in the The short vowel sound is the Administration and Scoring correct response for the Letter- Guide. Read the directions to Sound task. familiarize yourself with this task. See the specific prompt on page • Locate the materials needed for 16 of the Administration and this task: Scoring Guide for a student offering a long vowel sound. Student Packet (Letter Sounds) Student Summary Sheet Hint: Recording what a student • Return to the CD-ROM to view substitutes provides a window the Letter-Sound task. into the thinking behind the • Stop the CD when the time bar response and can be useful in reads 9:02 and continue with the planning instruction. PowerPoint. Finding the Summed Score • Return to the CD at 9:02 to see the scores that contributed to the Summed Score. • Pause the CD at 9:36 and continue with the PowerPoint. • What are the key points? Check the score against the benchmark for this time of year to know whether the student is “grade-level.” Note students falling below the benchmark so that you can determine what extra support may be needed. Refer to page 17 in the Administration and Scoring Guide. Level A: Oral Reading in Context: Determining the Oral Reading Passage A student’s score on the word list determines the starting point in the oral reading passages: Word List Score Administer this Passage 0-9 Preprimer word list Readiness 10-13 Preprimer word list Preprimer A 14-17 Preprimer word list Preprimer B 18+ Preprimer word list Preprimer C 15+ Primer, 1,2,3,4,5,6 Primer, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th Level A: Oral Reading in Context cont’d. • Locate the materials used in • Key Points: this task: Starting passage is Student Packet (word lists) determined by the word Student Summary Sheet list. • Return to the CD and view Start with the passage the next section. that corresponds with the word list upon which the student could read • Stop/pause the CD at 10:07 at least 15 words and continue with the correctly and PowerPoint. automatically. Oral Reading in Context Task • Turn to page 19 in the • What are the key points? Administration and Scoring Guide. Prepare for this task by copying Read the directions to familiarize running record forms and yourself with this task. comprehension questions before Assessment Day. • Locate the materials needed for Record the oral reading using the this task: marks given in the Administration Student Packet (Oral Reading and Scoring Guide (see pages 20-21). Passages) Determine both reading level and Teacher Packet (Running Record fluency level using the guides at the Forms and comprehension questions) bottom of the running record forms. Student Summary Sheet Assign a fluency score using the • Return to the CD to view this examples on this CD. section. Specific requirements for AD12: Comprehension questions are required • Stop the CD at 15:10 and continue (Read questions aloud for primer and first grade level passages). with the PowerPoint. We do not move up in passages. Determining Reading Level on Oral Reading Passage for First Grade o If a student starts below 1st grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with any Fluency and any Comprehension score, stop and record score on Student Summary (e.g., a score of P.1 could be entered for a student starting with the Primer passage). o If a student starts at 1st grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with Fluency score=2, any Comprehension, stop and record score on Student Summary. If Fluency is not 2, test down (e.g., a score of 1.2 could be entered). o If a student starts above 1st grade passage, the student must score Ind, 3 Fluency, and 5-6 comprehension. If they do not meet all of the criteria, administer the next lower passage until they meet all of the criteria (if above 1st grade passage) or stop at 1st grade passage if Instruc/Ind, 2 in Fluency, any Comprehension (e.g., a score of 2.5 could be entered if the student also has a fluency of 3, but a score of 2.2 could not be entered because the 5/6 criteria for comprehension has not been met). o If a student starts, at/below 1st grade and is Frus, continue to move to a lower passage until Instruc/Ind level is reached with any Fluency and any Comprehension. Determining Reading Level on Oral Reading Passage for Second Grade o If a student starts below 2nd grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with any Fluency and any Comprehension score, stop and record score on Student Summary (e.g., a score of 1.3 could be entered). o If a student starts at 2nd grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with Fluency score=2, any Comprehension, stop and record score on Student Summary. If Fluency is not 2, test down (e.g., a score of 2.2 could be entered). o If a student starts above 2nd grade passage, the student must score Ind, 3 Fluency, and 5-6 Comprehension. If they do not meet all of the criteria, administer the next lower passage until they meet all of the criteria (if above 2nd grade passage) or stop at 2nd grade passage if Instru/Ind, 2 in Fluency , any Comprehension (e.g., a score of 3.5 could be entered if the student also has a fluency of 3, but a score of 3.2 could not be entered because the 5/6 criteria for comprehension has not been met). o If a student starts, at/below 2nd grade and is Frus, continue to move to a lower passage until Instruc/Ind level is reached with any Fluency and any Comprehension. Determining Reading Level on Oral Reading Passage for Third Grade o If a student starts below 3rd grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with any Fluency and any Comprehension score, stop and record score on Student Summary (e.g., a score of 2.3 could be entered). o If a student starts at 3rd grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with Fluency score=2, any Comprehension, stop and record score on Student Summary. If Fluency is not 2, test down (e.g., a score of 3.2 could be entered). o If a student starts above 3rd grade passage, the student must score Ind, 3 Fluency, and 5-6 Comprehension. If they do not meet all of the criteria, administer the next lower passage. Continue to move to next lower passage until they meet all of the criteria (if above 3rd grade passage) or stop at 3rd grade passage if Instruc/Ind, 2 in Fluency, any Comprehension (e.g., a score of 4.5 or 4.6 could be entered if fluency is also 3; a score of 4.2 is not possible because comprehension does not meet the 5/6 criteria). o If a student starts, at/below 3rd grade and is Frus, continue to move to a lower passage until Instruc/Ind level is reached with any Fluency and any Comprehension. Guidelines for Taking a Running Record on Oral Reading Passages Please follow these guidelines carefully to ensure accuracy of scores. 1. Read the title of the passage to the student. 2. Follow the Teacher Prompts given at the top of each passage. 3. Do not prompt students in any way. The only acceptable speech from the teacher during a running record is: “Go on.” (On a very rare occasion, the teacher may tell a word which counts as an error.) 4. Please read “Scoring Accuracy” on page 21 of the Administration and Scoring Guide. Note: A miscue on a proper noun is counted as one error. (If a student reads “Jake” for “Jackie” and then again says “Jack” for “Jackie,” the student is assessed only one error.) Timing Oral Reading Passages is timing is required if your school enters the information on the optional. It is not a District requirement. However, PALS website. Level B: Alphabetics • Alphabetics tasks are given to First grade students who do not meet the Fall Entry Level Summed Score of 39 and to any Second or Third grade student who scores less than 15 on the Preprimer Word List. See flowcharts on pages 8-10 of Administration and Scoring Guide. • Alphabetic Tasks: Alphabet Recognition, Letter Sounds, and Concept of Word • Turn to pages 24 in Administration and Scoring Guide and read the directions to familiarize yourself with these tasks. • Return to the CD and view from 16:06 to 21:07 to see these assessments in action. Resume the PowerPoint when done. Special Considerations for Level B, Task 3: Concept of Word (COW) • Students must know the rhyme by heart before COW is assessed. Teach the rhyme using picture prompts. • Do not pre-teach the words from the COW word list. • When administering this part of the screening, follow the directions exactly as on pages 26 and 27. Do not add any additional prompts. Level C: Phonemic Awareness Tasks: Blending and Sound to Letter These two tasks are administered for the purpose of determining needs in blending and matching sounds in English. Sometimes difficulty in hearing sounds, blending, segmenting, matching, and sequencing sounds of language is part of the cause for lack of reading progress. Turn to pages 29-35 of the Administration and Scoring Guide and read the directions to familiarize yourself with these tasks. Return to the CD at 21:07 to view these tasks in action. What is grade level? FALL SPRING Grade 1 Summed Score Summed Score Benchmark=39 Benchmark=35 and and Instruc/Ind on Instruc/Ind on First Gr. Readiness or Passage : Comprehension Preprimer A 5-6, Fluency 2 Grade 2 Summed Score Summed Score Benchmark=35 and Benchmark=54 and Instruc/Ind on First Gr. Instru/Ind on Second Gr. Passage: Comprehension Passage: Comprehension 5-6, Fluency 2 5-6, Fluency 2 Grade 3 Summed Score Summed Score Benchmark=54 and Benchmark=65 and Instruc/Ind on Second Gr. Instruc/Ind on Third Gr. Passage: Comprehension Passage: Comprehension 5-6, Fluency 2 5-6, Fluency 2 What is “above grade level”? To be considered “above grade level,” students must read passages with accuracy, a fluency level of 3, and at least 5/6 on the comprehension questions. Preparing for the District Assessment Day For First Grade: For Grades 1-3: • Beginning with the first day of • Read and refer to the PALS school, use the picture prompts Administration and Scoring Guide only to practice the COW rhyme which also provides step-by-step for the correct form of PALS (see instructions for administering and published District Asssessment scoring each PALS task. Schedule). • Copy and assemble all necessary • Practice often and throughout materials. the school day to ensure the • Set up a testing schedule for rhyme is very familiar. students. • On testing day, begin slowly to ensure that you are following the protocol procedures. Don’t worry! You’ll gain fluency as the testing continues. Beyond Assessment Day: Using Information from PALS to Guide Whole Group/Small Group/Individual Instruction PALS Data can be used to help: Focus spelling and phonics instruction using the Spelling Inventory Focus practice with sight words, decoding, and vocabulary using data from Word Recognition In Isolation Determine strengths and needs in reading strategies, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension using the Oral Reading in Context Determine reading level using Oral Reading in Context Identify strengths and needs in knowing how print works using COW Identify oral language strengths and needs using Concept of Word (repeating the rhyme) Identify strengths and needs in recognition of letters and matching sounds to letters using Alphabet Recognition and Phonemic Awareness: Sound-to Letter Identify strengths and needs in phonemic awareness: blending sounds by using the Blending Task Taking a Look . . . Taking a look at what students know and what they need to learn enables teachers to analyze student strengths and needs. Then instruction can be focused and organized for maximum student learning. Using data gathered through assessment tools, instruction can be orchestrated with time and intensity to best facilitate students’ reading growth.
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