Literacy Assessment Support PALS 1-3 Phonological Awareness by xumiaomaio

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									  Literacy Assessment Support
PALS 1-3 Phonological Awareness
        Literacy Screening
       Adams 12 Five Star Schools
       PALS 1-3 Protocol Refresher




              DLT 9/29/2011 Update   1
  Online Learning: Support for Grades 1-3
            Literacy Assessment
Purpose:                          Outcomes:
• Engage in a self-directed       • As the result of this session,
  refresher to support the          you will
  accurate collection of data         Know the district
  that                                 expectations for reading
    Meets state reporting             assessment
     requirements                     Be prepared for the District
    Complies with the district        Assessment Day
     assessment schedule              Understand the PALS
    Informs instruction               assessment protocol
                                      Have answers to frequently
                                       asked questions with regard
                                       to PALS
  How to Use this Online Learning Opportunity
• Gather the materials listed on      • Materials needed from your
  the right.                            PALS Kit:
• View this PowerPoint to                 Administration and Scoring
  refresh your knowledge of the            Guide (Form B)
  PALS protocol.                          Assessment Training CD-
• Stop at identified points to             ROM
  view clips from the PALS CD-
  ROM.
• Continue viewing until the             Let’s get started!
  session is complete.
• Return to this resource as
  often as needed (posted on
  the district’s literacy website).
    Grades 1-3 Assessment Overview
District Requirements for 2010-2011

•    PALS Form B is given in the fall and spring.

•    DRA or PALS Form C is given mid-year to students reading below grade-level.

Oral reading passage scores are due in ScholarsMart:
      September 24, 2010
      January 21, 2011 (DRA for below grade level readers)
      May 20, 2011

Special Notes:
• Third grade students who are reading above PALS level are given the BRI. (Above
   PALS level means students read the 6th grade passage with accuracy, a fluency of 3,
   and comprehension score of at least 5/6.)
• Schools may determine how far to test beyond grade level passage. It is
   recommended to test no more than two years above grade level.
                               Purpose of PALS
Beginning of the year:
 Monitor progress from spring screening
 Determine instructional needs of students (formative assessment)
 Determine who needs intervention
 Determine kind and length of intervention
Mid-year:
 Monitor progress from fall screening
 Fulfill requirement to monitor below grade-level readers
 Determine effectiveness of instruction
 Determine effectiveness of intervention
 Exit students from intervention
 Add students to intervention
End of Year:
 Determine if a student is reading below, on, or above grade level (summative assessment)
 Determine effectiveness of intervention
 Set plans for next school year
                         Contents of PALS Kit
    The following materials will be needed when administering PALS tasks:
•     Administration and Scoring Guide for Form A or B (form for current year)
•     Student Summary sheet
•     Student Spelling Sheet or plain paper
•     Teacher Packet
        Copies of recording forms for oral reading passages (R to Gr. 6)
        Copies of comprehension questions (R to Gr. 6)
• Student Packet
          Word lists
          Four small books for oral reading: Readiness, Preprimer A, Preprimer B, Preprimer C
          Student version of Primer and above oral reading passages
          Alphabet charts
          Concept of Word materials (picture sheet, booklet, word list)
• Class Summary Sheet (This is a very helpful at-a-glance tool.)
       Basic Screening Principles
• Test within the PALS testing window.
• Do not pre-teach test items such as words from word
  lists.
• Follow the directions and script in the Administration
  and Scoring Guide, prompting only as directed.

   Failure to follow these principles invalidates the
                    screening results.
                      Assessment Window
•   The District Assessment Day is the first
    day of the assessment window for
    administering PALS.
•   However, since the spelling task can be
    given in a whole group setting, you may
    administer this part of the test one or
    two days before the District
    Assessment Day.
•   You may also give the word list one or
    two days before Assessment Day. This
    will support efficient preparation for
    and administration of the oral reading
    passages on Assessment Day.
•   Letter Sounds (1st grade fall only), Level
    B and C tasks, if needed, are given on
    the District Assessment Day.
           An Introduction to PALS
• Insert the CD-ROM and click on “PALS 1-3 movie.”

• Click on the “play” arrow to view an introduction to PALS by
  one of its creators. Disregard the information specific to
  Virginia testing or slide the triangle in the “time bar” to 1:28
  to begin viewing.

• Pause the CD when the time bar at the bottom of the PALS
  screen reads 2:15. Otherwise, the CD will play continuously.
                  PALS Assessment Tasks
Turn to the flowcharts on pages 8-10 of the Administration and Scoring
   Guide to find your grade-level tasks.

For all students the following tasks are given:
• Word Knowledge
    – Task 1: Spelling Inventory
    – Task 2: Word Recognition in Isolation
    – Task 3: Letter Sounds (First Grade Only)
• Oral Reading in Context (leveled reading passages)

For students not meeting Summed Scored Benchmarks, more diagnostic tasks
   are given:
• Alphabetics: Alphabet Recognition, Letter Sounds, Concept of Word
• Phonemic Awareness: Blending, Sound to Letter
                     Word Knowledge
                 Task 1: Spelling Inventory
Turn to pages 11-12 in the                    • What are the key points?
     Administration and Scoring                     This task can be administered a
     Guide. Read the directions to                   day or two before the District
     familiarize yourself with this task.            Assessment Day.
Locate the materials used in this task:             This task can be administered
        Student Spelling Sheet                      individually, in small groups, or
        Teacher Packet (Spelling Words and          as a whole class.
         Sentences)                                 Spelling is scored by phonics
        Student Summary Sheet (for                  features. Be sure to read p. 12
         recording)                                  in the Administration and
Then return to the CD-ROM to view                    Scoring Guide for specific
    the Spelling Inventory Task. Stop                scoring directions.
    the CD when the time bar reads
    5:00 and continue with the
    PowerPoint.
    Task 2: Word Recognition in Isolation

This task is administered individually.

The following lists are required:
                            Grade 1       Grade 2        Grade 3
            Fall           Pre-Primer     Grade 1 list   Grade 2 list
            Mid-year       Grade 1 list   Grade 2 list   Grade 3 list

             Spring        Grade 1 list   Grade 2 list   Grade 3 list


Enter the score from the grade-level list into ScholarsMart at mid-year
   and in the spring.
                     Word Recognition Task
Turn to page 14 in the Administration     What are the key points?
   and Scoring Guide. Read the             Move up or down in word lists to find
   directions to familiarize yourself        the highest word list on which the
   with this task.                           student can correctly read 15 or
                                             more words.
Locate the materials used in this task:    Give the Oral Reading Passage that
      Student Packet (Word lists)           corresponds to the highest level word
      Student Summary Sheet                 list on which the student reads 15 or
                                             more words correctly.
Return to the CD-ROM to view the           Words should be read automatically.
   Word Recognition Task.                    Self- corrections are counted as
                                             correct.
Pause the CD when the time bar on the     Hint: Write the incorrect student
   PALS screen says 7:35 and continue        response for additional information
   with the PowerPoint.                      on student’s word solving strategies.
                Task 3: Letter-Sound Task
                           (First Grade Only)
• If you will be testing first graders,   • What are the key points?
  turn to page 16 in the                      The short vowel sound is the
  Administration and Scoring                   correct response for the Letter-
  Guide. Read the directions to                Sound task.
  familiarize yourself with this task.        See the specific prompt on page
• Locate the materials needed for              16 of the Administration and
  this task:                                   Scoring Guide for a student
                                               offering a long vowel sound.
     Student Packet (Letter Sounds)
     Student Summary Sheet
                                             Hint: Recording what a student
• Return to the CD-ROM to view                  substitutes provides a window
  the Letter-Sound task.                        into the thinking behind the
• Stop the CD when the time bar                 response and can be useful in
  reads 9:02 and continue with the              planning instruction.
  PowerPoint.
        Finding the Summed Score
• Return to the CD at 9:02 to see the scores that contributed to
  the Summed Score.

• Pause the CD at 9:36 and continue with the PowerPoint.

• What are the key points?
    Check the score against the benchmark for this time of year to
     know whether the student is “grade-level.”
    Note students falling below the benchmark so that you can
     determine what extra support may be needed.
    Refer to page 17 in the Administration and Scoring Guide.
Level A: Oral Reading in Context:
Determining the Oral Reading Passage
A student’s score on the word list determines the starting point
in the oral reading passages:



      Word List Score                    Administer this Passage
0-9   Preprimer word list           Readiness
10-13 Preprimer word list           Preprimer A
14-17 Preprimer word list           Preprimer B
18+    Preprimer word list          Preprimer C
15+    Primer, 1,2,3,4,5,6          Primer, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th
 Level A: Oral Reading in Context cont’d.

• Locate the materials used in     • Key Points:
  this task:                           Starting passage is
    Student Packet (word lists)
                                        determined by the word
    Student Summary Sheet
                                        list.
• Return to the CD and view            Start with the passage
  the next section.                     that corresponds with
                                        the word list upon which
                                        the student could read
• Stop/pause the CD at 10:07            at least 15 words
  and continue with the                 correctly and
  PowerPoint.                           automatically.
       Oral Reading in Context Task
•   Turn to page 19 in the                  • What are the key points?
    Administration and Scoring Guide.           Prepare for this task by copying
    Read the directions to familiarize           running record forms and
    yourself with this task.                     comprehension questions before
                                                 Assessment Day.
•   Locate the materials needed for
                                                Record the oral reading using the
    this task:                                   marks given in the Administration
      Student Packet (Oral Reading              and Scoring Guide (see pages 20-21).
       Passages)                                Determine both reading level and
      Teacher Packet (Running Record            fluency level using the guides at the
       Forms and comprehension questions)        bottom of the running record forms.
      Student Summary Sheet                    Assign a fluency score using the
•   Return to the CD to view this                examples on this CD.
    section.                                    Specific requirements for AD12:
                                                     Comprehension questions are required
•   Stop the CD at 15:10 and continue                 (Read questions aloud for primer and first
                                                      grade level passages).
    with the PowerPoint.
                                                     We do not move up in passages.
        Determining Reading Level on Oral
         Reading Passage for First Grade
o If a student starts below 1st grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with any Fluency and
  any Comprehension score, stop and record score on Student Summary (e.g., a
  score of P.1 could be entered for a student starting with the Primer passage).
o If a student starts at 1st grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with Fluency score=2, any
  Comprehension, stop and record score on Student Summary. If Fluency is not 2,
  test down (e.g., a score of 1.2 could be entered).
o If a student starts above 1st grade passage, the student must score Ind, 3 Fluency,
  and 5-6 comprehension. If they do not meet all of the criteria, administer the next
  lower passage until they meet all of the criteria (if above 1st grade passage) or stop
  at 1st grade passage if Instruc/Ind, 2 in Fluency, any Comprehension (e.g., a score
  of 2.5 could be entered if the student also has a fluency of 3, but a score of 2.2
  could not be entered because the 5/6 criteria for comprehension has not been
  met).
o If a student starts, at/below 1st grade and is Frus, continue to move to a lower
  passage until Instruc/Ind level is reached with any Fluency and any
  Comprehension.
       Determining Reading Level on Oral
       Reading Passage for Second Grade
o If a student starts below 2nd grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with any Fluency
  and any Comprehension score, stop and record score on Student Summary (e.g., a
  score of 1.3 could be entered).
o If a student starts at 2nd grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with Fluency score=2, any
  Comprehension, stop and record score on Student Summary. If Fluency is not 2,
  test down (e.g., a score of 2.2 could be entered).
o If a student starts above 2nd grade passage, the student must score Ind, 3 Fluency,
  and 5-6 Comprehension. If they do not meet all of the criteria, administer the next
  lower passage until they meet all of the criteria (if above 2nd grade passage) or
  stop at 2nd grade passage if Instru/Ind, 2 in Fluency , any Comprehension (e.g., a
  score of 3.5 could be entered if the student also has a fluency of 3, but a score of
  3.2 could not be entered because the 5/6 criteria for comprehension has not been
  met).
o If a student starts, at/below 2nd grade and is Frus, continue to move to a lower
  passage until Instruc/Ind level is reached with any Fluency and any
  Comprehension.
        Determining Reading Level on Oral
         Reading Passage for Third Grade
o If a student starts below 3rd grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with any Fluency and
  any Comprehension score, stop and record score on Student Summary (e.g., a
  score of 2.3 could be entered).
o If a student starts at 3rd grade passage and is Instruc/Ind with Fluency score=2, any
  Comprehension, stop and record score on Student Summary. If Fluency is not 2,
  test down (e.g., a score of 3.2 could be entered).
o If a student starts above 3rd grade passage, the student must score Ind, 3 Fluency,
  and 5-6 Comprehension. If they do not meet all of the criteria, administer the next
  lower passage. Continue to move to next lower passage until they meet all of the
  criteria (if above 3rd grade passage) or stop at 3rd grade passage if Instruc/Ind, 2 in
  Fluency, any Comprehension (e.g., a score of 4.5 or 4.6 could be entered if fluency
  is also 3; a score of 4.2 is not possible because comprehension does not meet the
  5/6 criteria).
o If a student starts, at/below 3rd grade and is Frus, continue to move to a lower
  passage until Instruc/Ind level is reached with any Fluency and any
  Comprehension.
 Guidelines for Taking a Running Record on
          Oral Reading Passages
   Please follow these guidelines carefully to ensure accuracy of scores.
1. Read the title of the passage to the student.
2. Follow the Teacher Prompts given at the top of each passage.
3. Do not prompt students in any way. The only acceptable speech from
   the teacher during a running record is: “Go on.” (On a very rare
   occasion, the teacher may tell a word which counts as an error.)
4. Please read “Scoring Accuracy” on page 21 of the Administration and
   Scoring Guide. Note: A miscue on a proper noun is counted as one error.
   (If a student reads “Jake” for “Jackie” and then again says “Jack” for
   “Jackie,” the student is assessed only one error.)

         Timing Oral Reading Passages is timing is required if your
         school enters the information on the optional. It is not a
         District requirement. However, PALS website.
                 Level B: Alphabetics
• Alphabetics tasks are given to First grade students who do not
   meet the Fall Entry Level Summed Score of 39 and to any
   Second or Third grade student who scores less than 15 on the
   Preprimer Word List. See flowcharts on pages 8-10 of
   Administration and Scoring Guide.
• Alphabetic Tasks: Alphabet Recognition, Letter Sounds, and
   Concept of Word
• Turn to pages 24 in Administration and Scoring Guide and
   read the directions to familiarize yourself with these tasks.
• Return to the CD and view from 16:06 to 21:07 to see these
   assessments in action. Resume the PowerPoint when done.
Special Considerations for Level B, Task 3:
         Concept of Word (COW)
• Students must know the rhyme by heart before COW is
  assessed. Teach the rhyme using picture prompts.

• Do not pre-teach the words from the COW word list.

• When administering this part of the screening, follow the
  directions exactly as on pages 26 and 27. Do not add any
  additional prompts.
        Level C: Phonemic Awareness
     Tasks: Blending and Sound to Letter
These two tasks are administered for the purpose of determining
  needs in blending and matching sounds in English.

Sometimes difficulty in hearing sounds, blending, segmenting,
  matching, and sequencing sounds of language is part of the
  cause for lack of reading progress.

Turn to pages 29-35 of the Administration and Scoring Guide and
   read the directions to familiarize yourself with these tasks.

Return to the CD at 21:07 to view these tasks in action.
          What is grade level?
                     FALL                     SPRING
Grade 1       Summed Score                Summed Score
              Benchmark=39                Benchmark=35 and
              and Instruc/Ind on          Instruc/Ind on First Gr.
              Readiness or                Passage : Comprehension
              Preprimer A                 5-6, Fluency 2
Grade 2       Summed Score                Summed Score
              Benchmark=35 and            Benchmark=54 and
              Instruc/Ind on First Gr.    Instru/Ind on Second Gr.
              Passage: Comprehension      Passage: Comprehension
              5-6, Fluency 2              5-6, Fluency 2
Grade 3       Summed Score                Summed Score
              Benchmark=54 and            Benchmark=65 and
              Instruc/Ind on Second Gr.   Instruc/Ind on Third Gr.
              Passage: Comprehension      Passage: Comprehension
              5-6, Fluency 2              5-6, Fluency 2
What is “above grade level”?

 To be considered “above grade level,”
   students must read passages with
   accuracy, a fluency level of 3, and at
   least 5/6 on the comprehension
   questions.
 Preparing for the District Assessment Day
For First Grade:                      For Grades 1-3:
• Beginning with the first day of     • Read and refer to the PALS
  school, use the picture prompts       Administration and Scoring Guide
  only to practice the COW rhyme        which also provides step-by-step
  for the correct form of PALS (see     instructions for administering and
  published District Asssessment        scoring each PALS task.
  Schedule).                          • Copy and assemble all necessary
• Practice often and throughout         materials.
  the school day to ensure the        • Set up a testing schedule for
  rhyme is very familiar.               students.
                                      • On testing day, begin slowly to
                                        ensure that you are following the
                                        protocol procedures. Don’t
                                        worry! You’ll gain fluency as the
                                        testing continues.
    Beyond Assessment Day: Using Information
      from PALS to Guide Whole Group/Small
           Group/Individual Instruction
PALS Data can be used to help:
   Focus spelling and phonics instruction using the Spelling Inventory
   Focus practice with sight words, decoding, and vocabulary using data from Word
    Recognition In Isolation
   Determine strengths and needs in reading strategies, decoding, fluency,
    vocabulary, and comprehension using the Oral Reading in Context
   Determine reading level using Oral Reading in Context
   Identify strengths and needs in knowing how print works using COW
   Identify oral language strengths and needs using Concept of Word (repeating the
    rhyme)
   Identify strengths and needs in recognition of letters and matching sounds to
    letters using Alphabet Recognition and Phonemic Awareness: Sound-to Letter
   Identify strengths and needs in phonemic awareness: blending sounds by using
    the Blending Task
               Taking a Look . . .
Taking a look at what students know and what they need
  to learn enables teachers to analyze student strengths
  and needs. Then instruction can be focused and
  organized for maximum student learning.

Using data gathered through assessment tools, instruction
  can be orchestrated with time and intensity to best
  facilitate students’ reading growth.

								
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