Silicon Photonics and Higher Education

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					Silicon Photonics and Higher Education



                    By

                         Jaeger,
           Nicolas A. F. Jaeger,
              Dan Deptuck,
           Nicolas Rouger, and
            Lukas Chrostowski
                       Affiliations

    Nicolas Jaeger – Electrical and Computer Engineering,
                University of British Columbia

  Lukas Chrostowski – Electrical and Computer Engineering,
               University of British Columbia

   Dan Deptuck – Canadian Microelectronics Corporation or
                   CMC Microsystems

Nicolas Rouger – Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique,
                    Grenoble University



                                                                2
Silicon Photonics Workshop and Graduate Course


         The CMC-UBC Silicon Photonics Workshop

                            and

             UBC's EECE 584 Graduate Course


  Background image from:
  R. Boeck, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski,
  “Experimental Demonstration of the Vernier Effect Using
  Series Coupled Resonators,” submitted to the 2010
  International Conference on Optical MEMS and
  Nanophotonics.

                                                            3
                  Outline


●   Motivation
●   ePIXfab, IMEC, LETI, and PhotonFAB
●   CMC-UBC Graduate Course and Workshop
●   Acknowledgements




                                           4
                         Motivation
●   Silicon photonics has come of age
    •   Small size
    •   Reasonable losses
●   Silicon photonics is compatible with CMOS
    technologies
●   Silicon photonics will play a significant role in the future
    •   Photonic wires
    •   Photonic crystals
    •   Passive and active devices
●   Students need to be trained in this technology
●   Foundry services for affordable multi-project wafers are
    now available through IMEC and LETI
                                                                   5
                  Motivation - Continued
Silicon nanophotonics and the newly established foundries, IMEC
and LETI, enable the nanofabrication of optical components for
optical communications, sensors, and biomedical devices.

Example components:
 ● Photonic waveguides (photonic crystal or stripe/ridge)

 ● Photonic crystals

 ● Modulators and detectors

 ● Gratings for fiber coupling

 ● Ring resonators and filters

 ● Multiplexers (diffraction or arrayed waveguide)




A Recent Development:
A. Biberman et al., “First Demonstration of 80-km Long-Haul
Transmission of 12.5-Gb/s Data Using Silicon Microring Resonator
Electro-Optic Modulator,” OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego, CA,
March 23-25, 2010, JWA28.                                      6
       ePIXfab, IMEC, LETI, PhotonFAB,
         CMC Microsystems, and UBC

ePIXfab offers access to IMEC and LETI foundaries
through PhotonFAB.

 ●   CMC Microsystems offers access to ePIXfab for
     Canadian universities, research institutions, and
     industry.

 ●   UBC offers advanced training in silicon photonics
     through the CMC-UBC Workshop and the EECE 584
     graduate course.




                                                         7
     ePIXfab – the silicon photonics platform
             http://www.epixfab.eu/

ePIXfab supports a fab-less silicon photonics model.

 ●   ePIXfab organizes the fabrication of large-scale
     silicon photonics ICs through the use of Multi
     Project Wafer (MPW) shuttles.
 ●   MPW shuttles offer access to the silicon photonics
     IC technologies at IMEC and LETI.
 ●   ePIXfab offers training courses and tutorials on
     silicon photonics and MPWs through PhotonFAB.
 ●   Additionally, ePIXfab's partners offer design and
     back-end technologies, e.g., nanostructuring and
     packaging.

                                                          8
   IMEC passive photonic cSOI 220nm*
   http://www2.imec.be/be_en/home.html

cSOI 220nm is IMEC's main process for fabricating
passive photonic components in a 220 nm thick crystalline
Si film on a 2000nm thick buried oxide (BOX).

Main cSOI 220nm process features:
 ● 220nm top Si film on a 2000nm BOX

 ● 193nm lithography

 ● Etches of 70nm and 220nm

 ● Typical line width of 450nm

 ● Typical pitch of 400nm

 ● Minimum line width of 120nm

 ● Minimum pitch of 300nm

 ● Photonic wire losses of 2.5-3dB/cm

_______
* http://www.epixfab.eu/technology/imec_std/
                                                            9
     LETI silicon photonics STANDARD*
           http://www-leti.cea.fr/en

This is LETI's main process for fabricating passive
photonic components in either a 220 nm thick crystalline
or a 220nm thick amorphous Si film on a 2000nm thick
BOX.

Main LETI STANDARD process features:
 ● 20cm wafers

 ● 220nm Si on a 2000nm BOX

 ● crystalline   or low-loss amorphous (hydrogenated)
   silicon films
 ● 193nm and 248nm lithography

 ● 2 process layers: WG (220nm etch), FC (70nm etch)

 ● Predefined mask for fiber coupling available.

_______
* http://www.epixfab.eu/technology/leti_std/
                                                           10
        LETI silicon photonics 4 FLEX*
           http://www-leti.cea.fr/en
4 FLEX is LETI's main process for fabricating silicon
photonic functions with both passive and active devices.

Main LETI 4 FLEX process features:
 ● 20cm wafers

 ● 220nm Si on a 2000nm BOX or

 ● 400nm Si on a 1000nm BOX or

 ● Custom thicknesses between 100nm and 400nm.

 ● Crystalline or low-loss amorphous (hydrogenated) Si

   film
 ● 193nm and 248nm lithography

 ● Si and Ge epitaxy

 ● Boron and Phosphorous Implants and anneals

 ● Metal contacts

______
* http://www.epixfab.eu/technology/leti_4_flex/        11
                 PhotonFAB
       http://www.epixfab.eu/photonfab/

    “PhotonFAB lowers the barriers for R&D on silicon
photonic integrated circuits in order to increase take-up of
 the technology and strengthen the impact of R&D in the
                     European area.”

The objective of PhotonFAB is to decrease the total cost of
fabless R&D through this scheme with:
  ● Increased technological capabilities offered through the

    ePIXfab R&D foundry
  ● Lower effort and shallower learning curve for design

    into the technology
  ● Lower prices for European users

  ● Improved access logistics

  ● Training and documentation

  ● A roadmap for access

                                                               12
            PhotonFAB Training Schedule
     http://www.epixfab.eu/photonfab/training/
●   Annual Course on the ePIXfab MPW - A 3-day course
    covering the technology, design, and MPW operation for
    designers of Si photonic ICs. The course is intended for
    those who will actually design Si photonic circuits. Training
    Session # 1 was offered in October 2009 and Session #2
    was offered in March 2010.
●   Short Course - A 1.5 to 3-hour tutorial for a wider,
    technically oriented, public with an interest in Si photonics.
    Topics include: fundamentals of photonic waveguides,
    passive devices, active devices, integration, and
    applications. This was given at Micro & Nano Engineering
    2009,
    2009, Ghent, Belgium, in September 2009.
●   Hands-on Design Training - ePIXfab is looking to offer
    training on specific software relevant to ePIXfab.
●   Training on Demand - Dedicated training on the ePIXfab
    MPW or Si photonics.                                           13
    CMC-UBC Silicon Nanophotonics Fabrication
    Graduate Course and Workshop 2010 - History

●   Started in 2008 with discussions between
    UBC and CMC
●   First offered as a 4 credit EE seminar and
    special problems (directed studies) course
    in 2008 – 2009 to 8 UBC students
●   Second offering as a 1-year long, 4 credit,
    directed studies course and workshop in
    2009 – 2010 to 23 participants from
    universities and industry Canada wide
●   Now being offered in 2010 – 2011 as a 2-
    stream graduate course or workshop to
    Canadian universities and industry

                                                  14
             Course/Workshop Objectives

By the end of the course, it is expected that students will be
able to:

 ●   Model a nanophotonic device or system, both analytically
     and numerically
 ●   Design a nanophotonic device/circuit, including necessary
     test structures
 ●   Create a mask layout of a nanophotonic circuit
 ●   Experimentally test and characterize the fabricated device
 ●   Compare theory with experiments and identify sources of
     error
 ●   Write a report on a nanophotonic device


                                                                  15
                     Detailed Course Outline

●   Nanophotonic device theory is taught:
    • Optical waveguides - wave propagation, slab waveguides,

      buried channel waveguides, strip waveguides, analytic
      solutions, 2D effective index method, mode calculations,
    • Waveguide couplers - coupled-mode theory, coupler length

      calculations, numerical modelling of couplers.
    • Resonators – Fabry-Perot resonators, ring resonators,

      transmission spectrum, resonator quality factor, extinction ratio,
      effect of dispersion, free-spectral range, effect of temperature,
      optical losses, ring resonator design, numerical methods for
      cavity modelling.
    • Mask layout.

    • Photonic crystals, band structures, photonic crystal cavity and

      wires.
                                                                     16
            Detailed Course Outline - Continued

●   Software design tools will be used for the modelling and design
    of the nanophotonic devices. Tools include numerical
    mathematical modelling (e.g., Matlab), optical simulation (e.g.,
    Finite Difference Time Domain, Beam Propagation Method),
    mask layout (e.g., DW-2000)

●   Fabrication technology description, design rules, process
    details.

●   Experimental methodology. Optical fiber coupling, tunable
    lasers, detectors, polarization maintaining fibers and
    polarization control, spectrum measurements, temperature
    control, stability

                                                                   17
     2010–2011 CMC-UBC Silicon Nanophotonics
     Fabrication Graduate Course and Workshop -
                       Options
    http://www3.cmc.ca/en/training/SiliconNanophotonics.aspx
Option 1                                            Option 2
6-credit graduate course with 3 weeks of            One-week workshop
instruction
July 5-24, 2010                                     July 19-24, 2010
$600 fabrication fee                                $4000 tuition and fabrication fee
                                                    (preferred pricing of $1100 for CMC’s prototyping
                                                    level subscribers and their students)
Course Registration for UBC EECE 584                No limitation at $4000 level
                                                    (must be Canadian academic to benefit from
                                                    preferred pricing)
●Visiting students from specific institutions may   Prototyping subscribers are also eligible to apply
register for UBC EECE 584 at no cost.               for financial assistance towards travel and
●Visiting students are eligible for Financial       accommodation costs.
Assistance towards travel and accommodation
costs if their supervisor holds a Designer or
Prototyping level subscription with CMC.

To obtain a Prototyping level subscription see:     To obtain a prototyping level subscription see:
http://www.cmc.ca/CMCSubscription/                  http://www.cmc.ca/CMCSubscription/
                                                                                                      18
    2010–2011 Course/Workshop Prerequisites and
                     Syllabi

Option 1                                       Option 2
Prerequisites:                                 Prerequisites:

●Enrolled in a graduate degree program at a    ●Course(s) at the senior undergraduate or
Canadian university                            graduate level on optics, waveguides, lasers, etc.
●Laptop for on-site training                   - background material is provided ahead of time
                                               ●Laptop for on-site training




Graduate course syllabus summary:              Workshop syllabus summary:

●Theory of optical wave propagation,           ●Modeling of passive nanophotonic devices (e.g.
waveguides, couplers, resonators               waveguides, couplers, ring resonators, photonic
●Modeling of passive nanophotonic devices      crystals) using Matlab, Lumerical FDTD, RSoft
(e.g. waveguides, couplers, ring resonators,   BeamProp
photonic crystals) using Matlab, Lumerical     ●Mask design and layout using DW2000

FDTD, RSoft BeamProp                           ●Design considerations for IMEC SOI process

●Mask design and layout using DW2000

●Design considerations for IMEC SOI process




                                                                                               19
2009 – 2010 Course Schedule




                              20
    2009-2010 Course/Workshop Participation

   23 Participants: 1 Undergraduate, 7 Masters, 10 Doctoral,
   4 Post Doctoral, 1 Industry – 10 Universities
Industry   Masters   Doctoral   Post Doc   Undergrad




                                                       New Brunswick   Ecole Polytech.   Laval      McGill
                                                       Industry        McMaster          Queen's    Simon Fraser
                                                       Ottawa          UBC               Waterloo
                                                                                                         21
              The 2009-2010 Chip

Chip Layout:
 ● Dimensions: 7 mm X

   12 mm
 ● Length per device:

   4mm
 ● 940 Input-output

   coupler pairs
 ● 25 um coupler pitch




Typical Projects:
 ● Devices for

   telecommunications
 ● Sensors

 ● Demonstration of

   principles/concepts
                                   22
  The 2009-2010 Course/Workshop – A Success
                    Story
    89% of attendees would
recommend the course to others

 2 technical conference papers
 already submitted with several
        more anticipated

 2 published papers (plus other
articles and presentations) on the
              course

Highlights:
 ● Online forum

 ● Bi-weekly video meetings in

   the design phase
 ● Collaborative projects
                                          23
        SEM Pictures of Some
    Building-Blocks/Components
from the 2009-2010 Course/Workshop




                                     24
     First Submissions from the 2009-2010
                  were
Course/Workshop were to the 2010 International
Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics
W. Shi, R. Vafaei,M. A. Guillen Torres, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L.
●

Chrostowski, “Ring-Resonator with a Waveguide Crossing.”




R. Boeck, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Experimental
●

Demonstration of the Vernier Effect Using Series Coupled
Resonators.”




                                                                  25
            Schedule for the 2010-2011 Course
●   July: 2 week full-time instruction and tutorials plus attendance at
    the workshop
●   August-October: Design and modelling, with on-line & video
    discussion forums
●   Sept 10th: Deadline - Design proposal
●   October 1st: Deadline - Model and design results.
●   October 15th: Deadline - Draft chip layout (no design rule check)
●   October 20th: Deadline - Chip layout (with design rule check)
●   November 10th: Deadline - Final chip layout (submission to IMEC)
●   December 1st: Deadline - Report of Design (design description,
    modelling, layout)
●   March 1st: Chips available for testing. Training on test equipment
●   June: Deadline - Final Report: test results, comparison with model
                                                                      26
                    Acknowledgements
●   IMEC
●   Lumerical Software, Inc.
●   RSoft Design Group, Inc.
●   Design Workshop Technologies
●   Dr. Jeffrey Young, UBC Physics Department
●   CMC Microsystems
●   UBC Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
●   CMC-UBC Graduate Course/Workshop Students
    •   R. Boeck
    •   S. Flynn
    •   R. Vafaei
    •   W. Shi                                           27

				
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