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The Internet

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					The Internet
                   Internet

   A network is a group of connected
    computers that can interact with each
    other and share resources
   The internet is a large network that
    spans the entire Earth. It is actually a
    network made up of many smaller
    networks that are all combined.
                  Internet

   The internet is more than just web pages
    and the W W W (World Wide Web).
   The internet includes the www,
    newsgroups, email and other shared
    resources.
   So, the world wide web is a part of the
    internet.
      Web Pages and Web Sites

   A web page is a single file or page on the
    world wide web that can display images
    and text, links to other web pages and can
    be designed to be interactive.
   A web site is a collection of two or more
    connected or linked web pages.
                      Browser
   A browser is a program that allows a
    user to view web pages on the World
    Wide Web.
   The 4 most popular browsers:
       Internet Explorer
       Mozilla Firefox
       Safari
       Opera
                  Browser

   Different browsers display web pages in
    different ways.
   As a web page designer it is important to
    design your page with at least Internet
    Explorer and Firefox in mind – make it
    work with both browsers!
       How the Internet Works
                     (Basically)



   On a network there are two types of
    machines:
   A server is a computer that shares files
    and other resources such as a printer with
    other computers on a on a network.
   A client is a computer on a network that
    accesses files or resources on another
    computer (server).
        How the Internet Works
                     (Basically)



   So, if you are viewing files on your screen
    that are actually saved on a different
    computer  that makes your machine the
    client and the machine that you are
    viewing the files from the server.
   A computer can be both a client and a
    server at the same time.
        How the Internet Works
                        (Basically)


   So the world wide web is a large network made
    up of many servers and clients.
   The servers are storing the web sites, and the
    clients are viewing those web sites.
   For example, let’s say ‘www.anything.com’ is
    saved on a computer in Missoula, MT. You type
    in ‘www.anything.com’ in your browser here in
    Watkinsville. The web page that you are seeing
    is being sent all the way from Missoula where it
    is stored.
       How the Internet Works
                     (Basically)



   So the big question is: When you type in
    ‘www.anything.com’, how does your
    browser know to look on a server in
    Missoula, MT to find it?
       How the Internet Works
                     (Basically)


   There are many servers around the world
    that store web pages for the world wide
    web.
   Every computer – whether it’s a server or
    client is given a unique identification
    number when it connects to the internet.
   This unique number is called an I.P.
    Address
       How the Internet Works
                    (Basically)



   An IP Address looks like the following:
   192.168.120.101
   There are four segments to an IP Address.
    The numbers that make up each segment
    can be from 0 – 255 (although the very
    first segment can’t have a zero).
         How the Internet Works
                     (Basically)



   To connect to the internet and receive an
    IP Address for your computer, you must
    have an ISP (Internet Service
    Provider).
   There are two types of ISP’s:
       Dial-up
       Broadband
         How the Internet Works
                         (Basically)


   Dial-up ISPs
       America Online
       Earthlink
       Net Zero
   Broadband ISPs
       Charter
       Bell South DSL
       (basically, cable and DSL connections are the
        two broadband options)
       How the Internet Works
                    (Basically)



   Dial-up internet access requires your
    computer to dial a phone number to
    connect and is very slow
   Broadband internet access is always
    connected, and has much faster speeds
    for loading web pages and downloading
    files
       How the Internet Works
                     (Basically)



   Every time that you connect to your ISP,
    whether by calling in to your dial-up
    connection or restarting your broadband
    modem you get a new IP address. This is
    called a dynamic IP address.
   If your computer keeps the same IP
    address always and it never changes it is
    called a static IP address.
       How the Internet Works
                     (Basically)


   Servers that are storing or hosting a
    website have static IP addresses. This
    means that if you know the IP address for
    a server you can always find that
    webpage.
   Wouldn’t it be nice if there was a place
    that stored that information? A place that
    knew what the IP address was for every
    server and what web pages were stored
    there?
         How the Internet Works
                         (Basically)



   A DNS Server (Domain Name Service)
    stores that information.
   But what if you had to remember an IP
    address for every single web page that
    you want to visit? Could you remember
    them all?
       Instead of google.com what if you had to
        remember that it was 64.110.98.24
       How the Internet Works
                     (Basically)



   A domain name is a group of letters that
    represent the IP address for a particular
    web site.
   anything.com is an example of a domain
    name.
   cia.gov is a domain name.
   lost.tv is a domain name.
       How the Internet Works
                    (Basically)



   So instead of having to remember IP
    addresses, you just have to remember the
    domain name. That’s what a DNS server
    does – it keeps track of which domain
    names are associated with which IP
    address so that when you type in
    google.com, the DNS server knows that
    means to actually go to 64.233.167.104
        How the Internet Works
                      (Basically)



   URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is
    what you type into your browser to
    request a page.
   The URL contains the domain name, and
    additional path information and the
    protocol.
   The protocol is the http:// part at the very
    beginning.
          How the Internet Works
                           (Basically)


   http (hypertext transfer protocol) tells the
    browser that you are requesting a document
    created using hypertext – what we will be
    writing our web pages with.
   Most browsers do not require you to write
    http:// or even www. before typing in the rest
    of the address.
       http://www.google.com should be the same as typing
       google.com
           How the Internet Works
                            (Basically)


   The additional path information is if the webpage
    you are trying to view is in a subfolder-
       http://www.google.com/folder/inhere/index.htm
   Notice that for URLs we use / or forward slash.
   When using the path on our computer it is a back
    slash or \
       C:\programs\microsoft\word.exe
       http://www.google.com/folder/index.htm
       How the Internet Works
                     (Basically)


   So to sum it all up 
   You type in the URL for a website into
    your browser. Your browser is connected
    to the internet through your ISP. It checks
    the ISP’s DNS server to see what IP
    address matches up with the domain
    name and where it is located. The request
    is sent to the server at that IP address
    and the web page is sent back to your
    browser.
    Putting Your Website Online

    You know how it works, you’ve made a
     website, now you want to get it
     published online so others can see it.
    There are three things you have to do:
    1.   Register a domain name
    2.   Find a host
    3.   Upload your files
         Register A Domain Name

   Pick a domain name – yourname.com or
    whatever you want.
   You’ll need to check to make sure it hasn’t
    been taken. You can do that here:
       www.internic.com/whois.html
   You can also check to see if it is taken at
    many other places as well.
         Register A Domain Name

   Registering a domain name costs money.
       Usually around $7.95/year.
   There are many websites you can visit to
    register your domain. A quick search in
    google will provide you with a long list to
    choose from.
                Find A Host

   The host is the company that you pay
    money to allow you to store your website
    files on their server.
   Some hosts also register domain names as
    well.
   Some hosts are free, but do not allow you
    to have your own domain name.
                  Find A Host
   Again, searching google.com will provide you
    with a long list of website hosts.
   The host will provide you with a specific amount
    of disk space on which to save your files
   More importantly the host provides your website
    with an IP address that doesn’t change.
   After finding a host, your domain is registered
    on the name servers to point to that IP address.
            Upload Your Files
   Dowloading is when you copy or move
    files from another computer to your own
    computer.
   Uploading is when you copy or move
    files from your computer to another
    computer.
   Now that you have a domain name and a
    server to host your website, you have to
    upload your website files to the server.
            Upload Your Files

   Uploading your files to the server is done
    by using an FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
    program.
   There are many free FTP programs
    available – just search google!
     Putting Your Website Online

   Once you’ve uploaded your files, your
    website is ready to go.
   It may take a day or two for your website
    to show up after registering the domain
    name and setting up your host.
    Hosting A Website On Your Own
              Computer
   Bad Idea
   You have to pay extra to have a static IP address,
    meaning an IP address that never changes. Most ISPs
    provide you with a dynamic IP address – meaning it
    changes every time you connect.
   It opens your computer up to major security concerns
   It will cause your connection to the internet to slow to a
    crawl as more and more people visit your site.
   Your page will load slowly for people who visit your site
   Many ISPs have contracts that specifically state that you
    may not host your own website using the IP address
    they assign you.
              Important Terms
   network                    ISP (Internet Service
   Internet                    Provider)
   W W W (World Wide          Hosting
    Web)                       DNS (Domain Name
   Web page                    Service)
   Web site                   Domain Name
   Browser                    http (hypertext transfer
   URL (Uniform Resource       protocol)
    Locator)                   Downloading
   Server                     Uploading
   Client
   IP Address

				
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posted:9/29/2011
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