President Ford Pardon of Richard Nixon The Complete Story of by liaoqinmei


									 Nixon’s Pardon: President
Ford, Congress and the Press

        Jason Phillip Hartmann
   Five burglars broke into the Democratic
    National Headquarters in the Watergate
    building on June 17, 1972. They were
    eventually linked the Committee to
    Reelect the President and to the highest
    members of the White House.
On   August 8, 1974, Richard M. Nixon resigned.

Gerald   Ford became President of the United States.
                Policy of Openness
   Ford came into office wanting to create a open exchange between
    the press and the White House.
   He planned to hold press conferences every three weeks.
   He moved his press briefings to the Grand Hallway of the White
    House instead of the traditional location in front of a blue, imperial
   He hired Jerald terHorst to be his press secretary. He was a member
    of the press and the reporters were comfortable with his honesty.
 Ford’s First Press Conference
Ford came into his first press conference with high hopes and expectations
that he could answer questions about the economy, foreign policy, and the
new directions that he would take the country.

He was asked many questions about the economy and foreign policy.

Ford was asked several questions about Nixon, a potential pardon, and
what he planned to do with Nixon’s tapes.

Ford was angry after the press conference because he felt the press only
wanted to focus on Nixon.

Ford was very intent on healing the nation and wanted to shut the book on
Nixon for good.
            Ford Gathers His Staff
 Ford gathered his staff of Philip Buchen, Henry Kissinger, Jack Marsh,
  Robert Hartmann, and Alexander Haig to discuss the press conference.
 Ford indicated that he was eager to move the country forward and was
  considering pardoning Nixon.
 Haig, Kissinger, and Buchen thought it was a good idea.
 Marsh and Hartmann thought the timing was too soon.

    Haig         Hartmann         Marsh             Kissinger
    Buchen, California, and the Tapes
    Ford’s next move was to have Buchen look into the
    possibility of pardoning Nixon before he had been

   Ford sent Benton Becker to California to settle the tapes

   The result was that Nixon had access to the tapes in a
    California facility that only he and the General Severices
    Administration had keys. He was not allowed to remove
                          The Pardon
   Thirty days after Nixon resigned Ford gave him a pardon for all possible
    crimes committed while President of the United States. The press reaction
    was negative for the Ford White House. The leaders of Congress were
    furious and it destroyed Republican candidates in the midterm elections.
            Speculation of a Deal?
   There is speculation that a deal was made between Ford and Haig
    during an August 1, 1974 meeting.
   In this meeting Haig asked Ford for advice on how to advise Nixon.
   Haig brought up the issue of the pardon and Ford did not react
    negatively which leads many to believe that Ford had indicated to
    Haig that he was open to the idea.
   There is no evidence of a deal.
               Press Reaction I
The three major authors on the Ford pardon are Clark Mollenhoff,
John Robert Greene, and James Cannon.

Each of these authors indicate that the press reaction to the pardon
was totally negative and that no media outlets supported the

This is entirely untrue, these authors exaggerate the press reaction
because they only used the New York Times and Washington Post
for research.

These authors also completely ignore the international press
reaction which was divided.
                 Press Reaction II
   Gerald R. Ford Library Findings:
    – Press reaction to pardon was negative primarily but not totally
    – Los Angeles Times, Detroit Free Press, Shreveport Journal,
      Charleson News and Courier, and the Birmingham News ran
      favorable stories on the pardon.
    – International newspapers: Fiagro of Paris, Aftenpostem of Oslo,
      Daily Mail of London, Daily Express of London, and the Financial
      Times of London all were supportive of the pardon.

    – As said before, the Washington Post and New York Times were
      very vocal in their opposition to the pardon.
            Congressional Reaction
   Congress on as a whole was against the pardon.
    –   Democrats were more vocal than Republicans.
    –   Rep. Bella Abzug (D-NY) called for hearings on Ford’s decision.
    –   Senators Kennedy, Hart, Mondale, and Ervin were the most critical.
    –   Republican Lowell Weicker (CT) was very opposed to the pardon.
    –   Republican Senator Hugh Scott of Pennsylvania was the most high profile
        Republican to praise the pardon.

    Abzug           Hart            Ervin             Weicker         Scott
      Congressional Reaction II
   Congress also acted by passing Senate
    Resolution 401.

    – Advised Ford not to pardon any other
      Watergate defendants.
    Why did Ford pardon Nixon?
 Ford was obsessed with healing the Nation.
 August 28, 1974 Press Conference angered Ford
  and he wanted to clear Nixon out of the picture.
 Ford did not think Americans could focus on
  economy and real issues while hearing about
  Nixon’s trial.
 Ford had a tendency to get angry and come to
  rushed decisions and forget the consequences.
 Republicans lost 4 Senate seats and 48 House
  seats in the 1974 midterm elections.
 Negative press from both major papers doomed
  his chances of winning in 1976.
   Picture 1: 124/nixon.gif
   Picture 2: peopleevents/images/nixon.jpg
   Picture 3: life/cyber/_photos/nixon-.
   Picture 4: geraldfordoath.jpeg
   Picture 5:
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   Picture 7: JackMarsh.jpg
   Picture 8:
   Picture 9: images/haig_ford.jpg
   Pictures 10-14:
   Picture 15: images/sites/ford.jpg

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